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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2020

Muhammad Khalique, Khushbakht Hina, T. Ramayah and Jamal Abdul Nassir bin Shaari

The main aim of this study was to examine the effect of the components of intellectual capital on the organizational performance of SMEs operating in tourism sector at…

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Abstract

Purpose

The main aim of this study was to examine the effect of the components of intellectual capital on the organizational performance of SMEs operating in tourism sector at Azad Jammu and Kashmir Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

In this empirical study, survey approach was used and primary data were collected through structured questionnaire. A total of 300 structured questionnaire survey forms were distributed through purposive sampling technique. Two hundred and twenty usable questionnaire survey forms were returned. Six research hypotheses were constructed to achieve the objective of this study. Smart Partial Least Square (PLS) 3 was used to test the proposed research hypotheses.

Findings

The findings showed that two out of six hypotheses were supported. Precisely, customer capital has appeared as one of the most important components of intellectual capital in model. The results showed that the overall intellectual capital has effect on the organizational performance of SMEs. Results shed more light on the effects that the components of intellectual capital have on organizational performance of SMEs, particularly in the context of Pakistan.

Research limitations/implications

This research is limited to SMEs in tourism sector in Pakistan and the data were gathered through questionnaire which used mostly subjective measures. Subsequently, findings may not be applicable to other industries. The research contributes to the development of intellectual capital literature focused on the organizational performance in the perspective of SMEs in emerging economies. Future research needs to reach beyond the boundaries and understand the effect of intellectual capital on the performance of organizations.

Originality/value

This study extended the knowledge about the prominence of intellectual capital and its effect on the organizational performance of SMEs. Moreover, this study identified the level of existence and measurement of the six components of intellectual capital in SMEs which enables practitioners to develop adequate strategies to better manage it. To author's best knowledge, this study can be the first empirical study which investigates the impact of intellectual capital on the organizational performance of SMEs operating in tourism sector in Pakistan.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2022

Muhammad Khalique Ahmad, Abu Bakar Abdulhamid, Sazali Abd Wahab and Muhammad Umair Nazir

In times of crisis and volatility, especially in the Covid-19 scenario, project organisations are facing multifaceted threats. Project organisations are inclining towards…

Abstract

Purpose

In times of crisis and volatility, especially in the Covid-19 scenario, project organisations are facing multifaceted threats. Project organisations are inclining towards flatter organisational structures. Employees are demanding more decision-making authority due to the changing working scenario. Despite the advancement in project management, a hard skill side, project organisations are still struggling to achieve successful projects. The project manager's leadership, employee self-leadership and soft skills are presented as the solution to these aggravated problems. This article attempts to determine whether a transformational leadership style can influence project success, directly and indirectly through employee self-leadership.

Design/methodology/approach

The author raises the hypothesis, supported by social cognitive theory, that transformational leadership impacts project success directly and indirectly through self-leadership. Data were collected from 289 project team members in the IT sector, and the proposed relationships were assessed through Partial least squares structural equation modelling PLS-SEM.

Findings

Results show that a project manager's transformational leadership behaviour and employee self-leadership positively impact project success. Additionally, self-leadership mediates the relationship between transformational leadership and project success. Lastly, empowerment demonstrated significant moderation for self-leadership and project success, and for transformational leadership and project success.

Research limitations/implications

In this study, one obvious methodological limitation is a cross-sectional design. Future research can be performed while adopting a longitudinal research design. Another conceptual limitation of the model is that the authors did not include all transformational leadership dimensions, which can be considered for future studies while replicating this research model. Another future front can be by examining other leadership styles. Another research limitation may be the single source data collection, a future study may be conducted by several sources for data collection to adequately test both of the leadership styles at different hierarchies and for project success.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the literature by finding that, in crises, a project manager's transformational leadership style enhances project success. In practice, project managers are needed to adopt transformational behaviour and encourage employee self-leadership and empowerment.

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 January 2015

Muhammad Khalique, Nick Bontis, Jamal Abdul Nassir bin Shaari and Abu Hassan Md. Isa

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the links between intellectual capital sub-components and organizational performance in small and medium enterprises (SMEs…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the links between intellectual capital sub-components and organizational performance in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) operating in the electrical and electronics manufacturing sector in Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through structured questionnaires from a sample of 247 respondents from Pakistani SMEs in Gujranwala and Gujarat. Several tests were used to examine the reliability and validity of the research instrument. Finally, multiple regression analysis was used to test the proposed research hypotheses.

