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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2021

Asima Siddique, Muhammad Asif Khan and Zeeshan Khan

Among all of the world's continents, Asia is the most important continent and contributes 60% of world growth but facing the serving issue of high nonperforming loans…

Abstract

Purpose

Among all of the world's continents, Asia is the most important continent and contributes 60% of world growth but facing the serving issue of high nonperforming loans (NPLs). Therefore, the current study aims to capture the effect of credit risk management and bank-specific factors on South Asian commercial banks' financial performance (FP). The credit risk measures used in this study were NPLs and capital adequacy ratio (CAR), while cost-efficiency ratio (CER), average lending rate (ALR) and liquidity ratio (LR) were used as bank-specific factors. On the other hand, return on equity (ROE) and return on the asset (ROA) were taken as a measure of FP.

Design/methodology/approach

Secondary data were collected from 19 commercial banks (10 commercial banks from Pakistan and 9 commercial banks from India) in the country for a period of 10 years from 2009 to 2018. The generalized method of moment (GMM) is used for the coefficient estimation to overcome the effects of some endogenous variables.

Findings

The results indicated that NPLs, CER and LR have significantly negatively related to FP (ROA and ROE), while CAR and ALR have significantly positively related to the FP of the Asian commercial banks.

Practical implications

The current study result recommends that policymakers of Asian countries should create a strong financial environment by implementing that monetary policy that stimulates interest rates in this way that automatically helps to lower down the high ratio of NPLs (tied monitoring system). Liquidity position should be well maintained so that even in a high competition environment, the commercial is able to survive in that environment.

Originality/value

The present paper contributes to the prevailing literature that this is a comparison study between developed and developing countries of Asia that is a unique comparison because the study targets only one region and then on the basis of income, the results of this study are compared. Moreover, the contribution of the study is to include some accounting-based measures and market-based measures of the FP of commercial banks at a time.

Details

Asian Journal of Accounting Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2443-4175

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 14 December 2020

Aaqib Sarwar, Muhammad Asif Khan, Zahid Sarwar and Wajid Khan

This paper aims to investigate the critical aspect of financial development, human capital and their interactive term on economic growth from the perspective of emerging economies.

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1779

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the critical aspect of financial development, human capital and their interactive term on economic growth from the perspective of emerging economies.

Design/methodology/approach

Data set ranged from 2002 to 2017 of 83 emerging countries used in this research and collected from world development indicators of the World Bank. The two-step system generalized method of moments is used to conduct this research within the endogenous growth model while controlling time and country-specific effects.

Findings

The findings of the study indicate that financial development has a positive and significant effect on economic growth. In emerging countries, human capital also has a positive impact on economic growth. Financial development and human capital interactively affect economic growth for emerging economies positively and significantly.

Research limitations/implications

The data set is limited to 83 emerging countries of the world. The time period for the study is 2002 to 2017.

Originality/value

This research contributes to the existing literature on human capital, financial development and economic growth. Limited research has been conducted on the impact of financial development and human capital on economic growth.

Details

Asian Journal of Economics and Banking, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2615-9821

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Article
Publication date: 11 August 2020

Faheem Ur Rehman, Yibing Ding, Abul Ala Noman and Muhammad Asif Khan

Over the past two decades, China’s outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) has risen remarkably. Whether such an increase affects the Chinese export diversification (ED…

Abstract

Purpose

Over the past two decades, China’s outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) has risen remarkably. Whether such an increase affects the Chinese export diversification (ED) is a significant issue that has surprisingly remained unaddressed. This study aims to explain this issue that how OFDI plays a vital role in symmetric and asymmetric effects on its ED.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors introduce a robust nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag (NARDL) model. Ironically, the purpose of this study is to analyze the symmetric and asymmetric effect of OFDI on ED.

Findings

The authors propose that growing OFDI would be more advantageous to China, rather than the policies of contraction. Therefore, the study provides valuable policy insights to consider the long-run asymmetric momentum given to ED by China’s OFDI.

Originality/value

The results of this study may seem to be an important newsletter for further policy discussion on how China can catch up on the benefits of ED through OFDI.

Details

Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-4408

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 February 2021

Muhammad Faisal Malik, Muhammad Asif Khan and Saqib Mahmood

Organizations take a more oriented approach to the management of business processes since business processes are core elements of organizational performance. The purpose…

Abstract

Purpose

Organizations take a more oriented approach to the management of business processes since business processes are core elements of organizational performance. The purpose of this study is to bridge certain knowledge, theoretical, literature and contextual gaps that have not yet been addressed, in line with the organizational approach. The current study is also carried out in order to satisfy the needs of the industry for sustainable development that lead to economic prosperity in the country.

Design/methodology/approach

Positivism research philosophy was espoused followed through a deductive approach. A structured questionnaire was used in order to collect the data from the employees working in public-sector organizations with a purposive sampling technique. In total, 364 respondents’ data were analyzed by using Analysis of a Moment Structures guidelines and tested the sequential path accordingly.

