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Article
Publication date: 24 January 2022

Muhammad Bilal Zafar, Ahmad Azam Sulaiman and Muhammad Nawaz

This study aims to examine whether corporate social responsibility (CSR) of Islamic banking is delivering financial returns or otherwise enhancing the cost.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine whether corporate social responsibility (CSR) of Islamic banking is delivering financial returns or otherwise enhancing the cost.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology of this study includes the content-analysis approach with aid of the CSR disclosure index, and it deploys the partial least squares regression to examine the CSR-financial performance relationship. Regarding CSR disclosure and financial measures, this study takes the data from the annual reports of Islamic banking of Pakistan, from the year 2003 to 2017.

Findings

The results of this study indicate that there is a significant positive relationship exists between CSR and financial performance of Islamic banks, consistent with the instrumental-stakeholder theory. These results imply that Islamic banks, which ensure that CSR is practiced extensively, and aim to positively affect their stakeholders, perform well. Hence, the CSR engagement by Islamic banks yields instrumental returns rather it is a cost.

Practical implications

Islamic banks of Pakistan must work on a better CSR policy, it would enhance the reputation of Islamic banks, on the other hand, it would also increase their capabilities to cope with future reputation damage and negative news, thus it would protect and secure the financial results. In addition to these, investors of Islamic banks must also look at the social and ethical engagements of Islamic banks of Pakistan, while making investment decisions.

Originality/value

In general, there is a dearth of research in the domain of CSR-financial performance regarding Islamic banking. This is one of the studies which contributes to this area.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 18 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 January 2020

Muhammad Bilal Zafar and Ahmad Azam Sulaiman

This paper aims to understand corporate social responsibility (CSR) narrative under the Islamic banking paradigm by three aspects, narrative review of the literature, review of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to understand corporate social responsibility (CSR) narrative under the Islamic banking paradigm by three aspects, narrative review of the literature, review of the definitions of CSR and review of factors that cause divergence from conventional percepts.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a theoretical paper based on literature and aims to understand the CSR narrative under the paradigm of Islamic banking.

Findings

Religion brings new dimensions of ethics and expands the scope of morality in business. Islamic banking is a new wave of corporation whose social goals are as much important as making profit. There are diverse narrations and definitions prevailing in the literature of CSR under the Islamic paradigm which also encounters the aspects of divergence from conventional percepts. The academic debate of CSR-Islamic banking brings on surface a plausible CSR paradigm, that is to guide the role of Islamic banking in society under the Islamic provisions, ethics and axioms. This paper also paves the way for future direction, particularly in terms of a holistic understanding of CSR narrative under the Islamic banking paradigm.

Research limitations/implications

This is a theoretical paper; it primarily discusses the theoretical aspects of CSR narrative under the paradigm of Islamic banking, while it does not give insight into the empirical narrative or disclosure of CSR in Islamic banking.

Practical implications

The theoretical review of literature brings plausible understanding, that Islamic banking is a new wave of corporate and has standings on divine guidance. The structure of the institution in its foundation insists on real economic activity. The legitimacy of Islamic banking has roots in ethical compliance and in inculcating the broader interests of stakeholders. There are several social responsibilities, which are expected from the practitioners of Islamic banking. The practitioners as well must understand that the CSR of Islamic banking is far beyond the conventional percepts of CSR.

Originality/value

There are several normative and theoretical studies in the domain of CSR-Islamic banking. It is hard to find a comprehensive narrative review of such literature. This review is unique, which brings a holistic understanding of CSR narrative under the Islamic banking paradigm.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 September 2021

Muhammad Bilal Zafar and Ahmad Azam Sulaiman

This paper aims to gauge the level of corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure of Islamic banks of Pakistan.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to gauge the level of corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure of Islamic banks of Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

The annual reports of Islamic banks of Pakistan from the year 2003 to 2017 were considered as the source of data. The content analysis method was used to gauge the level of CSR disclosure with the help of the CSR disclosure index. Islamic banks proclaim religiously motivated and ethical institutions; hence, full disclosure was expected from Islamic banks in the domain of CSR.

