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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2020

Muhammad Khalique, Khushbakht Hina, T. Ramayah and Jamal Abdul Nassir bin Shaari

The main aim of this study was to examine the effect of the components of intellectual capital on the organizational performance of SMEs operating in tourism sector at…

Abstract

Purpose

The main aim of this study was to examine the effect of the components of intellectual capital on the organizational performance of SMEs operating in tourism sector at Azad Jammu and Kashmir Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

In this empirical study, survey approach was used and primary data were collected through structured questionnaire. A total of 300 structured questionnaire survey forms were distributed through purposive sampling technique. Two hundred and twenty usable questionnaire survey forms were returned. Six research hypotheses were constructed to achieve the objective of this study. Smart Partial Least Square (PLS) 3 was used to test the proposed research hypotheses.

Findings

The findings showed that two out of six hypotheses were supported. Precisely, customer capital has appeared as one of the most important components of intellectual capital in model. The results showed that the overall intellectual capital has effect on the organizational performance of SMEs. Results shed more light on the effects that the components of intellectual capital have on organizational performance of SMEs, particularly in the context of Pakistan.

Research limitations/implications

This research is limited to SMEs in tourism sector in Pakistan and the data were gathered through questionnaire which used mostly subjective measures. Subsequently, findings may not be applicable to other industries. The research contributes to the development of intellectual capital literature focused on the organizational performance in the perspective of SMEs in emerging economies. Future research needs to reach beyond the boundaries and understand the effect of intellectual capital on the performance of organizations.

Originality/value

This study extended the knowledge about the prominence of intellectual capital and its effect on the organizational performance of SMEs. Moreover, this study identified the level of existence and measurement of the six components of intellectual capital in SMEs which enables practitioners to develop adequate strategies to better manage it. To author's best knowledge, this study can be the first empirical study which investigates the impact of intellectual capital on the organizational performance of SMEs operating in tourism sector in Pakistan.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

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Article
Publication date: 12 January 2015

Muhammad Khalique, Nick Bontis, Jamal Abdul Nassir bin Shaari and Abu Hassan Md. Isa

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the links between intellectual capital sub-components and organizational performance in small and medium enterprises (SMEs…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the links between intellectual capital sub-components and organizational performance in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) operating in the electrical and electronics manufacturing sector in Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through structured questionnaires from a sample of 247 respondents from Pakistani SMEs in Gujranwala and Gujarat. Several tests were used to examine the reliability and validity of the research instrument. Finally, multiple regression analysis was used to test the proposed research hypotheses.

Findings

The findings of this study demonstrate that the overall regression model of intellectual capital shows goodness of fit while one component of intellectual capital – namely human capital – appeared insignificant. Subsequently, six out of seven research hypotheses was accepted.

Practical implications

This study will provide a valuable framework for entrepreneurs, executives, managers and policy makers in managing intellectual capital within the Pakistani context.

Originality/value

To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first empirical study that has been conducted on SMEs operating in the electrical and electronics manufacturing sector in Pakistan.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2016

Hafizah Hammad Ahmad Khan, Mahazril 'Aini Yaacob, Hussin Abdullah and Siti Hajar Abu Bakar Ah

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors affecting co-operatives performance by focussing on the roles of its intangible assets which are in the form of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors affecting co-operatives performance by focussing on the roles of its intangible assets which are in the form of intellectual capital and members’ participation.

Design/methodology/approach

Questionnaires have been distributed among co-operatives board of members of the 100 best co-operatives in Malaysia. This study used Pearson correlation and multiple regression analysis to examine the impact of intellectual capital and members’ participation on the co-operatives performance and determine the most influencing factors that affect the performance.

Findings

Results showed that there is a positive relationship between structural capital, relational capital and members’ participation with the co-operatives performance while human capital has been found to have a negative relationship. This is further supported by the findings based on the multiple regression analysis whereby all the independent variables were found to be significant expect for structural capital. Based on the findings, this study proposed a model for co-operatives’ performance which is based on its intangible assets.