Findings

The results suggested that authentic leadership through sequential mediation of relational identification and positive emotions had a significant impact on employee engagement. Overall, three hypotheses were formulated on the basis of literature, and all hypotheses were supported.

Research limitations/implications

The first significant limitation is the use of a single source of information. All variables (authentic leadership, employee engagement, gratitude, happiness and compassion and relational identification) were asked to be reported to individuals. In addition, the current study took only three positive emotions (gratitude, happiness and compassion). There are, however, a number of other emotions that can be taken to identify the relationship between authentic leadership and employee attitude.

Originality/value

The plethora of research seeks to identify mechanisms that can overcome the challenge of employee engagement in the organizational sphere. To this end, organizations are continually identifying and implementing strategies to enhance employee engagement. Recently, the adoption of a bottom-up approach identified as a potential contributor to increasing employee engagement. It has also meant that authentic leadership is the best source of support for a bottom-up approach. However, limited research has been identified in relation to authentic leadership and positive employee emotions.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2019

Muhammad Asif Khan, Rohail Ashraf and Aneela Malik

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of identity-based consumer perceptions on the brand avoidance of foreign brands across multiple markets.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of identity-based consumer perceptions on the brand avoidance of foreign brands across multiple markets.

Design/methodology/approach

Focussing on general product category brands, the study was conducted across two countries, i.e. New Zealand (Study 1) and Pakistan (Study 2), using online surveys. Study 1 explores the perceptions of university students, whereas Study 2 evaluates the perceptions of a more heterogeneous population across the country. Partial least squares–structural equation modelling was used to analyse the model.

Findings

First, the results confirm that individual-level identity-based drivers (undesired self-congruence and negative social influence) consistently predict brand avoidance for foreign brands across both markets, whereas country-level drivers (consumer ethnocentrism and animosity) have inconsistent effects across the markets. Second, the study demonstrates that avoidance attitude fully mediates the relationship between antecedences and intentions to avoid foreign brands.

Practical implications

The finding that undesired self-congruence is the strongest predictor of brand avoidance across the markets reinforces the importance of brand image congruence with the target audience. Considering the negative effect of social influence, especially on social media (i.e. Facebook and Twitter), this finding cautions managers to constantly monitor the prevailing negative word of mouth (online or offline) about the brand to mitigate its potential effect.

Originality/value

Drawing on social identity theory, this study explores the identity-based pre-purchase determinants of brand avoidance at the country level and at the individual level. These determinants have never been explored yet in the context of brand avoidance.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 September 2020

Muhammad Asif Khan, Asima Siddique, Zahid Sarwar, Le Thi Minh Huong and Qaiser Nadeem

The purpose of this study is to investigate the interaction effect of commercial loans in between trade Credit, retain earning, and entrepreneurial small and medium…

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1055

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the interaction effect of commercial loans in between trade Credit, retain earning, and entrepreneurial small and medium enterprises (SMEs) performance.

Design/methodology/approach

In this research, the cross-sectional research design was used, and data were collected from 362 SMEs located in Pakistan by using a questionnaire. Correlation and regression analysis was adopted to establish the interaction effect of commercial loans in between trade credits, retain earning and entrepreneurial SMEs performance.

Findings

The results demonstrated that commercial loans, trade credit and retain earning have a positive relationship with entrepreneurial SMEs performance. The findings also confirmed the interaction effect of commercial loans in between retain earnings, trade credit and entrepreneurial SMEs performance.

Originality/value

The study examined the association and interaction effect of commercial loans in between retain earnings, trade credit and SMEs performance in the emerging state (Pakistan). So, this is the first time to study the relationship between these variables, which highly contributes to entrepreneurial SMEs literature.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2071-1395

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 May 2020

Muhammad Asif Khan, Asima Siddique and Zahid Sarwar

The size of non-performing loans (NPLs) plays a key role in the stability of the banking sector of a country. The factors that explain the NPLs contain very important…

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11007

Abstract

Purpose

The size of non-performing loans (NPLs) plays a key role in the stability of the banking sector of a country. The factors that explain the NPLs contain very important information for banks. Studies in this regard with respect to developing states such as Pakistan have received little attention. This study aimed to scrutinize the determinants of NPLs observing a case of the banking sector in Pakistan over the period from 2005 to 2017.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample consists of the banking sector (i.e., commercial banks) listed in Pakistan Stock Exchange over the period of 2005–2017. The banking factors, including profitability, operating efficiency, capital adequacy and income diversification, were evaluated. The estimations were done by regression modeling using random and fixed effects through STATA software.

Findings

Results show that the operating efficiency and profitability indicators have a negative association with NPLs but were statistically significant, while capital adequacy and income diversification have a negative association with NPLs but were statistically insignificant.

Research limitations/implications

The present study has considered limited banking indicators as determinants of NPLs and was limited to a specific time period from 2005 to 2017.

Originality/value

The study is an attempt to investigate various banking factors that affect the NPLs with respect to developing economies such as Pakistan.

