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Article
Publication date: 10 February 2012

Muhammad Issa Khan, Faqir Muhammad Anjum, Imran Pasha, Ayesha Sameen and Muhammad Nadeem

Unleavened bread (chapatti and roti) is the staple diet of people in the Indo‐Pak region, utilizing almost 90 percent of the wheat produced in the region. To improve the nutrition…

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Abstract

Purpose

Unleavened bread (chapatti and roti) is the staple diet of people in the Indo‐Pak region, utilizing almost 90 percent of the wheat produced in the region. To improve the nutrition of chapattis, normally legume flour is used in the region. The purpose of the current study is to assess the nutritional quality and safety of chapattis supplemented with soy flour.

Design/methodology/approach

Wheat and soybean were procured and soy flour was prepared. Trypsin inhibitor contents and mineral contents of different flour and chapattis prepared were determined. Chapattis were prepared from different flour blends and whole wheat flour. To assess the quality and acceptability, the chapattis were presented to a panel of judges and the sensory evaluation was carried out for color, taste, aroma, chew ability, folding ability and overall acceptability characteristics. The data obtained for each parameter were subjected to statistical analysis to determine the level of significance.

Findings

The phytic acid and trypsin content were higher in un‐autoclaved soy flour supplement composite flour. The defattening of soy flour also increases the level of these anti‐nutrients in chapattis. The phytate and trypsin content of composite flour decreased as a result of baking. The protein, fiber and ash contents of composite flour increased while moisture content and nitrogen free extracts (NFE) decreased by the addition of soy flour. Mineral contents of chapattis except Mn increased by the incorporation of soy flour. The chapattis were found acceptable by the panel of judges at 10 percent replacement level of whole wheat flour by soy flour.

Practical implications

The results of the study indicate that 10 percent supplementation of soy flour in wheat flour was found acceptable by consumers as it did not affect the sensory attribute. For improved nutrition and to combat protein energy malnutrition, chapattis flour can be supplemented with soy flour.

Originality/value

The soy supplementation of wheat flour will improve the nutritional quality of the chapatti flour as soy flour is rich in high‐quality protein and mineral. The anti‐nutritional can be minimized or inactivated by autoclaving the soybean.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 114 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 August 2013

Muhammad Saeed, Faqir Muhammad Anjum, Moazzam Rafiq Khan, Muhammad Issa Khan and Muhammad Nadeem

Whey products have conventionally been professed as a means of reducing ingredient costs. The authentic benefits of adding whey products are the enhanced worth resulting from…

Abstract

Purpose

Whey products have conventionally been professed as a means of reducing ingredient costs. The authentic benefits of adding whey products are the enhanced worth resulting from flavor, texture and nutritional improvements as well as nutraceutical or health‐enhancing payback. Therefore, the present study aims to isolate and characterize suitable starter cultures for the production of wheyghurt drink.

Design/methodology/approach

Keeping in view all the benefits of yoghurt technology this study was planned to isolate the starter cultures and optimize the conditions for the production of wheyghurt drink. The starter cultures (Lactobacillus delbruceckii ssp. Bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) were isolated from the yoghurt and further characterized on the basis of their morphological and biochemical characteristics. The wheyghurt drink prepared from starter cultures with varying starter culture concentrations (1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5 percent) was analyzed for the physicochemical and sensory characteristics to explore the potential of wheyghurt drink.

Findings

During storage, color, flavor, taste and overall acceptability were affected significantly. But the interaction between treatments and storage was found non‐significant to all the sensory parameters. At zero day maximum score (7.40) for overall acceptability was recorded for T3 and minimum score (5.60) was awarded to T4. After five, ten and 15 days of storage, judges observed a slight decline in overall acceptability in all wheyghurt drink samples. Hence it was concluded that wheyghurt drink sample T3 obtained maximum scores regarding the organoleptic evaluation and remained the best.

Practical implications

The key to growth is a continuous evaluation and modification of the product to match consumer expectations. Currently there are many apparent benefits that result from incorporating selected whey products into yogurt formulas. The starter cultures for the production of fermented whey products are not presently produced in Pakistan and are imported for industrial use. The use of LAB as starter culture may help to improve the quality and shelf life of the whey products.

