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Article
Publication date: 7 May 2020

Hummera Saleem, Malik Shahzad Shabbir and Muhammad Bilal khan

The purpose of this study is to analyze the dynamic causal relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI), gross domestic product (GDP) and trade openness (TO) on a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to analyze the dynamic causal relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI), gross domestic product (GDP) and trade openness (TO) on a set of five selected South Asian countries.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used newly developed bootstrap auto regressive distributed lags (ARDL) cointegration test to examine the long-run relationship among FDI, GDP and TO for selected South Asian countries for 1975–2016.

Findings

The economic growth (EG) is significantly related to TO for Bangladesh, India and Sri Lanka and the expansion of TO is crucial for growth in these countries. The results show that all countries (except Bangladesh) found the existence of long-run cointegration between FDI, GDP and TO, whereas FDI is a dependent variable. These results concluded that FDI and TO are contributing to EG in these selected countries.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first attempts to investigate the causal relationship and address the short and long dynamic among FDI, GDP and TO regarding five south Asian countries such as Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.

Details

South Asian Journal of Business Studies, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-628X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 September 2021

Muhammad Bilal Khan, Rehan Zahid, Ali Hussain Kazim and Khalid Javed

Depleting reserves of crude oils and their adverse environmental effects have shifted focus toward environment friendly and biobased lubricant base oils. Natural oils and…

Abstract

Purpose

Depleting reserves of crude oils and their adverse environmental effects have shifted focus toward environment friendly and biobased lubricant base oils. Natural oils and fats act as good lubricants but they have low oxidation and thermal stability which makes them unsuitable for modern day uses. This paper aims to produce trimethylolpropane ester biolubricant from cottonseed oil and study the effects of its use in spark ignition (SI) engines.

Design/methodology/approach

In this work, cottonseed oil is converted to TMP lubricant by a two-step based catalyzed esterification. The lubricants thermophysical properties are then analyzed and a 20% blend with synthetic poly-alpha olefin is used in an spark ignition engine.

Findings

The produced lubricant has viscosity @100oC of 4.91 cSt, a viscosity index of 230 and a flash point of 202oC. When used as a 20% blend in a petrol engine, the rate of oil deterioration was reduced by 18%, however, the overall wear increased by 6.7%. However, this increase is offset by its improved environmental impacts.

Originality/value

In its current state, such a biolubricant can be used as an additive to most commercially available lubricants to improve oil deterioration characteristics and environmental impact. However, further work on improving biolubricant’s wear characteristics is needed for the complete replacement of mineral oil-based lubricants.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 73 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 February 2015

Irfan Khan Niazi, Muhammad Bilal Khan and Rashid Wazir

This paper aims to focus on technical and economical analysis of small scale wind/solar hybrid system for domestic consumers. The analysis is carried out on HOMER II…

Abstract

This paper aims to focus on technical and economical analysis of small scale wind/solar hybrid system for domestic consumers. The analysis is carried out on HOMER II simulation software. Pakistan is one of those developing countries which are encountered with severe energy crises. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a technically and economically feasible system to meet the domestic consumer’s demand, as well as contribute to the central grid. HOMER Energy software is used to analyze different systems and to obtain the most reliable and feasible system for the customer. Simulation was carried out to find an economically and technically feasible system. Sensitivity analysis was carried out with hub height, PV De-rating factor, PV life, Wind turbine life. Change in hub height drastically affected energy production and economic prospect as the main factors of the system. Implementing such type of small hybrid systems on domestic level can be truly helpful to overcome energy shortage.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 August 2019

S. Bilal, Muhammad Sohail and Rahila Naz

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the studies of momentum and transmission of heat on mixed convection boundary layer Darcy‒Forchheimer flow of Casson liquid over…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the studies of momentum and transmission of heat on mixed convection boundary layer Darcy‒Forchheimer flow of Casson liquid over a linear extending surface in a porous medium. The belongings of homogeneous‒heterogeneous retorts are also affianced. The mechanism of heat transmission is braced out in the form of Cattaneo‒Christov heat flux. Appropriate restorations are smeared to revolutionize coupled nonlinear partial differential equations conforming to momentum, energy and concentration of homogeneous‒heterogeneous reaction equations into coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs).

