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Article
Publication date: 18 March 2024

Graeme Newell and Muhammad Jufri Marzuki

Healthcare property has become an important alternate property sector in recent years for many international institutional investors. The purpose of this paper is to assess the…

Abstract

Purpose

Healthcare property has become an important alternate property sector in recent years for many international institutional investors. The purpose of this paper is to assess the risk-adjusted performance, portfolio diversification benefits and performance dynamics of French healthcare property in a French property portfolio and mixed-asset portfolio over 1999–2020. French healthcare property is seen to have different performance dynamics to the traditional French property sectors of office, retail and industrial property. Drivers and risk factors for the ongoing development of the direct healthcare property sector in France are also identified, as well as the strategic property investment implications for institutional investors.

Design/methodology/approach

Using annual total returns, the risk-adjusted performance, portfolio diversification benefits and performance dynamics of French direct healthcare property over 1999–2020 are assessed. Asset allocation diagrams are used to assess the role of direct healthcare property in a French property portfolio and in a French mixed-asset portfolio. The role of specific drivers for French healthcare property performance is also assessed. Robustness checks are also done to assess the potential impact of COVID-19 on the performance of French healthcare property.

Findings

French healthcare property is shown to have different performance dynamics to the traditional French property sectors of office, retail and industrial property. French direct healthcare property delivered strong risk-adjusted returns compared to French stocks, listed healthcare and listed property over 1999–2020, only exceeded by direct property. Portfolio diversification benefits in the fuller mixed-asset portfolio context were also evident, but to a much lesser extent in a narrower property portfolio context. Importantly, this sees French direct healthcare property as strongly contributing to the French property and mixed-asset portfolios across the entire portfolio risk spectrum and validating the property industry perspective of healthcare property being low risk and providing diversification benefits in a mixed-asset portfolio. However, this was to some degree to the loss or substitution of traditional direct property exposure via this replacement effect. French direct healthcare property and listed healthcare are clearly shown to be different channels in delivering different aspects of French healthcare performance to investors. Drivers of French healthcare property performance are also shown to be both economic and healthcare-specific factors. The performance of French healthcare property is also shown to be different to that seen for healthcare property in the UK and Australia. During COVID-19, French healthcare property was able to show more resilience than French office and retail property.

Practical implications

Healthcare property is an alternate property sector that has become increasingly important in recent years. The results highlight the important role of direct healthcare property in a French property portfolio and in a French mixed-asset portfolio, with French healthcare property having different investment dynamics to the other traditional French property sectors. The strong risk-adjusted performance of French direct healthcare property compared to French stocks, listed healthcare and listed property sees French direct healthcare property contributing to the mixed-asset portfolio across the entire portfolio risk spectrum. French healthcare property’s resilience during COVID-19 was also an attractive investment feature. This is particularly important, as many institutional investors now see healthcare property as an important property sector in their overall portfolio; particularly with the ageing population dynamics in most countries and the need for effective social infrastructure. The importance of French direct healthcare property sees direct healthcare property exposure accessible to investors as an important alternate real estate sector for their portfolios going forward via both non-listed healthcare property funds and the further future establishment of more healthcare REITs to accommodate both large and small institutional investors respectively. The resilience of French healthcare property during COVID-19 is also an attractive feature for future-proofing an investor’s portfolio.

Originality/value

This paper is the first published empirical research analysis of the risk-adjusted performance, diversification benefits and performance dynamics of French direct healthcare property, and the role of direct healthcare property in a French property portfolio and in a French mixed-asset portfolio. This research enables empirically validated, more informed and practical property investment decision-making regarding the strategic role of French direct healthcare property in a portfolio; particularly where the strategic role of direct healthcare property in France is seen to be different to that in the UK and Australia via portfolio replacement effects. Clear evidence is also seen of the drivers of French healthcare property performance being strongly influenced by healthcare-specific factors, as well as economic factors.

Details

Journal of European Real Estate Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-9269

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 November 2019

Muhammad Jufri Marzuki, Graeme Newell and Stanley McGreal

The inception of REITs in Ireland in 2013 presented an additional property investment opportunity to Ireland’s commercial property investment landscape. Importantly, the Irish…

Abstract

Purpose

The inception of REITs in Ireland in 2013 presented an additional property investment opportunity to Ireland’s commercial property investment landscape. Importantly, the Irish REIT market is an institutional apparatus with an objective to rejuvenate Ireland’s commercial property market. The purpose of this paper is to provide an empirical validation of the performance of Irish REITs over the period March 2015 to February 2019 across several investment measures such as risk-adjusted returns and diversification benefits.