Originality/value

The research is useful for food manufacturers in order to develop functional food products for consumers. Understanding consumer needs and preferences is critical to successful product development and enhancing marketing values of a product. Nutritionally improved foods, such as wheyghurt over the conventional counterpart, will be highly successful in the marketplace. Consumers will prefer such kinds of foods because they are more conscious about their health and such foods provide them with what they desire, i.e. health benefits with good nutrition.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 115 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

Muhammad Issa khan, Faqir Muhammad Anjum, Shahzad Hussain and Muhammad Tayyab Tariq

Unleavened flat bread (chapatis and rotis) is staple food of the Pakistani population. Almost 90 per cent of wheat produced in the country is used for chapatis and roti…

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Abstract

Purpose

Unleavened flat bread (chapatis and rotis) is staple food of the Pakistani population. Almost 90 per cent of wheat produced in the country is used for chapatis and roti preparation. Present study was carried out to prepare composite flour, assess suitable level of composition. The main aim was to increase the mineral content of the diet, as they are deficient in the diet of the Pakistani people as for other developing countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Composite flours were prepared by replacing wheat flour with 8, 16, 24, 32 and 40 per cent soy flour. Composite flour and chapatis were analysed for mineral and phytate contents. Sensory evaluation (color, flavor, taste, texture, folding ability and chewing ability) of chapatis was also carried out to assess acceptance of suitable level by the consumers.

Findings

The statistical analysis of data obtained showed significant increase in minerals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Ca and Mg) and phytic acid content of flour. Significant decrease in phytate was found during the baking of chapatis. Chapatis were found acceptable by the panel of judges up to 24 per cent supplementation of soy flour. To combat mineral deficiency in developing countries composite flour technology can use as replacement of mineral salts fortification. As in case of composite flour natural source of nutrient are used.

Practical implications

Soy supplementation of wheat flour can be successfully done through flourmills and small‐scale grinders as it causes no problem in milling operations.

Originality/value

The research carried out is one of outstanding type as no such research was done earlier. Phytate besides minerals was also given due consideration in same study which is one of chelating agent found in plant source of minerals.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 July 2010

Faqir Muhammad Anjum, Muhammad Zubair Sabir, Muhammad Issa Khan and Imran Pasha

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisae is the most important ingredient of leavened products and is best known for its characteristic physiological property: the rapid fermentation of…

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Abstract

Purpose

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisae is the most important ingredient of leavened products and is best known for its characteristic physiological property: the rapid fermentation of sugar to ethanol and carbon dioxide. The purpose of this paper is to exploit this feature to determine the effect of three commercially available yeast types: Instant, Dried, and Fresh on sugar utilization during the fermentation process and bread quality.

Design/methodology/approach

Three commercially available yeast types – Instant, Dried, and Fresh were used at three levels, i.e. 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 percent in order to assess sugar utilization during the fermentation process and bread quality after baking.

Findings

The rate of utilization of glucose was much faster than fructose and sucrose. Instant yeast at 1.00 percent exhibited maximum sugar utilization during the fermentation process. It also contributed to improving the bread texture, loaf volume, grain texture, crust and crumb color. Dried and Fresh types could not depict any significant difference in their sugar utilization behavior and bread quality. The results indicated that yeast quality as well as quantity is one of the major indices of bread quality.

Practical implications

The findings of the research can be used by bakers in order to select the proper yeast type and its level for production of quality bread. It also gives an idea about sugar type best suited for bread production.

Originality/value

The paper describes unique research work, as both yeast types, along with their levels, are tested for their fermentation capacity on different types of sugars, as fermentation is an important step in bread making.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 40 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 November 2006

Faqir Muhammad Anjum, Muhammad Rauf, Muhammad Issa Khan and Shahzad Hussain

This study was designed to incorporate untreated and alkaline hydrogen peroxide treated wheat bran into wheat flour and to access the appropriate type of bran and its optimum…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study was designed to incorporate untreated and alkaline hydrogen peroxide treated wheat bran into wheat flour and to access the appropriate type of bran and its optimum level of addition in flour, which may not affect quality but enhance the overall status of the fiber in the bakery products.

Design/methodology/approach

Composite flours prepared by replacing wheat flour with wheat bran both untreated and untreated at 5, 10, 15 and 20 per cent were subject to proximate analysis. Panel of judges evaluated cakes prepared from composite flours to access suitable level of substitution. Calorific value of the product prepared was also determined.

Findings

Statistical analysis of data obtained predicted that significant decrease in moisture and nitrogen free extracts (carbohydrates) contents of flours were found. On the other hand, protein, fiber and total ash of the flour increase with increasing level of replacement. Calorific value of the cakes decreases with increasing level of wheat bran addition. Wheat bran up to 20 per cent replacement was found acceptable by the panel of judges with maximum acceptability of cake with chocolate flavor.

Practical implications

wheat bran may be supplemented to bakery product in order to prepare high fiber products. Wheat bran contains higher amount of insoluble fiber which can help to reduce the blood cholesterol level.