Design/methodology/approach

Numerical elucidations of the transmogrified ODEs are accomplished via a dexterous and trustworthy scheme, namely optimal homotopy analysis method. The convergence of planned scheme is exposed with the support of error table.

Findings

The exploration of mixed convection Darcy‒Forchheimer MHD boundary layer flow of incompressible Casson fluid by the linear stretched surface with Cattaneo‒Christov heat flux model and homogeneous‒heterogeneous reactions is checked in this research. Imitations of the core subsidized flow parameters on velocity, temperature and concentration of homogeneous‒heterogeneous reactions solutions are conscripted. From the recent deliberation, remarkable annotations are as follows: non-dimensional velocities in xa− and xb− directions shrink, whereas the non-dimensional temperature upsurges when the Casson fluid parameter ameliorates. Similar impact of Casson fluid parameter, magnetic parameter, mixed convection parameter, inertia parameter, and porosity parameter is observed for both the components of velocity field. An escalation in magnetic parameter shows the opposite attitude of temperature field as compared with velocity profile. Similar bearing of Casson fluid parameter is observed for both temperature and velocity fields. Enhancement in concentration rate is observed for growing values of (Ns) and (Sc), and it reduces for (k1). Both temperature and concentration of homogeneous‒heterogeneous upturn by mounting the magnetic parameter. Demeanor of magnetic parameter, Casson fluid parameter, heat generation parameter is opposite to that of Prandtl number and thermal relaxation parameter on temperature profile.

Practical implications

In many industrial and engineering applications, the current exploration is utilized for the transport of heat and mass in any system.

Originality/value

As far as novelty of this work is concerned this is an innovative study and such analysis has not been considered so far.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 15 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

Case study
Publication date: 13 March 2020

Muhammad Muzamil Sattar, Asad Ali Qazi, Farhan Shahzad and Abdul Rehman Shaikh

The learning outcomes are as follows: what tasks are to be done by medical representatives in pharmaceutical industry? This study also highlights various competencies…

Abstract

Learning outcomes

The learning outcomes are as follows: what tasks are to be done by medical representatives in pharmaceutical industry? This study also highlights various competencies required to do effective selling in this industry; analyzes and discusses different unethical practices going on in the market; explains why ethical norms are necessary in sales context when sales targets are already achievable with unethical means; and develops and comments on strategies Flori Pharmaceutical can make to overcome on these unethical issues. What should be the response of Dahar to the email of Naveed khan? What course of action should be taken by Dahar in the deceitful reporting case of Mohsin Ali?

Case overview/synopsis

Flori is considered a leading and growing multinational organization in the highly competitive environment of Pakistan pharmaceutical industry with over 40 years of experience. The company aims to command a leading position in developing new health-care products as it offers a wide range of diabetic, cardiovascular, respiratory and vitamin products based on quality as a result of high research and examination. Recently, an email to Bilal Dahar on March 2017 from Flori’s star sales person Naveed Khan has forced management to take some strong decisions regarding ethical norms and values to be adopted by medical representatives of Flori pharmaceuticals. The email highlighted the issues related to sales pressure which are leading toward unethical sales practices. Dahar just not have to maintain Flori’s ethical code of conduct but he and his team also has to work hard to achieve more than 26% growth rate in sales revenue as compared to last year. Dahar knew that the highly competitive environment of pharmaceutical industry has led most of the stake holders to indulge in unethical behavior to achieve their individual targets. He knew that this is dangerous in long term for the multinational organizations such as Flori pharmaceuticals as if the similar behavior continues, the sales culture and values of the organization would be on stake. He also has to decide what decision to be taken against deceitful reporting issue of one of the top-performer territory managers, who was key person in helping Flori to close the sales year 2016 with the revenue of Rs. 6.4bn, a 26% growth over the last year. The case is rich enough to provide a platform regarding management of several ethical challenges in pharmaceutical selling and developing strategies based on them.