Findings

The average level of CSR disclosure of Islamic banks after a one-and-a-half decade of Islamic banking in Pakistan is 31.23%, which is far below the expected level of CSR disclosure and even below the mean level. The mean comparison analyzes show that the level of CSR disclosure differs among the Islamic banks, old and large Islamic banks are disclosing more information, in addition, the local Islamic banks have a relatively high level of CSR disclosure as compare to the foreign Islamic banks.

Research limitations/implications

The current CSR disclosure policy of the government regarding corporations in Pakistan is insufficient. There is a need to revise this policy which may result in higher CSR disclosure. The results indicate, that there is a difference in CSR disclosure among local and foreign Islamic banks, so this policy must address this aspect as well.

Originality/value

Islamic banking proclaims a new wave of the corporate that has higher social objectives, but a contradiction exists among the ideology and reality of social responsibility of Islamic banks. Then, this study also supports that the same dilemma of low CSR disclosure also prevails in the Islamic banks of Pakistan.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 June 2022

Waseem Ul Hameed, Muhammad Nawaz, Qasim Ali Nisar, Muhammad Farhan Basheer, Shoaib Imtiaz and Muhammad Bilal Zafar

The primary purpose of this study is to provide a new model in the hospitality industry by incorporating open innovation (OI) as a significant business performance (BP) supporter…

Abstract

Purpose

The primary purpose of this study is to provide a new model in the hospitality industry by incorporating open innovation (OI) as a significant business performance (BP) supporter. This study aims to examine OI’s role in fostering SI and BP in Malaysia’s hospitality industry.

Design/methodology/approach

Quantitative research approach with a cross-sectional design is used to carry out the current study. A questionnaire survey is conducted. A total of 201 valid responses were used to analyze the data through Smart PLS 3 structural equation modeling. The study sample comprises the managerial employees of hospitality companies.

Findings

The findings of this study revealed that OI has a crucial contribution to fostering service innovation (SI) and BP. Information and communication technology (ICT) increases external knowledge and internal innovation, which in turn increases knowledge management (KM). ICT intensifies KM in result, OI increases, which contribute expediting SI. Finally, increases in SI boost BP.

Practical implications

This study provides a comprehensive framework to boost hospitality industry performance. It gives vital cues to the hospitality industry for SI improvement and BP. This proposed framework is specific to the hospitality industry, and it has the potential to help the managers to have a better understanding of new ideas that can develop service quality and customer satisfaction.

Originality/value

This is one of the pioneer studies that formally documented OI’s role in Malaysia hospitality industry. This pioneering study provides the OI model for BP of the hospitality industry. Regarding the OI in the hospitality industry, managers’ and academicians’ implication is not well understood in the current literature.

研究目的

本研究的主要目的是通过将开放式创新 (OI) 作为重要的业务绩效 (BP) 支持者, 为酒店业提供一种新模式。该研究旨在研究 OI 在促进马来西亚酒店业的 SI 和 BP 中的作用。

研究设计/方法/途径

本论文采用横向比较的定量研究方法进行当前研究。本研究采用问卷进行调查。通过 Smart PLS 3 结构方程建模, 总共使用了 201 个有效样本来进行数据分析。研究样本包括酒店公司的管理人员。

研究发现

研究结果表明, OI 对促进服务创新 (SI) 和 BP 做出了重要贡献。信息和通信技术(ICT)增加了外部知识(EK)和内部创新(II), 这反过来又增加了知识管理(KM)。 ICT在结果中强化了KM, OI增加, 这有助于提高SI。最后, SI 的增加会提高业务绩效。

实践意义

本研究提供了一个全面的框架来提升酒店业的表现。本研究框架为酒店业的 SI 改进和 BP 提供了重要线索。这个提议的框架是针对酒店业的, 它可以帮助管理者更好地理解可以提高服务质量和客户满意度的新想法。

研究原创性/价值

这是正式记录 OI 在马来西亚酒店业中的作用的先驱研究之一。这项开创性的研究为酒店业的 BP 提供了 OI 模型。关于酒店业的 OI, 其管理实践意义和学术意义在当前文献中并没有得到很好的理解。

Article
Publication date: 20 May 2020

Muhammad Bilal Zafar and Ahmad Azam Sulaiman

This paper begins with a challenge to explore the scope and dimensions of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in Islamic banking and design a CSR disclosure index, which may…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper begins with a challenge to explore the scope and dimensions of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in Islamic banking and design a CSR disclosure index, which may gauge the level of CSR disclosure in Islamic banking.