Originality/value

Research conduct was unique one in its nature as effect of both untreated and alkaline hydrogen peroxide treated wheat bran was evaluated in the same study and suitable levels of addition for both were accessed.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 36 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 April 2012

Faqir Muhammad Anjum, Muhammad Nadeem, Muhammad Issa Khan and Shahzad Hussain

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of multiple functions of sunflower seeds including their nutritional and nutraceutical benefits.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of multiple functions of sunflower seeds including their nutritional and nutraceutical benefits.

Design/methodology/approach

The literature review is of the chemical composition of sunflower seeds, their health benefits and their utilization in different products.

Findings

“We are what we eat.” All living creatures need to take in nutrients to live. Nutrients provide energy for processes in the body and can promote growth, maintenance and repair. The classes of nutrients are carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals. Sunflower seeds are a good source of all these nutrients. Plant foods such as fruits, vegetables, oil crops and whole grains contain many components that are beneficial to human health. Research supports that some of these foods, as part of an overall healthful diet, have the potential to delay the onset of many age‐related diseases.

Research limitations/implications

Currently available information on sunflower seeds is insufficient. These observations have led to continuing research aimed at identifying specific bioactive components in foods, such as antioxidants, which may be responsible for improving and maintaining health. Antioxidants are present in foods as vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, and polyphenols.

Originality/value

This review is unique in its comprehensive nature. This article will reflect the role of sunflower seeds as nutritional and nutraceutical package.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 114 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2006

Faqir Muhammad Anjum, Muhammad Issa Khan, Masood Sadiq Butt, Shahzad Hussain and Muhammad Abrar

Almost 90 per cent of the wheat produced in Pakistan is used for chapattis and rotis preparation. Unleavened flat bread (chapattis and rotis) is staple food of Pakistani…

Abstract

Purpose

Almost 90 per cent of the wheat produced in Pakistan is used for chapattis and rotis preparation. Unleavened flat bread (chapattis and rotis) is staple food of Pakistani population. The present study was carried out to prepare composite flour and to assess suitable level of composition. The main aim was to introduce soy hulls as a rich source of nutrients and to study its impact on the rheological and sensory properties of the products.

Design/methodology/approach

Soy hulls were combined wheat flour at 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0 and 7.5 per cent in order to prepare the composite flours. Composite flour and chapattis were analyzed for chemical composition, rheological and baking properties. Sensory evaluation (color, flavor, taste, texture, folding ability and chewing ability) of chapattis was also carried out for the acceptance of suitable level by the consumers.

Findings

The statistical analysis of data obtained showed significant increase in minerals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Ca and Mg), proximate composition and phytic acid content of flour. Significant decrease in phytate was found during baking of chapattis. Soy hulls supplementation also affects the water absorption dough development time, dough stability time significantly. Chapattis were found acceptable by the panel of judges up to 4.5 per cent supplementation of soy hulls.

Research limitations/implications

Soy supplementation of wheat flour can be successfully carried out through flourmills and small‐scale grinders as it causes no problem in milling operations.

Originality/value

Presently soy hulls are used in animal feed to improve its nutrition quality. So it can be used in human food by giving due consideration to the antinutrtional factors that are present in soy hulls.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 October 2008

Nuzhat Huma, Muhammad Anjum, Samreen Sehar, Muhammad Issa Khan and Shahzad Hussain

Legumes are widely grown and are consumed as a source of plant protein throughout the world. They rank second after cereals with respect to their consumption order. Legumes have…

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Abstract

Purpose

Legumes are widely grown and are consumed as a source of plant protein throughout the world. They rank second after cereals with respect to their consumption order. Legumes have anti‐nutritional factors which make their uses limited. This study aims to check the effect of soaking and cooking on the anti‐nutrient contents and nutritional quality of the legumes.

Design/methodology/approach

Five legumes (white kidney bean, red kidney bean, lentil, chickpea, and white gram) frequently used by the masses were selected for soaking and cooking trials. Legumes were tested for their weight, volume, density, swelling capacity and water absorption capacity before soaking and cooking. Legumes were soaked in simple water, 2 per cent sodium chloride solution, acetic acid and sodium bicarbonate and cooked in a beaker with 1 : 5 seed water ratio to uniform soft mass. After soaking and cooking, legumes were tested for anti‐nutrients (phytic acid and tannin) and their nutritional quality.