Design/methodology/approach

Using monthly total returns in local currency, the risk-adjusted performance and portfolio diversification attributes of Irish REITs are assessed. The mean-variance framework is utilised to assess the potential added-value benefits of Irish REITs in a mixed-asset portfolio.

Findings

Irish REITs delivered the strongest average annual return performance, lower relative volatility vs the stock market and competitive overall risk-adjusted performance. The results affirm the characteristic of Irish REITs as a total return-focussed income-driven property investment asset class. The optimal asset allocation analysis shows that Irish REITs are an important ingredient in a mixed-asset investment framework, as their allocation could be scaled effectively across the portfolio risk-return spectrum.

Practical implications

Irish REITs are an emerging investment opportunity for investors seeking exposure in the strongly performing property market in Ireland in the post-Global Financial Crisis period. They are also regarded as an effective alternative conduit to private investment routes (i.e. direct property and non-listed property funds), with the added advantage of being more liquid and versatile than their private property investment counterparts. Importantly, Irish REITs fulfilled the purpose for which they were originally designed. The promising initial performance observed in this paper gives a useful context to what the future might hold for Irish REITs, given the strong interest for commercial property assets in Ireland from both local and cross-border property investors.

Originality/value

This paper is the first empirical research aimed at providing an initial empirical performance validation of Irish REITs as an effective route to commercial property exposure in Ireland. This research enables empirically validated, more informed and practical property investment decision making regarding the strategic role of Irish REITs in a portfolio.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 December 2021

Muhammad Jufri Marzuki and Graeme Newell

As the prolonged effect of the COVID-19 pandemic has materially impacted investment returns significantly, it is more crucial than ever for institutional investors to redefine…

Abstract

Purpose

As the prolonged effect of the COVID-19 pandemic has materially impacted investment returns significantly, it is more crucial than ever for institutional investors to redefine their property portfolios using assets with better investment management potential and meaningful diversification benefits. The “alternative asset revolution” is gaining traction in the property investment space internationally among institutional investors due to the shifting investment attitudes towards the alternative property sectors. Australia's $205bn healthcare property sector is at the forefront of this revolution due to its societal significance, as well as its attractive investment qualities. This paper investigates the institutional investor management of the Australian healthcare property sector via both the direct and listed channels and empirically analyses its investment attributes.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the unique Morgan Stanley Capital International/Property Council of Australia quarterly data set for Australian direct healthcare property over 2006–2020, the risk-adjusted performance and portfolio diversification potential direct healthcare property and listed healthcare were assessed. A constrained mean-variance portfolio optimisation framework was used to develop a six-asset portfolio scenario to analyse the portfolio added-value benefits of both direct healthcare property and listed healthcare in a mixed-asset investment strategy. A similar set of analysis was performed using the post-global financial crisis (GFC) quarterly time series of 2009–2020 to investigate the healthcare asset class' performance dynamics in the post-GFC investment timeframe.

Findings

The results indicate that direct healthcare property and listed healthcare offer two key advantages for institutional investors in managing their property portfolios: (1) a stable yet superior risk-adjusted performance and (2) significant portfolio diversification potential in managing their property portfolios. Importantly, both direct healthcare property and listed healthcare provided valuable contributions in strengthening an investment portfolio's performance. The post-GFC sub-period analysis revealed a consistent conclusion regarding the healthcare asset class's performance attributes.

Originality/value

This is the first research that provides an independent empirical examination of the strategic importance of Australian healthcare property as a maturing alternative property sector that can serve both investment and environmental, social and governance goals of investors. This research presents a positive investment prognosis for the Australian healthcare property sector to achieve its institutionalised status as a mainstream asset class of the future.

Article
Publication date: 4 September 2020

Muhammad Jufri Marzuki and Graeme Newell

Mexico REITs are a significant and important REIT market, both in a regional and in emerging property market context. As one of the few emerging economies in the world with an…

Abstract

Purpose

Mexico REITs are a significant and important REIT market, both in a regional and in emerging property market context. As one of the few emerging economies in the world with an active REIT market, Mexico REITs are specifically designed to provide an effective pathway to participate in the investment opportunities offered by the Mexico commercial property market for both domestic and international investors. Importantly, Mexico REITs provide additional property investment benefits such as a high degree of transparency, governance and liquidity. The main focus of this research is to highlight the significance of Mexico REITs and assess their performance dynamics, as well as the added-value benefits of Mexico REITs in mixed-asset investment portfolios.