Complexity academic level

BBA, MBA final year.

Supplementary materials

Teaching Notes are available for educators only.

Subject code

CSS 8: Marketing.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 January 2022

Muhammad Bilal Zafar, Ahmad Azam Sulaiman and Muhammad Nawaz

This study aims to examine whether corporate social responsibility (CSR) of Islamic banking is delivering financial returns or otherwise enhancing the cost.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine whether corporate social responsibility (CSR) of Islamic banking is delivering financial returns or otherwise enhancing the cost.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology of this study includes the content-analysis approach with aid of the CSR disclosure index, and it deploys the partial least squares regression to examine the CSR-financial performance relationship. Regarding CSR disclosure and financial measures, this study takes the data from the annual reports of Islamic banking of Pakistan, from the year 2003 to 2017.

Findings

The results of this study indicate that there is a significant positive relationship exists between CSR and financial performance of Islamic banks, consistent with the instrumental-stakeholder theory. These results imply that Islamic banks, which ensure that CSR is practiced extensively, and aim to positively affect their stakeholders, perform well. Hence, the CSR engagement by Islamic banks yields instrumental returns rather it is a cost.

Practical implications

Islamic banks of Pakistan must work on a better CSR policy, it would enhance the reputation of Islamic banks, on the other hand, it would also increase their capabilities to cope with future reputation damage and negative news, thus it would protect and secure the financial results. In addition to these, investors of Islamic banks must also look at the social and ethical engagements of Islamic banks of Pakistan, while making investment decisions.

Originality/value

In general, there is a dearth of research in the domain of CSR-financial performance regarding Islamic banking. This is one of the studies which contributes to this area.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 18 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 August 2021

Muhammad Faisal Javed, Mohammed Jameel, Muhammad Ijaz Khan, Sumaira Qayyum, Niaz B. Khan and Tufail Ahmad Khan

This study aims to focus on second grade fluid flow over a rotating disk in the presence of chemical reaction. Uniform magnetic field is also taken into account. Because…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to focus on second grade fluid flow over a rotating disk in the presence of chemical reaction. Uniform magnetic field is also taken into account. Because of the smaller magnetic Reynolds number, induced magnetic field is negligible. Heat equation is constructed by considering heat source/sink.

Design/methodology/approach

Suitable variables are used to transform nonlinear partial differential equations to ordinary ones. Convergent series solutions are attained by applying homotopy analysis method.

Findings

Trends of different parameters on concentration, velocity and temperature are shown graphically. Skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number are calculated and investigated under the effect of elaborated parameters. An elevation in the value of magnetic field parameter causes collapse in the velocity distributions. Velocity distribution in increasing function of viscoelastic parameter. Temperature and concentration profiles are decreasing functions of viscoelastic parameter. Concentration distribution reduces by increasing the chemical reaction parameter. There is more surface drag force for larger M, while opposite behavior is noted for β.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, such consideration is yet to be published in the literature.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 31 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 April 2022

Ahmad Raza Bilal, Tehreem Fatima, Sajid Iqbal and Muhammad Kashif Imran

The purpose of this study is to demonstrate how alertness enable small and medium scale enterprise (SME) owners to leverage their individual entrepreneurial orientation…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to demonstrate how alertness enable small and medium scale enterprise (SME) owners to leverage their individual entrepreneurial orientation (IEO) such as risk-taking, pro-activity, innovation, passion and perseverance in a better way to recognize opportunities for financial resources as compared to their counterparts who are not alert. Moreover, it elaborates on the mediating role of opportunity recognition of financial resources between IEO and SMEs’ access to finance (AF).