Findings

The statistical analysis of the study results revealed that dark colour legume (red kidney bens) has a high level of phytic acid and tannin compared with light colour (white kidney beans and white grams). Soaking and cooking of legumes result in significant reduction in phytic acid and tannin contents. Maximum reduction of phytic acid (78.055) and tannin (65.81 per cent) was found for sodium bicarbonate soaking followed by cooking. These treatments also result in a slight reduction in nutrients such as protein, minerals and total sugars.

Practical implications

Soaking and cooking of legumes reduce their anti‐nutrients; phytic acid and tannin significantly. These treatments may be used domestically as well as commercially to increase the nutrients' availability from legumes to meet the problem of protein and minerals deficiencies.

Originality/value

Along with water different soaking solutions which are easily available in the market were used to test out their effect on the nutritional quality and safety. These may be used by the common people to raise their nutritional status.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 38 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 May 2013

Muhammad Nadeem, Faqir Muhammad Anjum, Muhammad Issa Khan, Saima Tehseen, Ahmed El‐Ghorab and Javed Iqbal Sultan

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of multiple functions of the coriander plant, including its nutritional and nutraceutical benefits, with special…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of multiple functions of the coriander plant, including its nutritional and nutraceutical benefits, with special reference to linalool.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors undertake a literature review of the coriander plant's history, chemical composition of coriander parts and its oil, and their nutraceutical potential. Various phytopharmacological appraisals have been discussed at length to investigate their important potential.

Findings

Coriander is an annual, herbaceous plant which originated from the Mediterranean and Middle Eastern regions and known as medicinal plants. Coriander contains an essential oil (0.03‐2.6%). The different parts of this plant contain monoterpenes, limpnene, α‐pinene, γ‐terpinene, p‐cymene, citronellol, borneol, camphor, coriandrin, geraniol, dihydrocoriandrin, coriandronsA‐E, flavonoids and essential oils. It is used as a stomachic, spasmolytic and carminative which have a greater bioactive property. Various parts of this plant, such as seeds, leaves, flower and fruit, possess antioxidant activity, diuretic, anti‐convulsant anti‐diabetic activity, sedative hypnotic activity, anti‐mutagenic, anti‐microbial activity, anthelmintic activity. The physical properties, chemical composition and bioactivity affect the coriander's commercial value.

Research limitations/implications

Currently available information on coriander seeds and leaves is insufficient. These observations have led to continuing research aimed at identifying specific bioactive components in foods, such as antioxidants, which may be responsible for improving and maintaining health. Antioxidants are present in foods as vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, and polyphenols. Coriander is also rich in such compounds. Research supports that some of these foods, as part of an overall healthful diet, have the potential to delay the onset of many age‐related diseases, so there is urgent need to explore the role of these compounds.

Originality/value

This review is unique in its comprehensive nature and reflects the importance of coriander as a medicinal food.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 115 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 November 2015

Imran Pasha, Sehrish Hussain, Muhammad Issa Khan and Nadia Akram

The purpose of this paper is a study designed to utilize Vigna mungo L. (black gram) flour to improve the protein quality of wheat through supplementation. Wheat is utilized as a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is a study designed to utilize Vigna mungo L. (black gram) flour to improve the protein quality of wheat through supplementation. Wheat is utilized as a cereal crop all over the world, but its protein quality is inferior owing to the deficiency of amino acids like lysine.

Design/methodology/approach

Black gram seeds were roasted and germinated and then incorporated at 10, 15 and 20 per cent level in wheat flour. The composite flour was evaluated for its chemical composition, physiochemical properties and rheological characteristics, and cookies were developed from the composite flour.

Findings

Chemical composition of composite flour revealed significant results (p < 0.05). The level of crude protein increased from 9.69 to 11.79 per cent, while ash and crude fat content enhanced from 0.33 to 1.80 per cent and 1.13 to 2.40 per cent, respectively. There was a significant effect (p < 0.05) on the sedimentation value by the addition of black gram in wheat flour. Water absorption of composite flour was higher than control (52.21 per cent), as maximum value was observed in flour having 15 per cent germinated black gram flour (69.45 per cent). Dough development time also increased from 2.90 min to 4.80 min. The pasting properties revealed significant results for all the parameters. Cookies were developed from composite flour, and sensory evaluation has shown that addition of pulse flour at 15 per cent yields cookies with better hedonic response.

Originality/value

The black gram is a locally grown legume crop, but there is a lack of systematic approach for its chemical composition and product development. Scientists are in urge to explore such economical and assessable food ingredients to cope with the nutritional deficiencies prevailing in the developing societies. In this regard, black gram has been recognized as a rich source of nutrients, so it can be exploited to improve wheat protein quality.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 45 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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