Design/methodology/approach

It adopts a two-fold approach to develop the CSR disclosure index for Islamic banking, such as “identification” and “prioritization.” In the ambit of identification, it relies on the existing literature related to CSR and Islamic banking. However, it undertakes analytical hierarchy process (AHP) method for prioritization through the sample of 104 experts related to Islamic banking of Pakistan.

Findings

It concludes the CSR index for Islamic banking contains five dimensions, including 79 items across 20 sub-dimensions. The results of AHP indicate that the CSR dimensions are important for Shariah governance, employee, community, customer and environment. Moreover, within dimensions, the most important sub-dimensions are Shariah compliance, customer service and quality, green investing/banking, customer relationship, training and development and poverty alleviation.

Practical implications

The CSR disclosure index of this study has important implications for academicians, such as it paves the ways for further investigations and practical usage of index to gauge the level CSR disclosure of Islamic banking. Moreover, it delineates the spectrum of responsibilities for managers of Islamic banking under the domain of CSR.

Originality/value

The proposed CSR disclosure index is comprehensive and stresses on the social responsibility of Islamic banking toward stakeholders. In nutshell, this study offers what is expected from the practitioners of Islamic banking in the domain of social responsibility.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 May 2024

Muhammad Bilal Zafar and Ahmad Jafar

There are many areas of research that are untapped in Islamic banking, and human capital is one of them. This paper aims to systematical review the relevant literature on human…

Abstract

Purpose

There are many areas of research that are untapped in Islamic banking, and human capital is one of them. This paper aims to systematical review the relevant literature on human capital and Islamic banking.

Design/methodology/approach

The review process involved a structured search using well-established academic databases, Scopus and Web of Science, resulting in the selection of relevant articles. The paper has been divided into three major themes, besides other discussions on the literature, including methods of measuring human capital, determinants of human capital and human capital and performance of Islamic banks.

Findings

A few pioneering studies have explicitly examined human capital in the Islamic banking domain, while others have encompassed it under the broader umbrella of intellectual capital. The most common method of measuring human capital is accounting based, while few have adopted disclosure and survey methods as well. There are few studies that explored the determinants of human capital having focus on corporate governance, while many of the studies have explored the nexus of human capital and financial performance.

Practical implications

This review strongly highlights the need for more focused research on human capital within the Islamic banking sector. As Islamic banking necessitates unique human capital characteristics, it is essential to delve deeper into this aspect. Furthermore, there is a call to expand the human capital index by incorporating comprehensive aspects relevant to Islamic banking. An important area that requires further exploration is the role of Shariah governance in shaping human capital development within Islamic finance, understanding the reasons behind the observed negative correlation.

Originality/value

Despite its significance, the relationship between human capital and Islamic banking has received limited attention. This review paper not only addresses this gap but also lays the groundwork for future studies in this important and emerging field.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 April 2024

Muhammad Bilal Zafar

This paper aims to meta-analyze the results of the prior studies related to the relationship of human capital and financial performance in Islamic banking.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to meta-analyze the results of the prior studies related to the relationship of human capital and financial performance in Islamic banking.

Design/methodology/approach

To examine the relationship between human capital and financial of Islamic banks, 23 empirical studies having sample of 15,607 are considered for the meta-analysis. Moreover, different measures related to financial performance including return on assets (ROA), return of equity (ROE) and Tobin’s Q have been taken as moderating for further subgroup analysis.

Findings

The results of meta-analysis reveal a positive correlation between human capital and financial performance with an effect size of 0.268. The subgroup analyses showed significant positive associations of human capital with ROA and ROE, insignificant with Tobin’s Q.