Design/methodology/approach

A three-wave time-lagged survey from a stratified sample of 271 small and medium scale business owners in Pakistan was conducted and the data were analysed using PROCESS models 1 and 4.

Findings

The findings grounded in the theory of Action Regulation, signify that the IEO of small and medium scale business owners helps them attain financial resources through opportunity recognition capacity which is an action characteristic. Moreover, the IEO of SME owners, coupled with entrepreneurial alertness (EA; a cognitive pre-action state), amplifies their ability to recognize opportunities for financial resource availability.

Originality/value

This is one of the initial studies to test the IEO scale, including passion and perseverance. Moreover, it has added to the individual-level antecedents of AF in small and medium scale businesses through the role of EA and opportunity recognition.

Article
Publication date: 20 May 2020

Muhammad Bilal Zafar and Ahmad Azam Sulaiman

This paper begins with a challenge to explore the scope and dimensions of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in Islamic banking and design a CSR disclosure index, which…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper begins with a challenge to explore the scope and dimensions of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in Islamic banking and design a CSR disclosure index, which may gauge the level of CSR disclosure in Islamic banking.

Design/methodology/approach

It adopts a two-fold approach to develop the CSR disclosure index for Islamic banking, such as “identification” and “prioritization.” In the ambit of identification, it relies on the existing literature related to CSR and Islamic banking. However, it undertakes analytical hierarchy process (AHP) method for prioritization through the sample of 104 experts related to Islamic banking of Pakistan.

Findings

It concludes the CSR index for Islamic banking contains five dimensions, including 79 items across 20 sub-dimensions. The results of AHP indicate that the CSR dimensions are important for Shariah governance, employee, community, customer and environment. Moreover, within dimensions, the most important sub-dimensions are Shariah compliance, customer service and quality, green investing/banking, customer relationship, training and development and poverty alleviation.

Practical implications

The CSR disclosure index of this study has important implications for academicians, such as it paves the ways for further investigations and practical usage of index to gauge the level CSR disclosure of Islamic banking. Moreover, it delineates the spectrum of responsibilities for managers of Islamic banking under the domain of CSR.

Originality/value

The proposed CSR disclosure index is comprehensive and stresses on the social responsibility of Islamic banking toward stakeholders. In nutshell, this study offers what is expected from the practitioners of Islamic banking in the domain of social responsibility.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 September 2019

Muhammad Sohail, Rahila Naz and Rabeeah Raza

The purpose of this paper is to address the entropy analysis of the 3D flow of Maxwell nanofluid containing gyrotactic microorganism in the presence of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address the entropy analysis of the 3D flow of Maxwell nanofluid containing gyrotactic microorganism in the presence of homogeneous–heterogeneous reactions with improved heat conduction and mass diffusion models over a stretched surface. Improved models are supported out by utilizing Cattaneo–Christov heat flux and generalized Fick’s law, respectively.

Design/methodology/approach

Governing equations which present the given flow phenomenon are modeled in the form of PDEs by applying boundary layer analysis and then suitable makeovers are engaged to transfigure prevailing partial differential equations into a set of ordinary differential equations. Transformed equations are handled via optimal homotopy analysis process in computational tool Mathematica and also a special case of already published work is substantiated and found to be in excellent settlement.

Findings

The bearing of innumerable convoluted physical parameters on velocity, temperature, concentration, reaction rate, the concentration of motile microorganism and entropy generation are presented and deliberated through graphs. Moreover, the convergence of the homotopic solution is presented in tabular form which confirms the reliability of the proposed scheme. It is perceived that mounting values of the magnetic parameter and Brinkman number boosts the irreversibility analysis and Bejan number diminishes for these parameters. Moreover, the growing values of Prandtl and Schmidt numbers reduce the temperature and concentration fields, respectively.

Practical implications

The work contained in this paper has applications in a different industry.

Originality/value

The work contained in this paper is original work and it is good for the researcher in the field of applied mathematics.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

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