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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2012

Muhammad Muzaffar Ali Khan Khattak, Samsul Draman, Alam Khan and Muhammad Usman Khattak

The purpose of this paper is to compare energy and macro‐nutrients intake in university hostel students in two countries of Asia.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare energy and macro‐nutrients intake in university hostel students in two countries of Asia.

Design/methodology/approach

Female students from the hostels of International Islamic University, Malaysia (IIUM), Kuantan Campus and NWFP, Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan were assessed for energy and macro‐nutrients intake. A total of 140 students were registered who volunteered to participate in this study. The age range of the registered students was 22‐26 years. On the day of the registration, age, height and weight were recorded; also, food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) were provided. The participants were asked to record alternately for three days whatever they ate during the prescribed week. Out of 140 students 139 returned the FFQs. From the anthropometry, the BMI was used to assess the under, ideal, over‐weight and obese students. From the FFQs, energy and nutrient intakes were calculated using the food composition tables for Malaysia and Pakistan and compared with the recommended nutrients intakes (RNIs).

Findings

The body weight for the required height among the Malaysian students was lower by 7.81 per cent than the reference value, whereas the body weight of Pakistani students matched to the reference weight for height. The Malaysian students were 28.0, 61.0, 5.5 and 0.9 per cent under, ideal, over‐weight and obese, respectively, whereas Pakistani students were 100 per cent in the category of ideal‐body weight. The total energy consumption was higher among Malaysian students by 9.93 per cent compared to the reference requirements, whereas the Pakistani students claimed to meet the requirements. In terms of nutrients balancing the Malaysian students were having the ideal combination of the macro‐nutrients and it was within the recommended range of 55‐60, 15‐20 and 25‐30 per cent for carbohydrates, protein and fat, respectively; whereas the balancing of the macro‐nutrients was poor among the Pakistani students and met the energy requirements at the expense of fat consumption.

Originality/value

The paper suggests that there is imbalance in macro‐nutrients intake among the students.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 42 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 May 2013

Muhammad Muzaffar Ali Khan Khattak, Nik Mazlan Mamat, Wan Azdie Mohd Abu Bakar and Mohd Firdaus Nazri Shaharuddin

This study was designed with the aim of assessing the energy and nutrient intakes of male university students before and during Ramadan and comparing it with the Recommended…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study was designed with the aim of assessing the energy and nutrient intakes of male university students before and during Ramadan and comparing it with the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) of Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 30 male students aged between 19‐24 years from International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) Kuantan Campus were recruited before Ramadan. The height, weight, waist and hip circumferences were recorded on day one of Ramadan and also recorded on day 21 of Ramadan to assess the changes. From the weight and height, the body mass index was calculated and from the waist and hip circumference, the waist‐to‐hip ratios were calculated. The respondents were requested to keep three days food record in household measurements; once prior to fasting and once during the third week of Ramadan. The records were then analyzed using Malaysian Food Composition Table and Food Atlas to get the averages of energy and macronutrients intakes of the subjects.

Findings

After 21 days of Ramadan, the results revealed that there was reduction in the body weight and there was significant (P<0.05) improvement in the waist‐to‐hip ratio of the subjects. The effect was more prominent in the normal‐weight compared to overweight respondents. The mean energy and protein intakes were significantly (P<0.001) lower than the RNI for Malaysians of similar age group. However, mean energy and protein intakes increased during Ramadan compared to the first day of Ramadan. This study indicates that Ramadan fasting does not affect energy and macronutrients intake but only the routine of intake is affected.

Research limitations/implications

This research was limited to a specific group of normal and overweight students who were residing on campus of the IIUM. Their intakes might not be consistent with those at home or living outside the university campus. Another thing is that the students might have over‐reported their energy and macro‐nutrients intakes compared to what they have consumed in reality. So, the self‐reported intakes could not be ascertained. The stated factors might have confounding effects on the finding of this research.

Practical implications

Most research argues that the body weight loss during Ramadan fasting is due to reduced energy consumption; however, this is not true in all cases. This study infers that there is no reduction in the total energy consumption, rather there is a change in the pattern of energy intake. This brief study would help researchers planning to conduct research on Ramadan fasting and will caution fasting readers about the intakes.

Originality/value

This study indicates that during Ramadan fasting does not affect energy and macro‐nutrients intake but only the schedule of intake is affected.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 43 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 July 2012

Muhammad Muzaffar Ali Khan Khattak, Ibrahim Abu Bakar and Layana Yeim

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of fasting on blood lipid profile in fasting obese and non‐obese subjects.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of fasting on blood lipid profile in fasting obese and non‐obese subjects.

