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Article
Publication date: 11 August 2022

Tanveer Ahsan, Muhammad Azeem Qureshi, Ammar Ali Gull and Fazal Muhammad

The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of policy uncertainty on firm performance and to examine how the different cultural societies deal with the policy-induced…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of policy uncertainty on firm performance and to examine how the different cultural societies deal with the policy-induced uncertainty.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use data of European non-financial firms to extend the growing literature on policy uncertainty, firm performance and national culture. The authors consider financial as well as market proxies to measure firm performance and use Hofstede's cultural dimensions as a proxy for national culture. The authors apply the generalized method of moments (GMM-system) regression technique on a dataset of 702 non-financial European firms, listed during the period 2002–2018.

Findings

The authors find overwhelming evidence that policy uncertainty reduces the performance of the European firms; however, cultural differences among different European countries moderate the impact of policy uncertainty on the financial as well as the market performance of the firms. The results of this study show that European cultures with high power distance, individualism, masculinity and indulgence efficiently deal with the economic policy uncertainty. While the European societies with high uncertainty avoidance fail to cope with policy-induced uncertainty. The results are robust to different regression models, alternate proxies of firm performance and endogeneity issues.

Practical implications

The authors argue that policy uncertainty increases information asymmetry and decreases firm performance, therefore, the policymakers shall be considerate of the consequences of the policy-induced uncertainty in the society and business arena that would not only adversely affect the firms but also the economy.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study that investigates the role of national culture on the relationship between policy uncertainty and firm performance in the European context.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 50 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 October 2016

Tanveer Ahsan, Man Wang and Muhammad Azeem Qureshi

The purpose of this paper is to find out firm, industry, and country level determinants of capital structure of Pakistani listed non-financial firms.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to find out firm, industry, and country level determinants of capital structure of Pakistani listed non-financial firms.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use a fixed effects panel data model over a 39 years (1972-2010) unbalanced panel data of Pakistani non-financial listed firms to determine the factors that influence capital structure of these firms.

Findings

The authors find that Pakistani firms prefer retained earnings to finance their business projects, and debt is easily available for experienced firms. Moreover, socio-economic collusive networks, poor corporate governance mechanism along with weak legal system provide these firms an opportunity to pass on their risk to the creditors (banks).

Research limitations/implications

The data set does not contain factors characterizing inter-industry heterogeneity, therefore, the authors use mean industry leverage and mean industry profitability to explore if any relationship exists between leverage of firms, and their respective industry leverage/profitability.

Practical implications

Pakistani non-financial firms are highly leveraged increasing their probability to face financial distress in erratic economic conditions. As such, the policy makers need to develop capital markets of Pakistan to enable a resilient corporate capital structure. Further, erratic economic conditions of Pakistan create uncertain business environment yielding short-term opportunities and to finance them Pakistani firms use short-term debt as a main financing source. The policy makers need to improve corporate governance mechanism and strengthen legal system that will go a long way to develop Pakistani capital market on sound and sustainable footing.

Originality/value

This is the first study that uses an extended number of variables and discovers financial behavior of firms in a bank-based economy having limited financing options, and facing erratic economic conditions.

Details

South Asian Journal of Global Business Research, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-4457

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 April 2017

Nadeem Ahmed Sheikh and Muhammad Azeem Qureshi

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how conventional and Islamic commercial banks in Pakistan choose their capital structure and what are the most significant factors that…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how conventional and Islamic commercial banks in Pakistan choose their capital structure and what are the most significant factors that affect their choice of capital structure.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors collected the data from the annual reports of commercial banks listed on Karachi Stock Exchange Pakistan during 2004-2014. Panel data techniques, namely, pooled ordinary least squares, fixed effects and random effects, were used to estimate the relationship between book leverage and bank-specific variables such as profitability, size, growth, tangibility and earnings volatility.

Findings

Descriptive statistics indicate that conventional commercial banks are more levered than Islamic commercial banks. Moreover, conventional commercial banks are larger, profitable and have relatively safe earnings than Islamic commercial banks. In contrast, Islamic commercial banks have relatively more fixed operating assets and growth in total assets compared to the conventional commercial banks. Regression results indicate that profitability, growth and tangibility are negatively, whereas bank size and earnings volatility are positively, related to book leverage of conventional commercial banks. On the other hand, only three variables, namely, profitability, bank size and tangibility, have material effects on capital structure choice of Islamic commercial banks. Profitability and tangibility are negatively while bank size is positively related to book leverage of the Islamic banks. In sum, results of the study indicate that Islamic and conventional commercial banks have their own way to choose the capital structure than the non-financial firms; however, their choice is affected by the similar variables as identified for non-financial firms in Pakistan.