Design/methodology/approach

Using monthly total returns, the risk-adjusted performance and portfolio diversification potential of Mexico REITs over April 2011–December 2019 were assessed. A constrained mean-variance portfolio optimisation framework was used to develop a three-asset portfolio scenario using the historical returns, risk and correlation of Mexico REITs and the other two major financial assets.

Findings

Despite being more volatile than the mainstream asset classes, Mexico REITs delivered the strongest risk-adjusted performance versus stocks and bonds over April 2011–December 2019, which was made possible by the high premium of their total return performance. Notably, Mexico REITs offered excellent diversification potential with bonds, whilst demonstrating a marginal positive correlation with the stock market. These investment attributes of Mexico REITs have brought immediate benefits towards their ability to add value to the Mexico mixed-asset portfolio fabric across a wide portfolio risk–return spectrum.

Practical implications

Whilst their initial establishment in 2004 was considered unsuccessful, the ongoing regulatory improvements have been pivotal in providing a supportive investment environment to nurture the organic growth of Mexico REITs. This now sees the Mexico REIT market as an exemplar of success for REIT establishments amongst its peers in the Latin American region, as well as for emerging economies worldwide. Mexico REITs are now an important REIT market, as the second largest emerging REIT market in the world. The empirical investigation of this research has established the investment attributes of Mexico REITs as a listed property investment vehicle. The strong risk-adjusted performance of Mexico REITs compared to stocks and bonds sees Mexico REITs contributing to the mixed-asset portfolio across the portfolio risk–return spectrum. This is particularly important as it provides insights into the broader strategic implications of Mexico REITs as an effective, transparent and tax-efficient conduit for high-quality Latin American property exposure in a liquid format.

Originality/value

This paper is the first published empirical research that elucidates the investment attributes of Mexico REITs, highlighting their significance, risk-adjusted and portfolio performance enhancement role as an emerging REIT market. The main outcome of this research enables empirically validated, more informed and practical property investment decision-making regarding the strategic role of Mexico REITs in an investment portfolio.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 May 2019

Muhammad Jufri Marzuki and Graeme Newell

The Belgium Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT) market was created primarily to facilitate a transparent, professionally managed and fiscally efficient market, providing access to…

Abstract

Purpose

The Belgium Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT) market was created primarily to facilitate a transparent, professionally managed and fiscally efficient market, providing access to the European property markets. Being the 2nd oldest REIT market in Europe, it has undergone many evolutionary changes over the years that add to its considerable stature as a sophisticated investment opportunity. This includes an increased recent focus on the social infrastructure property sectors such as healthcare, care facilities and nursing homes, consistent with the evolving investment mandates requiring stronger integration of environmental, social and governance (ESG) aspects in the investment strategy formulation. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the strategic transformation of Belgium REITs and empirically assess their performance attributes over 1995–2018. Sub-period performance dynamics of Belgium REITs in the pre-global financial crises (GFC) (1995–2007) and post-GFC (2009–2018) contexts are provided.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 23-year monthly total returns over 1995–2018 were used to analyse the risk-adjusted performance and portfolio diversification potential of Belgium REITs. The traditional mean-variance portfolio optimisation model using the ex-post returns, risk and correlation coefficient of Belgium REITs and other financial assets was developed to determine the added-value benefits of Belgium REITs in a diversified investment framework. The analysis was further extended to cover the sub-periods of pre-GFC (1995–2007) and post-GFC (2009–2018).

Findings

The results of the analysis provide a strong investment case for Belgium REITs, as they are able to deliver a discernible premium in the total return performance, superior risk-adjusted returns and strong diversification benefits with the stock market in a long-term investment horizon. Broadly consistent results are similarly observed in the sub-period analysis over varying market conditions. Importantly, the role of Belgium REITs in a diversified investment framework was also empirically validated, as they enhanced the mixed-asset portfolio performance comprised of the traditional asset classes of stocks and bonds across a broad portfolio risk-return spectrum. Dividend yield was also found to be a key component of the financial performance of Belgium REITs.