Practical implications

Findings of this study would provide guidance for the co-operatives sector to improve its performance and indirectly help the government in realizing the nation economic goals.

Originality/value

This study provided a better understanding on the performance of the co-operatives by focussing on the roles of its intangible assets. Apparently, there are very limited studies on intellectual capital which is based on co-operative framework and thereby this present study would fill in the gap. In addition, due to the objective of the co-operatives which differs from other types of organization, findings of this study might provide significant contribution on the study of intellectual capital.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 65 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Ricardo Vinícius Dias Jordão and Jorge Casas Novas

The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical-conceptual model supporting the analysis of the effects of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) networks on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical-conceptual model supporting the analysis of the effects of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) networks on knowledge management (KM) and intellectual capital (IC).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews literature on KM, IC and networks theories. The role of SMEs networks on KM and IC was discussed, analysing previous studies that supported the proposition of the model in question. In such model SMEs networks are seen as knowledge networks which are analysed in terms of the network formation process, the context, the strategy, the organisational culture and the stimuli for the sharing of knowledge. KM is observed in terms of knowledge creation, systematisation and sharing. Finally, IC encompasses human capital, structural capital and relational capital. It is noteworthy that KM and IC were considered deeply and closely related.

Findings

The conclusions obtained help to fill an important gap in the management, accounting, KM and IC literature, showing that the processes of creating, acquiring, maintaining, systematising and sharing information and knowledge and IC generation in SMEs networks can be influenced by the network formation process, by the organisational context, as well as by the strategy, organisational culture and stimuli to sharing knowledge.

Research limitations/implications

The paper provides a theoretical contribution by increasing understanding of the effect of SMEs networks on KM and IC practices – an understanding still at the early stages in the literature. Moreover, the originality of the model proposed extends the relevance of this research, as the literature does not contain a sufficiently established and tested approach that simultaneously provides a clear view of the relations between SMEs, networks, KM and IC, highlighting how SMEs can use networks as a strategy to achieve a more effective management of the knowledge assets forming IC. So, the paper offers several avenues for future research.

Practical implications

Based on previous empirical research, it was perceived that the original model presented in this paper is consistent, collaborating to improve management practice, providing a competitive benchmarking process. This can allow analysts, managers and other decision makers, by using SMEs networks to improve organisational performance, innovation, sustainability, competitiveness and value.

Originality/value

The paper presents an innovative theoretical-conceptual model focussed on the role of SMEs networks on KM and IC, indicating a strong link between the former and the latter in such enterprises in terms of performance, innovation, sustainability, competitiveness and value, an issue whose understanding, although quite relevant, is still incipient in the literature.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 November 2019

Ricardo Vinícius Dias Jordão, Jorge Novas and Vipin Gupta

This paper aims to analyze the role of a knowledge-based network (k-network) in the intellectual capital (IC) and organizational performance of Brazilian small and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze the role of a knowledge-based network (k-network) in the intellectual capital (IC) and organizational performance of Brazilian small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents a descriptive, qualitative and applied case study, developed taking into account the theories of strategy, IC, networks and finance to analyze the relationship between k-network and the generation of IC and organizational performance in a multifocal perspective (observed in terms of financial and marketing results, efficiency and efficacy and innovation and competitiveness) in Brazilian SMEs.

Findings

The findings showed that k-network plays a crucial role in the generation of the IC and improvements in organizational performance in SMEs. In addition, the results revealed the strategic relevance of the relationship between people and enterprises to master the process of creation and sharing information and knowledge in the analyzed network. Taken as a whole, the conclusions demonstrated the establishment of IC (in its three dimensions) as a consequence of the strategic association of SMEs in k-network, as well as the mediation role of IC as a way to promote improvements in organizational performance, considering the observed amelioration in financial results, marketing growth, efficiency, efficacy, innovation and competitiveness.