Practical implications

Results of this study provide support to bank managers to understand the effects of bank-specific variables on capital structure and make them able to determine a balanced capital structure considering the regulations framed by the central bank of the country.

Originality/value

This is the first study that investigates the factors that affect the capital structure of conventional and Islamic commercial banks in Pakistan. Moreover, findings of this study lay some foundation upon which a more detail analysis of capital structure of banks could be based.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Tanveer Ahsan, Man Wang and Muhammad Azeem Qureshi

The purpose of this study is to explain the adjustment rate made to target capital structures by listed non-financial firms in Pakistan during the courses of their life cycles and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explain the adjustment rate made to target capital structures by listed non-financial firms in Pakistan during the courses of their life cycles and to determine what factors influence their adjustment rates.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used multivariate analysis to classify 39 years (1972-2010) of unbalanced panel data from listed non-financial Pakistani firms in terms of their growth, maturity and decline stages. Further, it used a fixed-effects panel data model to determine the factors that influence capital structure and adjustment rates during the life-cycle stages of firms.

Findings

The study observed a low–high–low leverage pattern during the growth, maturity and decline stages of businesses in line with tradeoff theory. Furthermore, the study observed an adjustment rate for growing firms of between 49.3-37.9 per cent, for mature firms of between 35.5-17.5 per cent and for declining firms of between 22.2-15.1 per cent toward their respective leverage targets. Furthermore, it was found that growing firms have higher leverage adjustment rates because, by having more investment opportunities, these firms can alter their capital structures easily by changing the composition of their new issues.

Practical implications

Erratic economic conditions in Pakistan have created an uncertain business environment. Therefore, even mature Pakistani firms remain skeptical about the sustainability of positive trends among current economic indicators. Furthermore, to avoid uncertainty, Pakistani firms grab short-term opportunities by using quickly available short-term debt as a main financing source. Government should introduce long-term policies that will stabilize the business environment and strengthen the financial, as well as the judicial, institutions of the country so that these firms may benefit from long-term investment opportunities and access more options for raising external financing. The results of this study will also help policymakers for other Asian economies where the capital markets are underdeveloped and where firms have higher leverage ratios, such as Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia.

Originality/value

This is the first study in Pakistan that has used a multivariate approach to classify firms into their different life-cycle stages and to discover the leverage adjustment rates of firms during those life-cycle stages.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 November 2023

Muhammad Azeem Qureshi, Tanveer Ahsan, Ammar Ali Gull and Zaghum Umar

This study investigates the impact of economic policy uncertainty (EPU) on corporate sustainability [environmental, social and governance (ESG)] performance and aims to explore…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates the impact of economic policy uncertainty (EPU) on corporate sustainability [environmental, social and governance (ESG)] performance and aims to explore whether uncertainty-induced sustainability performance is influenced by the firm's life cycle (LC).

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses data from European non-financial firms listed during the period from 2002 to 2022 to extend the nascent literature regarding EPU and sustainability performance while applying a dynamic panel data regression analysis (Generalized Method of Moments - GMM System) on 11,462 firm-year observations of 1,869 European firms.

Findings

The authors find overwhelming evidence that policy uncertainty affects the sustainability performance of European firms. The firms restrict their environmental and governance-related activities and address immediate issues to survive during periods of high EPU. Conversely, the firms increase their social engagements to decrease uncertainty-induced information asymmetry. The authors' results show that the intensity and type of sustainability performance are also influenced by the firm's LC. The results imply that board gender diversity (BGD) increases while power concentration with the chief executive officer (CEO) decreases sustainability performance.

Practical implications

These findings have important implications for policymakers, potential investors, firm management and other stakeholders given the firms' access to resources and preferences to encounter uncertainty vary across different LC stages.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study that investigates the role of the firm's LC in the relationship between policy uncertainty and sustainability performance in the European context.