Details

Asian Journal of Accounting Research, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2443-4175

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2020

Zeeshan Ahmed Bhatti, Ghulam Ali Arain, Hina Mahboob Yasin, Muhammad Asif Khan and Muhammad Shakaib Akram

Drawing on social identity theory and prosocial behaviour research, this study explores how people's integration of their offline and online social activities through…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on social identity theory and prosocial behaviour research, this study explores how people's integration of their offline and online social activities through Facebook cultivates their Facebook citizenship behaviour (FCB). It also offers further insight into the underlying mechanism of offline and online social activity integration - FCB relation by investigating people's social identification with their offline and online social groups as possible mediators.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on social identity theory (SIT) literature, community citizenship behaviour and offline-online social activity integration through Facebook, we developed a conceptual model, which was empirically tested using data from 308 Facebook users

Findings

The results confirm that the participants' offline-online social activity integration via Facebook is positively linked to their FCB. Further, the integration of offline and online social activity through Facebook positively affects how a person identifies with their offline and online social groups, which in turn causes them to display FCB. In addition, offline/online social identification mediates the integration – FCB relation.

Practical implications

In practice, it is interesting to see people's tendency towards altruistic behaviours within groups they like to associate themselves with. Those who share their Facebook network with their offline friends can use such network to seek help and support.

Originality/value

From a theoretical perspective, unlike past research, this study examines how individuals' offline-online social activity integration via Facebook helps them associate with groups. In addition, this study investigates social identification from an offline and online perspective.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 34 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2021

Muhammad Asif Khan, Rohail Ashraf and Thamer Ahmad S. Baazeem

State funding is being reduced for higher education institutes (HEIs) is linked to several checks such as performance-based incentives (Hagood, 2019). This forces HEIs to…

Abstract

Purpose

State funding is being reduced for higher education institutes (HEIs) is linked to several checks such as performance-based incentives (Hagood, 2019). This forces HEIs to look for other options for funding. Endowment funds are now becoming the main source of revenue for HEIs (Sörlin, 2007), largely provided by alumni. Thus, this study aims to examine the factors that lead to donor behavior in terms of university endowment funds.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a sample of 627 participants in the survey from public universities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and 625 from public/private universities of the United States of America (USA), the authors conducted a cross-sectional survey-based analysis. Hypotheses were tested with regression analysis.

Findings

The results revealed that in the USA, donors with substantial prestige within the institution are more likely to contribute to the endowment fund; however, in the KSA, this relationship was insignificant. Additionally, this study found that participation, brand interpretation and satisfaction positively impact identification with an organization, leading to donor behavior.

Research limitations/implications

This research has successfully identified psychological factors for endowment funding; however, mediating or moderating variables affecting donor behavior should also be considered. Further, this study considers only two countries, the KSA and the USA; therefore, a larger cross-cultural context warrants more investigation.

Practical implications

Overall results revealed several means through which the administrators and practitioners may efficiently manage and increase university endowment funds flow. This study's novelty is to conduct a cross-national investigation and identify the psychological factors of donation behavior toward university endowment funds, providing an opportunity for HEIs to understand the psychological factors in detail and motivate their alumni to be one of the important sources of funding even in developing countries.

Originality/value

Many psychological factors underlie alumni's engagement in volunteerism and donation activities, especially in cross-national settings. Following social identity theory, this study explored identity-based donor behavior in terms of supporting universities through endowment funding.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2020

Imran Hameed, Zeeshan Ahmed Bhatti, Muhammad Asif Khan and Sumaiya Syed

This study aims to examine the moderated-mediation effects of employees’ Islamic work ethic (IWE) on their promotive and prohibitive forms of constructive voice behaviors…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the moderated-mediation effects of employees’ Islamic work ethic (IWE) on their promotive and prohibitive forms of constructive voice behaviors through the integrated frameworks of social identity theory and self-consistency theory.

Design/methodology/approach

Using two-source data collection from employees and supervisors, data were collected from 217 participants working in various companies in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. After initial data screening, a confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to test for the factorial validity of the used measures with AMOS. The hypothesized relationships were tested in the PROCESS macro for SPSS.

Findings

The results of this study supported the integration of social identity theory with self-consistency theory in explaining the indirect effects of employees’ IWE on their promotive and prohibitive forms of constructive voice behaviors through the mediation of moral identity. Furthermore, this study also indicated that the indirect effect was conditional on the employees’ perceptions of perceived voice opportunity, which significantly moderated the relationship between their moral identity and their prohibitive voice. However, no such effect was recorded for promotive voice.

Originality/value

This study is the first that explains how and when employees’ IWE leads them to exhibit promotive and prohibitive voice behaviors through the mediation of moral identity and the moderation of perceived voice opportunity. Thus, this study contributes to the IWE, moral identity and employee voice literature by addressing questions with useful theoretical and managerial implications for employees’ promotive and prohibitive forms of constructive voice behaviors in the workplace.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

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