Research limitations/implications

This research provides theoretical contributions by broadening knowledge of the practical relationship between k-network, IC and the multifocal perspective of SMEs organizational performance – a relevant and underexplored issue in the literature, offering several avenues for future research.

Practical implications

The results highlight the economic, political and social relevance of SMEs and the strategic use of k-network to overcome SMEs organizational, financial and managerial difficulties. In such context, analysts, managers, businesspeople and other decision-makers are expected to use this type of network to improve the IC, in its human, relational and structural dimensions, mastering companies’ knowledge and sustainable organizational performance.

Originality/value

The paper fills a significant research gap, revealing how k-networks can and should be used as a deliberate strategy by SMEs to create, acquire, use, absorb and share information and knowledge, as well as to generate IC, thus providing organizational, financial, innovative and competitive benefits to these enterprises and their network.

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2019

Alain Daou, Jay Joseph, Dalia Sabah Yousif, Ramzi Fathallah and Gerald Reyes

The purpose of this paper is to explore the association between intellectual capital (IC) and resilience in torn societies while proposing an integrative framework. Due to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the association between intellectual capital (IC) and resilience in torn societies while proposing an integrative framework. Due to adversities faced by entrepreneurs in such contexts, an understanding of the role of resilience along with IC has become crucial for businesses to succeed and survive.

Design/methodology/approach

This study takes an in-depth look at the three components of IC – human, organizational and external capital and their association with resilience. In order to do so, a qualitative study on 17 Iraqi micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) was conducted using data collected through semi-structured interviews with the founders. The interviews were translated and coded by native speakers.

Findings

The results suggest that IC and resilience are interrelated concepts where IC components contribute to the resilience capabilities of entrepreneurs to survive and continue their businesses during turbulent times.

Practical implications

Implications for managers and policymakers are presented; in brief, strategies and policies are required to support entrepreneurial success in the Iraqi context.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the literature on IC for entrepreneurs. So far, few studies have dealt with the association between IC and resilience, and less so in torn societies. This paper contributes to research on enterprise development and survival under conflict zones; it highlights some of the factors that could form resilience of a MSME in the face of uncertainty; and it contributes to the literature on IC as it helps us understand certain capacities that build up and/or support MSME resilience in such a context.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 May 2020

Muhammad Shujaat Mubarik, Evelyn S. Devadason and Chandran Govindaraju

This study examines the influence of human capital, overall and by dimensions, on the export performance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the manufacturing sector…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the influence of human capital, overall and by dimensions, on the export performance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the manufacturing sector of Pakistan. The study also investigates the role of absorptive capacity in the relationship between human capital dimensions and export performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from 586 manufacturing sector SMEs were collected for analysis. The study applied covariance-based structural equation modeling (SEM) to estimate the hypothesized relationships.

Findings

As a whole, human capital was found to exert a direct and indirect impact on export performance, particularly for the medium-sized firms and for firms with medium to high levels of export intensities. Nevertheless, not all dimensions of human capital mattered for export performance. Education and training were found to pose the greatest influence on export performance of those firms.

Research limitations/implications

The results suggest that when devising appropriate policies for SMEs, the impact of different dimensions of human capital need to be considered for addressing challenges related to the internationalization of firms. In short, developing the right human capital is essential for SMEs to compete at the international level.

Originality/value

Unlike previous studies, this study decomposed the influence of different dimensions of human capital on export performance and assessed the mediating role of absorptive capacity. The study is also among the pioneering studies in SMEs sector of Pakistan to analyze the role of absorptive capacity in the relationship between various dimensions of human capital and export performance.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/IJSE-03-2019-0198

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 47 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 December 2019

António Ferreira and Mário Franco

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the influence of strategic alliances (knowledge/learning, efficiency and market motives) on the development of human capital.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the influence of strategic alliances (knowledge/learning, efficiency and market motives) on the development of human capital.