Originality/value

This study suggests Islamic banking should prioritize human capital development, maintain consistency and adopt a long-term perspective. Future research should consider context-specific factors and harmonize human capital and financial performance measurements for consensus.

Details

Accounting Research Journal, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1030-9616

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 July 2024

Mustanir Hussain Wasim and Muhammad Bilal Zafar

The purpose of this paper is to provide a systematic literature review on Shariah governance and Islamic banks.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a systematic literature review on Shariah governance and Islamic banks.

Design/methodology/approach

The literature was searched from Scopus and Web of Science using various queries related to Shariah governance and Islamic banks. Through a screening process, 93 articles were considered fit for the systematic literature review.

Findings

The paper provides a systematic review based on different themes, including measurement of Shariah governance in Islamic banks, disclosure of Shariah governance and its determinants, the impact of Shariah governance on performance, risk management and other outcomes of Islamic banks. Finally, issues and challenges of Shariah governance in Islamic banks are discussed, followed by conclusions and recommendations related to future research.

Originality/value

This study is the first of its kind, to the authors’ knowledge, to provide a comprehensive systematic literature on Shariah governance and Islamic banks by exploring different themes and highlighting multiple future avenues of research.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 June 2024

Muhammad Bilal Zafar

This paper aims to compare the Islamic financial accounting standards (IFAS) prevailing in Pakistan declared by the Securities and Exchange Commission of Pakistan (SECP) with…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to compare the Islamic financial accounting standards (IFAS) prevailing in Pakistan declared by the Securities and Exchange Commission of Pakistan (SECP) with accounting standards of Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions (AAOIFI).

Design/methodology/approach

Both standards related to Islamic financial accounting have been thoroughly reviewed, compared and discussed to find out the differences and similarities, along with the depth needed to meet the needs of Islamic finance. 

Findings

AAOIFI accounting standards provide a comprehensive view of complex transactions, whereas SECP standards have limitations. The proposed recommendations aim to bridge the gap by conducting periodic reviews and revisions of IFAS prevailing in Pakistan to keep up with the dynamic nature of the Islamic finance industry.

Practical implications

The regulators should establish institutional arrangements for adapting AAOIFI accounting standards, enabling efficient and effective upgrading of existing accounting standards for Islamic financial institutions and alignment with international best practices.

Originality/value

There is a dearth of studies related to Islamic financial accounting in the context of Pakistan; this is one that contributes to this area.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 December 2023

Mustanir Hussain Wasim and Muhammad Bilal Zafar

The study aims to critically review the Shariah governance framework for Islamic banking prevailing in Pakistan and provide a comparison with Accounting and Auditing Organization…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to critically review the Shariah governance framework for Islamic banking prevailing in Pakistan and provide a comparison with Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions (AAOIFI).

Design/methodology/approach

It analyzes 16 circulars issued by the State Bank of Pakistan (SBP) since 2002, including three Shariah governance frameworks in 2014, 2015 and 2018. Additionally, the study compares the SBP and AAOIFI Shariah governance standards to evaluate the soundness of the SBP framework against international benchmarks.

Findings

Pakistan’s Shariah governance model is centralized, with the SBP’s Shariah board having ultimate authority. The SBP has provided a comprehensive Shariah framework, which includes among others, the criteria for the qualifications and conflict of interests of Shariah members. Both AAOIFI and SBP Shariah governance frameworks have similarities and differences in terms of the tenure of Shariah Supervisory Board (SSB) members, reporting line of SSB, number of SSB meetings, minimum experience of SSB members, primary duties of Shariah board, code of ethics and conduct for SSB and management and requirement of publication of SSB report in the annual report of Islamic banks. The frameworks differ in terms of the delegation of SSB powers, assessment and appraisal of SSB effectiveness and outsourcing of Shariah Compliance Department and Internal Shariah Audit Unit.

Practical implications

The study recommends expanding the qualification criteria for Shariah advisors to include additional degrees and qualifications, upholding stringent criteria for conflict of interests and promoting stakeholder consultation through exposure drafts.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first of its kind which critically review and compare the Shariah governance framework prevailing in Pakistan.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

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