Findings

The findings of this study demonstrate that the overall regression model of intellectual capital shows goodness of fit while one component of intellectual capital – namely human capital – appeared insignificant. Subsequently, six out of seven research hypotheses was accepted.

Practical implications

This study will provide a valuable framework for entrepreneurs, executives, managers and policy makers in managing intellectual capital within the Pakistani context.

Originality/value

To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first empirical study that has been conducted on SMEs operating in the electrical and electronics manufacturing sector in Pakistan.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 June 2016

Hafizah Hammad Ahmad Khan, Mahazril 'Aini Yaacob, Hussin Abdullah and Siti Hajar Abu Bakar Ah

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors affecting co-operatives performance by focussing on the roles of its intangible assets which are in the form of…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors affecting co-operatives performance by focussing on the roles of its intangible assets which are in the form of intellectual capital and members’ participation.

Design/methodology/approach

Questionnaires have been distributed among co-operatives board of members of the 100 best co-operatives in Malaysia. This study used Pearson correlation and multiple regression analysis to examine the impact of intellectual capital and members’ participation on the co-operatives performance and determine the most influencing factors that affect the performance.

Findings

Results showed that there is a positive relationship between structural capital, relational capital and members’ participation with the co-operatives performance while human capital has been found to have a negative relationship. This is further supported by the findings based on the multiple regression analysis whereby all the independent variables were found to be significant expect for structural capital. Based on the findings, this study proposed a model for co-operatives’ performance which is based on its intangible assets.

Practical implications

Findings of this study would provide guidance for the co-operatives sector to improve its performance and indirectly help the government in realizing the nation economic goals.

Originality/value

This study provided a better understanding on the performance of the co-operatives by focussing on the roles of its intangible assets. Apparently, there are very limited studies on intellectual capital which is based on co-operative framework and thereby this present study would fill in the gap. In addition, due to the objective of the co-operatives which differs from other types of organization, findings of this study might provide significant contribution on the study of intellectual capital.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 65 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Ricardo Vinícius Dias Jordão and Jorge Casas Novas

The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical-conceptual model supporting the analysis of the effects of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) networks on…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical-conceptual model supporting the analysis of the effects of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) networks on knowledge management (KM) and intellectual capital (IC).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews literature on KM, IC and networks theories. The role of SMEs networks on KM and IC was discussed, analysing previous studies that supported the proposition of the model in question. In such model SMEs networks are seen as knowledge networks which are analysed in terms of the network formation process, the context, the strategy, the organisational culture and the stimuli for the sharing of knowledge. KM is observed in terms of knowledge creation, systematisation and sharing. Finally, IC encompasses human capital, structural capital and relational capital. It is noteworthy that KM and IC were considered deeply and closely related.

Findings

The conclusions obtained help to fill an important gap in the management, accounting, KM and IC literature, showing that the processes of creating, acquiring, maintaining, systematising and sharing information and knowledge and IC generation in SMEs networks can be influenced by the network formation process, by the organisational context, as well as by the strategy, organisational culture and stimuli to sharing knowledge.

Research limitations/implications

The paper provides a theoretical contribution by increasing understanding of the effect of SMEs networks on KM and IC practices – an understanding still at the early stages in the literature. Moreover, the originality of the model proposed extends the relevance of this research, as the literature does not contain a sufficiently established and tested approach that simultaneously provides a clear view of the relations between SMEs, networks, KM and IC, highlighting how SMEs can use networks as a strategy to achieve a more effective management of the knowledge assets forming IC. So, the paper offers several avenues for future research.

Practical implications

Based on previous empirical research, it was perceived that the original model presented in this paper is consistent, collaborating to improve management practice, providing a competitive benchmarking process. This can allow analysts, managers and other decision makers, by using SMEs networks to improve organisational performance, innovation, sustainability, competitiveness and value.