Design/methodology/approach

To do so, a quantitative study was chosen, with data on technology-based small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Portugal, leading to 257 valid answers.

Findings

The results obtained from a structural equation model show that motives for strategic alliances (knowledge/learning, efficiency and market) have a strong influence on the human capital of the SMEs analysed.

Practical implications

These outcomes reveal that strategic alliances are a way for SMEs to overcome resource constraints in terms of human capital, representing an important implication for business practice. As strategic alliances influence human capital, the relations SMEs establish with other firms are increasingly important for their sustainability and development. Acting in isolation in the market can reduce this type of firm’s chances of survival.

Originality/value

Despite some studies relating the formation of strategic alliances and human capital, there is a gap regarding the relationship between the role of strategic alliances and human capital in the technology-based sector. Therefore, this research represents a contribution and innovation in academic terms in this area.

Details

EuroMed Journal of Business, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1450-2194

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Muhammad Shujaat Mubarik, Chandran Govindaraju and Evelyn S. Devadason

Pakistan adopted “one-size-fits-all” policy for human capital (HC) development with the assumption that the level of HC is equal across industry and firm size. The purpose…

Abstract

Purpose

Pakistan adopted “one-size-fits-all” policy for human capital (HC) development with the assumption that the level of HC is equal across industry and firm size. The purpose of this paper is to test this major assumption on which this policy is based, by comparing the differences in the levels of HC, overall and by dimensions of HC, by industry and firm size.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on new data set of a sample of 750 manufacturing SME firms in Pakistan, compiled through a survey. Applying the independent sample t-test, one way analysis of variance and multivariate analysis of variance, the hypotheses of differences in levels of overall and dimensions of HC were tested.

Findings

The results indicate significant differences in the levels of HC by industry and firm size. The levels of HC were found to be higher in textiles, food, metal and leather industries, and for medium-sized firms.

Practical implications

The findings provide supporting evidence on the inadequacy of the current human capital development (HCD) policy in Pakistan. The study therefore recommends customized HCD policies, accounting for differences across industry and firm size.

Originality/value

By taking the data on nine major dimensions of HC from 750 manufacturing sector SMEs, the study tests the level of overall HC and its nine dimensions by industry and size. The study also challenges the “one-size-fits-all” policy of the government of Pakistan for developing HC in SMEs.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 43 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 23 June 2017

Muhammad Athar Rasheed, Khuram Shahzad, Christopher Conroy, Sajid Nadeem and Muhammad Usman Siddique

Employee voice has emerged as a strong predictor of positive organizational outcomes. Grounding the theoretical model in resource-based theory; this study conceptualizes…

Abstract

Purpose

Employee voice has emerged as a strong predictor of positive organizational outcomes. Grounding the theoretical model in resource-based theory; this study conceptualizes how high-performance work system (HPWS) can enhance organizational innovation of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) through voice behaviors. Specifically, the purpose of this paper is to empirically test if employee voice mediates the relationship between HPWS and organizational innovation.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a quantitative strategy and cross-sectional survey method for the collection of data from SMEs operating in Pakistan. A list of SMEs was obtained from the federal government organization responsible for the development of SMEs in Pakistan. A self-administered structured questionnaire was distributed and 239 randomly selected SMEs responded to the survey.

Findings

Findings confirmed the conceptualized model and revealed that HPWS was significantly and positively related to employee voice and organizational innovation. Employee voice was found as a significant predictor of organizational innovation and mediating factor in the relationship between HPWS and organizational innovation.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited in terms of variables included in the conceptual model and relatively small size of the sample that was derived from a single federal organization. More variables and SMEs can be included in future studies to get broader results and, potentially, better findings.

Practical implications

SME managers/owners can design HR function in such a way that employees will be encouraged to raise their voice and participate more in the organization. Scholars should study voice behaviors distinct from citizenship behaviors.

Originality/value

This study is the first of its kind to conceptualize the relationship between HPWS, employee voice, and organizational innovation in SMEs of Pakistan.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

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