Design/methodology/approach

Male and female subjects from the International Islamic University, Malaysia (IIUM), Kuantan Campus were assessed for body compositional changes during Ramadan fasting. In total, 25 males and females volunteered to participate in this study in the holy month of Ramadan. The mean age of the volunteers was 26.5±5.86 years and the age range was 21‐45 years. The age, weight and height of the volunteers were recorded on day 1 of Ramadan and weight was also recorded on day 21. The volunteers were asked for donation of blood samples on days 1, 7, 14 and 21 of the Ramadan. The blood serum was separated and stored at −20°C immediately after each collection. The serum samples stored at −20°C were analyzed for serum glucose and lipid profile. The analysis of serum lipid profile was performed with the help of clinical kits from Bayer Health Care using Bayer Express Plus Clinical analyzer. The serum was used for the estimation of total cholesterol (TC), HDL‐cholesterol (HDL‐c) and triglycerides (TG) concentrations using kit reagents from M/s Bayer Diagnostics, whereas low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL‐c) was determined by calculation. The statistics were performed using MINITAB statistical software (release 8.2).

Findings

The serum triglyceride concentration was significantly reduced and the reduction was 17.48 percent from day 1‐21. The serum TC concentration also reduced from day 1‐21 and the reduction was 15.93 percent. The serum LDL‐c concentration also significantly reduced from day 1‐21 and the reduction was 21.67 percent. The serum HDL‐c concentration decreased in the first weak and second week but an improving trend was observed on day 21 of the Ramadan.

Research limitations/implications

This study was not a controlled one and was conducted on free‐living individuals and therefore there is need to have controlled or adjusted physical activities studies in fasting individuals. It is always difficult to conduct experiment on human beings in the metabolic area. Furthermore, in this study it was not possible since it was a religious fasting. Another limitation is that the size of the sample was smaller than is advisable for this kind of study. However, the results were confirmed in the following month of Ramadan, as described in the paper.

Originality/value

The paper takes into consideration the effect of Ramadan fasting on blood lipid profile, which has ever been studied in obese individuals.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 42 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 October 2013

Muhammad Muzaffar Ali Khan Khattak, Muhammad Taher, Suzanah Abdulrahman, Ibrahim Abu Bakar, Rizal Damanik and Azhary Yahaya

The aim of this study was to evaluate anti-bacterial anti-fungal activity of six Lamiaceae family coleus plants based on their traditional uses (breast-milk stimulants) from two…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study was to evaluate anti-bacterial anti-fungal activity of six Lamiaceae family coleus plants based on their traditional uses (breast-milk stimulants) from two Asian countries (Malaysia and Indonesia).

Design/methodology/approach

Plants leaves of coleus species were collected from Kuantan (Malaysia) and Jakarta (Indonesia). From Kuantan, Coleus aromaticus – Malaysia (CATM), Pogostemon cablin – Malaysia (PCM), Coleus blumei-purple leaves – Malaysia (CBPM), Coleus blumei-red leaves – Malaysia (CBRM), Coleus amboinicus – Malaysia (CALM) and from Jakarta Coleus amboinicus – Indonesia (CALI) were collected freeze dried and extracted with aqueous methanol. The antimicrobial activity of the extract was determined by making use of macro dilution and disc diffusion methods. The selected bacteria and fungus used were namely Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus (gram positive) and Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (gram negative) and Candida albicans (a fungi).

Findings

All leaf extracts showed activity at least against one strain of bacteria and the result shows that there were significant differences (p<0.05) between the activities on microorganism. The minimum inhibitory concentration of all leaves extracts ranged from 1.0 to 2.0 mg/ml in inhibiting the growth of S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and B. subtilis. This study shows that the coleus plants leaves can be used as anti-bacterial anti-fungal agent apart from the breast-milk stimulation properties.

Research limitations/implications

This research was carried out with a limited grant and it was not possible to study some more aspects, for example, the composition and the active components isolation, etc. Furthermore, to establish the relationship among the components and bacteria or fungus, etc.

Practical implications

This research would have greater impact since the leaves of coleus plants are already in use in some communities for the purpose of breast-milk stimulation and insect bite therapy and many more.

Originality/value

This research takes into consideration the effect of coleus plants on a few bacteria and a fungus which have never been studied before.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 43 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 September 2013

Wardah Mohd Yasin, Muhammad Muzaffar Ali Khan Khattak, Nik Mazlan Mamat and Wan Azdie Mohd Abu Bakar

The purpose of this article is to assess the effect of religious fasting on the cognitive performance during the month of Ramadan among healthy fasting individuals.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to assess the effect of religious fasting on the cognitive performance during the month of Ramadan among healthy fasting individuals.

Design/methodology/approach

30 students were recruited prior the month of Ramadan to compare their cognitive performance during and after fasting. The data on cognition score were collected in two phases during and after Ramadan on four occasions (two times in Ramadan and two times after Ramadan) using structured questionnaire. The level of cognition was assessed by using two approaches: mathematical problem solving and memory testing. Five questions of mathematical problem were given to the subjects and were different at each week. However, the level of difficulty was kept constant. The time and score were recorded for each respondent during and after fasting month. For the memory test, ten pictures of items of similar sizes were displayed for 30 seconds, and the subjects were asked to recall/list down the item shown in the pictures. The cognition scores were expressed as mean±SD, and repeated measures analysis test was used for differences in fasting and non‐fasting days.