Practical implications

The Belgium REIT market has evolved to become the 5th largest market in Europe by the capitalisation volume. This is mainly due to the robust regulatory support and innovations since its debut which have resulted in a polished framework that is both supportive and attractive to financial players and investors. The broad direct consequence of this paper is to highlight the performance attributes of Belgium REITs, adding clarity to the ongoing discussion regarding the viability of European REITs as a liquid and tax transparent route for institutional investors to obtain their property exposure. The strong dividend yield and ESG/social infrastructure focus of Belgium REITs sees Belgium REITs well-placed going forward to meet the evolving investment mandates from major investors.

Originality/value

This paper is the first empirical investigation that elucidates the risk-adjusted performance and role of Belgium REITs as an important property investment opportunity. It equips investors and practitioners with an independent and comprehensive empirical validation of the strategic role of Belgium REITs in a portfolio. Well-informed and practical property investment decision making regarding the use of Belgium REITs for access to the property asset class is the main outcome of this paper.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 March 2024

Graeme Newell and Muhammad Jufri Marzuki

Renewable energy infrastructure is an important asset class in the context of reducing global carbon emissions going forward. This includes solar power, wind farms, hydro, battery…

Abstract

Purpose

Renewable energy infrastructure is an important asset class in the context of reducing global carbon emissions going forward. This includes solar power, wind farms, hydro, battery storage and hydrogen. This paper examines the risk-adjusted performance and diversification benefits of listed renewable energy infrastructure globally over Q1:2009–Q4:2022 to examine the role of renewable energy infrastructure in a global infrastructure portfolio and in a global mixed-asset portfolio. The performance of renewable energy infrastructure is compared with the other major infrastructure sectors and other major asset classes. The strategic investment implications for institutional investors and renewable energy infrastructure in their portfolios going forward are also highlighted. This includes identifying effective pathways for renewable energy infrastructure exposure by institutional investors.

Design/methodology/approach

Using quarterly total returns, the risk-adjusted performance and portfolio diversification benefits of global listed renewable energy infrastructure over Q1:2009–Q4:2022 is assessed. Asset allocation diagrams are used to assess the role of renewable energy infrastructure in a global infrastructure portfolio and in a global mixed-asset portfolio.

Findings

Listed renewable energy infrastructure was seen to underperform the other infrastructure sectors and other major asset classes over 2009–2022. While delivering portfolio diversification benefits, no renewable energy infrastructure was seen in the optimal infrastructure portfolio or mixed-asset portfolio. More impressive performance characteristics were seen by nonlisted infrastructure funds over this period. Practical reasons for these results are provided as well as effective pathways going forward are identified for the fuller inclusion of renewable energy infrastructure in institutional investor portfolios.

Practical implications

Institutional investors have an important role in supporting reduced global carbon emissions via their investment mandates and asset allocations. Renewable energy infrastructure will be a key asset to assist in the delivery of this important agenda for a greener economy and addressing global warming. Based on this performance analysis, effective pathways are identified for institutional investors of different size assets under management (AUM) to access renewable energy infrastructure. This will see institutional investors embracing critical investment issues as well as environmental and social issues in their investment strategies going forward.

Originality/value

This paper is the first published empirical research analysis on the performance of renewable energy infrastructure at a global level. This research enables empirically validated, more informed and practical decision-making by institutional investors in the renewable energy infrastructure space. The ultimate aim of this paper is to articulate the potential strategic role of renewable energy infrastructure as an important infrastructure sector in the institutional real asset investment space and to identify effective pathways to achieve this renewable energy infrastructure exposure, as institutional investors focus on the strategic issues in reducing global carbon emissions in the context of increased global warming.

Article
Publication date: 11 February 2019

Muhammad Jufri Marzuki and Graeme Newell

As one of the increasingly important alternative property sectors, data centres are a technology-focused property sector that is taking advantage of the growing investment…

1123

Abstract

Purpose

As one of the increasingly important alternative property sectors, data centres are a technology-focused property sector that is taking advantage of the growing investment intensity in technology-related infrastructure, against the backdrop of constant innovation and advancement in technology. The purpose of this paper is to assess the preliminary risk-adjusted performance and portfolio diversification benefits of data centre Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) in the USA, Australia and Singapore. The strategic implications going forward for data centres as an innovative property sector in the property investment space are also highlighted.