Originality/value

The paper presents an innovative theoretical-conceptual model focussed on the role of SMEs networks on KM and IC, indicating a strong link between the former and the latter in such enterprises in terms of performance, innovation, sustainability, competitiveness and value, an issue whose understanding, although quite relevant, is still incipient in the literature.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 November 2019

Ricardo Vinícius Dias Jordão, Jorge Novas and Vipin Gupta

This paper aims to analyze the role of a knowledge-based network (k-network) in the intellectual capital (IC) and organizational performance of Brazilian small and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze the role of a knowledge-based network (k-network) in the intellectual capital (IC) and organizational performance of Brazilian small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents a descriptive, qualitative and applied case study, developed taking into account the theories of strategy, IC, networks and finance to analyze the relationship between k-network and the generation of IC and organizational performance in a multifocal perspective (observed in terms of financial and marketing results, efficiency and efficacy and innovation and competitiveness) in Brazilian SMEs.

Findings

The findings showed that k-network plays a crucial role in the generation of the IC and improvements in organizational performance in SMEs. In addition, the results revealed the strategic relevance of the relationship between people and enterprises to master the process of creation and sharing information and knowledge in the analyzed network. Taken as a whole, the conclusions demonstrated the establishment of IC (in its three dimensions) as a consequence of the strategic association of SMEs in k-network, as well as the mediation role of IC as a way to promote improvements in organizational performance, considering the observed amelioration in financial results, marketing growth, efficiency, efficacy, innovation and competitiveness.

Research limitations/implications

This research provides theoretical contributions by broadening knowledge of the practical relationship between k-network, IC and the multifocal perspective of SMEs organizational performance – a relevant and underexplored issue in the literature, offering several avenues for future research.

Practical implications

The results highlight the economic, political and social relevance of SMEs and the strategic use of k-network to overcome SMEs organizational, financial and managerial difficulties. In such context, analysts, managers, businesspeople and other decision-makers are expected to use this type of network to improve the IC, in its human, relational and structural dimensions, mastering companies’ knowledge and sustainable organizational performance.

Originality/value

The paper fills a significant research gap, revealing how k-networks can and should be used as a deliberate strategy by SMEs to create, acquire, use, absorb and share information and knowledge, as well as to generate IC, thus providing organizational, financial, innovative and competitive benefits to these enterprises and their network.

Article
Publication date: 12 July 2022

Saeed Badghish, Imran Ali, Murad Ali, Muhammad Zafar Yaqub and Amandeep Dhir

The current research proposes a model that integrates certain psychological and demographic factors in developing and strengthening young Saudi women's perceptions of…

Abstract

Purpose

The current research proposes a model that integrates certain psychological and demographic factors in developing and strengthening young Saudi women's perceptions of entrepreneurial resourcefulness, which eventually may lead to the development and enhancement of their entrepreneurial intentions. The study also examines the ways in which changing socio-cultural norms and values may augment investments and/or efforts to enhance cognitive enablers, including entrepreneurial resourcefulness, and thereby build and strengthen entrepreneurial intentions among female entrepreneurs (i.e. human capital) in a transitioning society. Saudi Arabia is a relevant research context because the Saudi government has invested enormous resources to develop the country's human capital, particularly Saudi government intends to enhance Saudi women's participation in entrepreneurial spheres to be enhanced significantly. Saudi Arabia is undergoing a radical socio-cultural transition, and the kingdom seeks to capitalise on this ongoing transformation to further encourage women to tap into their under-utilised potential. This study seeks to corroborate such moderation effects.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors utilise the intellectual capital (IC) framework and theory of planned behaviour (TBP) to propose the conceptual model in this study. Using a sample of 628 young female respondents – potential entrepreneurs studying at various universities in Saudi Arabia, the authors test the hypothesised associations through partial least squares (PLS)-based path modelling.

Findings

The authors found a significant positive impact of psychological factors, such as perceived behavioural control, attitude towards entrepreneurship, subjective norms and entrepreneurial self-efficacy, on the development and enhancement of perceived entrepreneurial resourcefulness. In addition, demographic factors, including family income, family background, family business experience and entrepreneurship education, play a significant positive role in enhancing individuals' entrepreneurial resourcefulness perceptions. The authors further found that enhanced perceptions of perceived entrepreneurial resourcefulness develop and enhance entrepreneurial intentions among female entrepreneurs. However, the transformation in social and cultural norms significantly moderates this cause and effect relationship.