Details

International Journal of Managerial Finance, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1743-9132

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Osamah Hussian Rawashdeh, Toseef Azid and Muhammad Azeem Qureshi

There is no consensus among the experts that welfare can be increased through philanthropy or market is sufficient for the achievement of targeted level of welfare. It is still a…

Abstract

Purpose

There is no consensus among the experts that welfare can be increased through philanthropy or market is sufficient for the achievement of targeted level of welfare. It is still a main quest that giving visible good to one known fellow is better or market ethos have more positive impact on the society where we have needs of thousands of unknown. Markets, in Hayek’s view, are superior to philanthropy – economically, ethically and epistemologically – because they “confer benefits beyond the range of our concrete knowledge” (Hayek 1988, p. 81) and thus provide “a greater benefit to the community than most direct ‘altruistic’ action”. The same can be expected from the ethical and moral financial institutions having the objective not to only increase their profit but also equally trying to serve the community and society. This paper aims to propose a constructive model in which markets, philanthropy and financial institutions work together to enhance welfare, human freedom, flourishing and voluntary social cooperation.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper examines the conceptual dualisms through which commerce – philanthropy relationship (e.g. modern versus Islamic socialism) and the historical–philosophical context in which they were formulated. This helps integrate philanthropy into Hayek’s theory of economic and social order through financial institutions.

Findings

This paper explores the foundations of an Islamic view of philanthropic action. This discussion is inspired by the emerging literature of positive psychology and double movement of Polanyi (2001).

Research limitations/implications

Proper data are not available for the Islamic countries.

Practical implications

Without abandoning Hayek’s theory of markets, this study sketches a view of commercial society in which markets and philanthropy (“voluntary giving and association that serves to promote human flourishing”) work together to enhance welfare human freedom, flourishing and voluntary social cooperation under the umbrella of Islam and also explores the different dimensions that how Islamic financial intuitions are becoming the instrument for the incremental change of this integration.

Social implications

This study guides the policy makers that how social and economic welfare can be increased through the interaction of Islamic financial institutions and philanthropy.

Originality/value

This is an original attempt.

Details

Humanomics, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 20 May 2019

Abstract

Details

Research in Corporate and Shari’ah Governance in the Muslim World: Theory and Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-007-4

Abstract

Details

Research in Corporate and Shari’ah Governance in the Muslim World: Theory and Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-007-4

Article
Publication date: 2 May 2023

Aima Khan and Muhammad Azeem Qureshi

The purpose of this study is firm value management through corporate finance policy design and scenario analysis to maximize the firm value.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is firm value management through corporate finance policy design and scenario analysis to maximize the firm value.

Design/methodology/approach

The study develops a system dynamics model for an oil firm and incorporates the financial and physical processes to perform the firm valuation. The model is simulated under the current and alternative investment, capital structure and dividend policies of the case firm, assuming different oil and gas price and tax rate scenarios to identify which combination of policies maximizes the firm value.

Findings

The simulation results suggest that lowering the volume of investments, increasing the debt ratio and reducing the dividend payments from the current level increases the share price, given increased oil and gas price expectations and lower tax rates. However, the total firm value outperforms with increased investments toward the end of the simulation period. In case of decreased oil and gas price expectations, lower volume of investments, lower debt ratio and lower dividend payments increase the share prices, given lower taxes.

Originality/value

This study entails significance as it provides a comprehensive financial planning model for an oil firm, which incorporates the complex interactions of key financial and physical processes of the firm. The study contributes to debates on corporate finance policies by integrating multiple theories, accounting for accumulation processes and feedback loops and their non-linear interactions. The study proposes the consideration of combined impact of policies for firm value management.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 September 2021

Tanveer Ahsan and Muhammad Azeem Qureshi

The purpose of this study is to develop an Islamic Banking Index representing the Islamic banking model and to investigate its impact on the performance of Islamic and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop an Islamic Banking Index representing the Islamic banking model and to investigate its impact on the performance of Islamic and conventional banks. This study also analyzes the impact of Islamic financial development on bank performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors collected the data from 23 countries for the period from 2010 to 2018 and developed a composite Islamic Banking Index. The authors applied the generalized method of moments on 3,542 bank-year observations for both Islamic and conventional banks to analyze the impact of the Islamic Banking Index on bank performance. The results of the study are robust to time-fixed effects, country-level time-varying factors and endogeneity issues.

Findings

The authors found that Islamic Banking Index positively contributes to the return on assets (ROAit) of Islamic banks only. This impact becomes highly significant in countries with comparatively higher Islamic financial development. This finding suggests that the Islamic financial development in a country provides a supportive operating environment to Islamic banks and increases their performance. The authors also found that Islamic Banking Index positively contributes to the return on equity (ROEit) of both types of banks.

Practical implications

The authors argue that moving away from interest-based products and focusing more on diversified portfolios can boost the performance of both types of banks without increasing their risk levels.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that develops a composite Islamic Banking Index based on differentiating factors of the Islamic banking model and investigates the impact of Islamic Banking Index and Islamic financial development on bank performance.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

1 – 10 of 36