Design/methodology/approach

Using monthly total returns, the average annual return, annual risk, risk-adjusted performance and portfolio diversification benefits of data centre REITs in the USA, Australia and Singapore over 2016–2018 are assessed. Optimal asset allocation analysis is performed to investigate the value-added role of data centre REITs in a mixed-asset portfolio.

Findings

Data centre REITs delivered strong average annual return performance, outperforming the composite REITs in all three markets. This also sees data centre REITs being riskier than the overall REIT sector due to the non-traditional and maturing status of the data centre property sector. On a risk-adjusted basis, competitive performance was recorded for data centre REITs, with data centre REITs in the USA and Singapore outperforming their respective composite REITs. This performance is also delivered with significant portfolio diversification benefits with the stock market, resulting in data centre REITs contributing to the US mixed-asset portfolios across a diverse risk spectrum.

Practical implications

Institutional investors are now giving increased emphasis to alternative property sectors with better risk-return trade-offs. Improved performance and diversification benefits are achieved by supplementing existing property portfolios with non-traditional property sectors with counter-cyclical risk-return profiles, one of which is the data centre property sector. This sees data centres as an important alternative property sector, having technology-based drivers and being recognised as having a clear path towards institutionalisation with the major investors in the near future.

Originality/value

This paper is the first published empirical research analysis that specifically assessed the preliminary performance and diversification benefits of data centre REITs in the USA, Australia and Singapore. This research enables empirically validated, more informed and practical property investment decision making by institutional investors regarding the future strategic role of the data centre property sector as an innovative sector in the institutional property investment space.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 July 2018

Muhammad Jufri Marzuki and Graeme Newell

Spanish real estate investment trusts (REITs) emerged as an important and rapidly expanding property investment vehicle, against the backdrop of improving Spain macro-economic…

Abstract

Purpose

Spanish real estate investment trusts (REITs) emerged as an important and rapidly expanding property investment vehicle, against the backdrop of improving Spain macro-economic fundamentals and commercial property market. This sees Spanish REITs being the 3rd largest REIT market in Europe, offering access to important Iberian and European property assets, with the added benefits of transparency, governance and liquidity. The purpose of this paper is to assess the significance, risk-adjusted performance and portfolio diversification benefits of Spanish REITs in a mixed-asset portfolio over August 2014–February 2018.

Design/methodology/approach

Using monthly total returns, the risk-adjusted performance and portfolio diversification potential of Spanish REITs over August 2014–February 2018 are assessed. Asset allocation diagrams are used to assess the role of Spanish REITs in a mixed-asset portfolio.

Findings

Spanish REITs delivered strong risk-adjusted returns compared to stocks over August 2014–February 2018, but with limited portfolio diversification benefits. Compared to bonds, Spanish REITs offered competitive risk-adjusted returns and excellent diversification benefits. Importantly, this sees Spanish REITs as strongly contributing to the Spanish mixed-asset portfolio across the portfolio risk spectrum.

Practical implications

The 2012 Spanish REIT regulatory changes have been pivotal in providing a supportive environment for Spanish REITs’ growth. Spanish REITs are now a significant market in a European context. The results highlight the major role of Spanish REITs in a Spanish mixed-asset portfolio. The strong risk-adjusted performance of Spanish REITs compared to stocks sees Spanish REITs contributing to the mixed-asset portfolio across the portfolio risk spectrum. This is particularly important, as an increasing number of investors have utilised Spanish REITs to obtain their property exposure in a liquid format in recent years.

Originality/value

This paper is the first published empirical research analysis of the risk-adjusted performance of Spanish REITs, and the role of Spanish REITs in a mixed-asset portfolio. This research enables empirically validated, more informed and practical property investment decision-making regarding the strategic role of Spanish REITs in a portfolio.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 36 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 September 2018

Graeme Newell and Muhammad Jufri Marzuki

Amongst the alternative property sectors, student accommodation has recently become an important institutionalised property sector for pension funds and sovereign wealth funds in…

2544

Abstract

Purpose

Amongst the alternative property sectors, student accommodation has recently become an important institutionalised property sector for pension funds and sovereign wealth funds in the global property landscape, particularly in the UK. The purpose of this paper is to assess the significance, risk-adjusted performance and portfolio diversification benefits of student accommodation in a UK property and mixed-asset portfolio over 2011–2017. Drivers and risk factors for the ongoing development of the student accommodation sector are also identified. The question of student accommodation being a proxy for residential property exposure by institutional investors is also assessed.