Findings

As expected, during Ramadan meal frequency was lower and sleeping (nap) frequency was higher with shorter duration at night. The feeling of tiredness was higher compared to non‐fasting days. The level of cognition score for was not different during Ramadan compared to non‐fasting days. The result shows that the level of cognition is not affected in fasting.

Originality/value

The research shows that the cognition is not affected in Ramadan fasting.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 43 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 May 2012

Muhammad Muzaffar Ali Khan Khattak and Zenub Akram

The purpose of this paper is to compare the nutritional status of two socio‐economic classes, i.e. upper and middle class females, using different approaches apart from body mass…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare the nutritional status of two socio‐economic classes, i.e. upper and middle class females, using different approaches apart from body mass index (BMI).

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 50 houses were randomly selected from a military officer colony, 25 in each social class on the basis of rank of the retired military officers. From each house a female in between the age range of 30‐50 years was selected and interviewed.

Findings

On overall basis, i.e. socio‐economic class, age and activity level, the respondents were having increase over reference protein and carbohydrate, while decrease over reference fat intake. The respondents were also having lower calcium and iron intakes by 31‐34 per cent and 39‐44 per cent, respectively. The vitamin A intake was also lower by 22‐43 per cent. These data suggest that there are faulty food habits and unnecessary restrictions among the females on energy and nutrients intakes in both classes.

Research limitations/implications

This research will have significant effect on the readers and will not only warn about the food habit but will also provide information on the misconceptions about dietary intakes and therefore, the energy and nutrients consumptions. Generally, the privileged classes of the society hold the misconceptions about healthy food habits. Furthermore, this study was conducted on free‐living individuals and the data reported are based on confronted questionnaire. Therefore, in such data there are chances of bias because of over‐ or under‐estimation. The sample size was small, which might have affected the results.

Practical implications

Improved life style and healthy eating is of great concern in the learned societies, since the healthy outcome solely depends on these two factors. This paper provides baseline data on two privileged classes, which may be useful in planning of studies and recommendation for social classes.

Social implications

This could be useful information and could be used in healthy lifestyle and energy and nutrients intakes when studies are to be planned on socioeconomic status.

Originality/value

This research takes into consideration the effect of social class on energy and nutrients intake in the two privileged socioeconomic classes in a military officer colony.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 42 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 September 2013

Suzanah Abdul Rahman, Muhammad Muzaffar Ali Khan Khattak and Najibatul Rusyda Mansor

This study was conducted to explore the underlying reasons of food choice and the association with risk perception in an urban community. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

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Abstract

Purpose

This study was conducted to explore the underlying reasons of food choice and the association with risk perception in an urban community. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a cross‐sectional design, adults between 20 and 60 years old, selected by convenience sampling from three different races; Malay, Chinese and Indian, in Sungai Petani, Kedah were surveyed. A self‐administered food choice questionnaire was used and data collected were analysed using SPSS Statistic 17.0.

Findings

Religion, risk perception and sensory appeal were the most prominent factors affecting food choice of respondents. Age showed significant correlation with mood and sensory appeal. Monthly income was significantly correlated with convenience, weight control and familiarity. Risk perception was found to be correlated with all motives except familiarity and religion.

Research limitations/implications

A larger sample with approximately equal number of respondents from the various races would provide a more substantial overview of the trend of food choice in a multicultural population.

Practical implications

This study provides an insight on factors determining the food‐buying power of the community which may directly impact the commercial success of food products including modifying provisions and actions of the food industry.

Originality/value

This research investigated the set priorities of an urban community in deciding the type of food for consumption which may be influenced by multicultural interactions and reported risks.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 43 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 March 2012

Muhammad M. Ali Khan Khattak, Ibrahim Abu Bakar and Layana Yeim

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of fasting on anthropometry and body composition in fasting obese and non‐obese subjects.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of fasting on anthropometry and body composition in fasting obese and non‐obese subjects.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 25 volunteers (male and female) were recruited during Ramadan. Age, sex, weight, height, waist and hip circumference and menstrual cycle status (in case of females) were recorded on day 1, and on day 21 weight and waist and hip circumference were also recorded. Similarly, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was performed on days 1 and 21 for the assessment of changes in body composition. From weight and height, basal metabolic Index (BMI) was determined. Waist‐hip ratio was determined from the waist and hip circumferences.

Findings

Weight was significantly (p<0.001) reduced in obese individuals on day 21 and accompanied by significant (p<0.01) reduction in waist hip ratios. BIA showed no significant change in the intra or extra cellular water. However, there has been shift of water between the two compartments and there was a strong positive correlation (r=0.9) between the fat free mass and total body water and negative association (r=−0.9) with total body water.

Originality/value

This study indicates that fasting could be a useful tool for the management of body weight without having a major shift in the body composition.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 42 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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