Originality/value

This study is among the first of its kind to investigate the moderating effects of social and cultural transformation on efforts and/or investments to enhance intellectual capital (more specifically, human capital) and thereby promote entrepreneurship. The study is also valuable for its focus on a unique context, i.e. female entrepreneurship in the Middle East and, more specifically, Saudi Arabia. The study offers useful insights and implications both for theory and practice, particularly for policymakers seeking to augment their intellectual capital formation efforts through an effective orchestration of socio-cultural transformation, which seeks to empower female entrepreneurs to succeed in the face of significant socio-cultural impediments.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 September 2019

Alain Daou, Jay Joseph, Dalia Sabah Yousif, Ramzi Fathallah and Gerald Reyes

The purpose of this paper is to explore the association between intellectual capital (IC) and resilience in torn societies while proposing an integrative framework. Due to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the association between intellectual capital (IC) and resilience in torn societies while proposing an integrative framework. Due to adversities faced by entrepreneurs in such contexts, an understanding of the role of resilience along with IC has become crucial for businesses to succeed and survive.

Design/methodology/approach

This study takes an in-depth look at the three components of IC – human, organizational and external capital and their association with resilience. In order to do so, a qualitative study on 17 Iraqi micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) was conducted using data collected through semi-structured interviews with the founders. The interviews were translated and coded by native speakers.

Findings

The results suggest that IC and resilience are interrelated concepts where IC components contribute to the resilience capabilities of entrepreneurs to survive and continue their businesses during turbulent times.

Practical implications

Implications for managers and policymakers are presented; in brief, strategies and policies are required to support entrepreneurial success in the Iraqi context.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the literature on IC for entrepreneurs. So far, few studies have dealt with the association between IC and resilience, and less so in torn societies. This paper contributes to research on enterprise development and survival under conflict zones; it highlights some of the factors that could form resilience of a MSME in the face of uncertainty; and it contributes to the literature on IC as it helps us understand certain capacities that build up and/or support MSME resilience in such a context.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 October 2021

Mário Franco, Diogo Neves, Heiko Haase and Margarida Rodrigues

This study aims to analyse the importance of intellectual capital (IC) in networks formed by start-ups, with a view to obtaining resources that individually they would be…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyse the importance of intellectual capital (IC) in networks formed by start-ups, with a view to obtaining resources that individually they would be unable to acquire.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve this aim, a qualitative approach was adopted, and within this, the case study method was used. The data-collecting instrument was the semi-structured interview, held with the business-people/managers of five start-ups present in an incubator (Startup Rém) based in Portugal, and with the person in charge of this incubator, together with observation and documentary analysis.

Findings

From content analysis, the results suggest that the business people recognise the presence of IC at the moment of creating their business and that this is a means to attain sustainability and, consequently, business survival. The results also show that in the absence of network formation, the relation between the incubator and the incubated firms can be affected and limited, interfering directly with firms’ use of IC.

Practical implications

This research aimed to highlight the importance of IC as an essential resource for business survival and sustainability and to encourage start-ups to regard networks as a way to share and convey knowledge. This study also intends to help firms understand the role of cooperation and mutual assistance in seeking sustainability and economic growth.

Originality/value

This study is innovative because it has filled the gaps identified in the literature, particularly the absence of studies on the importance of IC in networks formed by start-ups, and the study of the impact of IC on firms focussing on cooperation networks.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 May 2020

Muhammad Shujaat Mubarik, Evelyn S. Devadason and Chandran Govindaraju

This study examines the influence of human capital, overall and by dimensions, on the export performance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the manufacturing sector…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the influence of human capital, overall and by dimensions, on the export performance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the manufacturing sector of Pakistan. The study also investigates the role of absorptive capacity in the relationship between human capital dimensions and export performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from 586 manufacturing sector SMEs were collected for analysis. The study applied covariance-based structural equation modeling (SEM) to estimate the hypothesized relationships.

Findings

As a whole, human capital was found to exert a direct and indirect impact on export performance, particularly for the medium-sized firms and for firms with medium to high levels of export intensities. Nevertheless, not all dimensions of human capital mattered for export performance. Education and training were found to pose the greatest influence on export performance of those firms.

Research limitations/implications

The results suggest that when devising appropriate policies for SMEs, the impact of different dimensions of human capital need to be considered for addressing challenges related to the internationalization of firms. In short, developing the right human capital is essential for SMEs to compete at the international level.

Originality/value

Unlike previous studies, this study decomposed the influence of different dimensions of human capital on export performance and assessed the mediating role of absorptive capacity. The study is also among the pioneering studies in SMEs sector of Pakistan to analyze the role of absorptive capacity in the relationship between various dimensions of human capital and export performance.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/IJSE-03-2019-0198

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 47 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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