Design/methodology/approach

Using annual total returns, the risk-adjusted performance and portfolio diversification benefits of UK student accommodation over 2011–2017 is assessed. Asset allocation diagrams are used to assess the role of student accommodation in a UK property portfolio and in a UK mixed-asset portfolio for a range of property investor types.

Findings

UK student accommodation delivered superior risk-adjusted returns compared to UK property, stocks and REITs over 2011–2017, with portfolio diversification benefits. Importantly, this sees UK student accommodation as strongly contributing to the UK property and mixed-asset portfolios across the entire portfolio risk spectrum and validating the property industry perspective of student accommodation being low risk and providing diversification benefits. Student accommodation is also not seen to be a proxy for residential exposure by institutional investors.

Practical implications

Student accommodation is an alternative property sector that has become increasingly institutionalised in recent years. The results highlight the important role of student accommodation in a UK property portfolio and in a UK mixed-asset portfolio. The strong risk-adjusted performance of UK student accommodation compared to UK property, stocks and REITs over this timeframe sees UK student accommodation contributing to the mixed-asset portfolio across the entire portfolio risk spectrum. This is particularly important, as many investors (e.g. pension funds, sovereign wealth funds) now see student accommodation as an important property sector in their overall portfolio.

Originality/value

This paper is the first published empirical research analysis of the risk-adjusted performance of UK student accommodation, and the role of student accommodation in a UK property portfolio and in a UK mixed-asset portfolio. This research enables empirically validated, more informed and practical property investment decision making regarding the strategic role of student accommodation as an alternative property sector in a portfolio.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 36 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 June 2023

Graeme Newell and Muhammad Jufri Marzuki

COVID-19 has had a significant global impact at many levels, including an impact on global real estate capital flows. This paper examines the impact of COVID-19 on global real…

Abstract

Purpose

COVID-19 has had a significant global impact at many levels, including an impact on global real estate capital flows. This paper examines the impact of COVID-19 on global real estate capital flows over 2019–2022 to clearly articulate the extent of this impact on global real estate capital flows across regions, countries, major cities, real estate sub-sectors and by major real estate investors. Drivers of these global real estate capital flow changes are also identified. The strategic real estate investment implications of this impact are highlighted, as well as the implications going forward concerning the global real estate strategies for the real estate portfolios held by institutional investors.

Design/methodology/approach

To assess the impact of COVID-19, the Real Capital Analytics (RCA) database of global real estate transactions over 2019–2022 is used to drill-out critical details on commercial real estate transactions to explore specific trends in global real estate capital flows in this period of the COVID-19 crisis. This includes real estate capital flows to specific regions, countries, cities, real estate sub-sectors as well as the role of major real estate investors.

Findings

The impact of COVID-19 is clearly shown with the major decline in global real estate capital flows in 2020, with a strong recovery in 2021. Reduced levels of real estate capital flows in 2022 reflect different risk dynamics, where 2022 has seen investors move on from the COVID-19 environment. In 2022, the risk of COVID-19 for real estate has been replaced by global real estate risk factors such as inflation concerns, geopolitical tensions, economic growth concerns, increased cost of debt issues and supply chain issues. This sees COVID-19 now rated as only the 6th most important risk factor in real estate investment decision-making for real estate investors in the Americas, Europe, Middle East and Africa (EMEA) and Asia–Pacific.

Practical implications

This research has clearly shown the extent of the impact of COVID-19 on global real estate capital flows, as well as identifying the drivers of these real estate capital flow changes. It highlights that real estate investors have moved on and are now prioritising new risk factors ahead of COVID-19 risk. These critical risk factors reflect more recent financial, economic and geopolitical issues, which are key issues in real estate investment decision-making going forward. Investors need to structure these new risk factors into their real estate investment decision-making for the ongoing management of their domestic and international real estate portfolios.

Originality/value

This paper is the first published empirical research analysis of global real estate capital flows during the COVID-19 crisis. This research provides major insights on real estate investment decision-making during this crisis and the strategic changes seen in acquiring real estate portfolios in response to this major global crisis. The change in real estate risk priorities in 2022 as real estate investors move on from the COVID-19 environment is also identified and is clearly reflected in the 2022 global real estate capital flows.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 41 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

Keywords

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