Search results

1 – 10 of 16
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 8 July 2019

Akhtar Bibi, Muhammad Adnan Khalid and Amina Hussain

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between perceived organizational support (POS), organizational commitment and job satisfaction among special…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between perceived organizational support (POS), organizational commitment and job satisfaction among special education teachers in Pakistan. The data were collected from 85 special education teachers from different special education centers in Punjab, Pakistan. POS was measured using a survey of POS developed by Eisenberger et al. (1986). Affective continuance and normative commitment are measured by affective continuance and normative commitment scales developed by Meyer and Allen’s (1984) and Allen and Meyer (1990), respectively. Results of the current study show that POS and job satisfaction are positively correlated with affective and normative commitment. POS and job satisfaction are not associated with continuance organizational commitment. This suggests that a teacher’s commitment can be improved by increasing organizational support, underprivileged working environment and job satisfaction. Limitations and implication of the study are discussed.

Design/methodology/approach

In the current study, cross-sectional research design and non-probability purposive sampling technique were used. A sample of 85 special education teachers was collected from different special education institutes of Punjab and federal, Pakistan. Inclusion criteria were teacher with specialization in all disabilities (mentally challenged, deaf, blind, physical handicapped and slow learners), informed consent and age range 20‒55 years, at least 6-month teaching experience in special education. Exclusion criteria were teaching experience less than 6 months and age less than 20 or more than 55 years. The demographic characteristics of teachers are presented in Table II.

Findings

Findings of the present study suggest a positive association between POS, affective commitment, normative commitment and job satisfaction, whereas there is no association between POS and continuance commitment as well as between job satisfaction and continuance commitment among special education teachers in Pakistan. Organization should consider the exclusive support of the special education teachers.

Research limitations/implications

The current study also has some limitation. The sample size is very small. In the current study, data are collected from 85 special education teachers from federal and few cities of Punjab, Pakistan. Hence, data are not true representative. Data for current study are collected through self-reported scales and only collected from academic staff.

Practical implications

In the current study, special education teachers have identified factors that promote organizational support, commitment and job satisfaction, such as reasonable workloads, sound working environment, unbiased and fair working conditions, and administrative support. It has been found that decreased level of POS, commitment and job satisfaction damage the organization, special educators and special students. Therefore, special education department should develop and implement policies that strengthen these dimensions. A broad recommendation can be made on the basis of these findings: affective and normative commitment increases when individuals have satisfying experience with organization. Thus, this may be improved by providing special educators with the opportunity to work in a better work environment, with proper work load, as it would increase emotional and normative attachment of the individuals with their institutes. The current study would be helpful for policy makers in the field of education and administration in order to work on these dimensions to increase the teacher’s job satisfaction and organizational commitment. It would also create awareness among the general public about the potential problems of special education teachers in Pakistan affecting the quality of life of children with special needs. Results suggest that by providing organizational support, appropriate work load and unbiased attitude, a teacher’s commitment can be improved.

Social implications

The current research helps academics and administration to improve social functioning of special education teachers by improving their job satisfaction and organizational support.

Originality/value

The prevalence rate of children with disabilities is increasing rapidly in Pakistan. Since stigma is associated with individuals with disabilities, parents hide disabilities of their children so that other relatives may not face any problems, such as being doubted of carrying defective genes. Families have to cope with financial crises due to lack of institutional support, extra expense to deal with disabled person and loss of work. In such circumstances, special education institutions are only hopes for such people to assist them in dealing with their disabled children. However, the strength of teachers in these institutions is not enough to fulfill needs of such children. A number of researches have examined the role of organizational support, job satisfaction and organizational commitment of teachers in western countries (Makanjee et al., 2006; Alijanpou et al., 2013; Batool and Ullah, 2013). However, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, no study has yet investigated this serious issue in Pakistan. This study provides valuable information on organizational support, commitment and job satisfaction among special educators, and recommendation on how organizational commitment can be improved.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 33 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 2 April 2020

Muhammad Khalid Anser, Zahid Yousaf, Adnan Khan and Muhammad Usman

This study proposed a model based on knowledge management infrastructure capabilities (KMICs) to explore that how functional flexibility (FF) and knowledge sharing (KS…

Abstract

Purpose

This study proposed a model based on knowledge management infrastructure capabilities (KMICs) to explore that how functional flexibility (FF) and knowledge sharing (KS) plays a mediating role between KMIC and innovative work behavior (IWB) among production-line workers.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 894 workers through self-administered questionnaires from manufacturing businesses. The outcomes of the study revealed that KMIC has a significant and positive relationship with IWB. Second, FF and KS fully mediate between KMIC and IWB. Finally, the moderating role of KS between KMIC and FF was also supported by this study.

Findings

This study offers the empirical evidence on how to flourish the mechanism of FF and KS in manufacturing concerns. Additionally, some facts are also highlighted by this study that should be eloquent options for HR managers to understand the nexus of KMIC, KS and FF for enhancing the IWB among production-line workers. Moreover, this study contributed to noteworthy inferences for management by focusing on KMIC as a fundamental organizational level factor for IWB via KS and FF.

Originality/value

This is the first study in the which emphasis on KMIC for explaining IWB through employee FF and KS in settings such as manufacturing concern where the implementation of new working methods is necessary.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 16 July 2021

Muhammad AsadUllah, Muhammad Adnan Bashir and Abdur Rahman Aleemi

The purpose of this study is to examine the accuracy of combined models with the individual models in terms of forecasting Euro against US dollar during COVID-19 era…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the accuracy of combined models with the individual models in terms of forecasting Euro against US dollar during COVID-19 era. During COVID, the euro shows sharp fluctuation in upward and downward trend; therefore, this study is keen to find out the best-fitted model which forecasts more accurately during the pandemic.

Design/methodology/approach

The descriptive design has been adopted in this research. The three univariate models, i.e. autoregressive integrated moving averages (ARIMA), Naïve, exponential smoothing (ES) model, and one multivariate model, i.e. nonlinear autoregressive distributive lags (NARDL), are selected to forecast the exchange rate of Euro against the US dollar during the COVID. The above models are combined via equal weights and var-cor methods to find out the accuracy of forecasting as Poon and Granger (2003) showed that combined models can forecast better than individual models.

Findings

NARDL outperforms all remaining individual models, i.e. ARIMA, Naïve and ES. By applying a combination of different models via different techniques, the combination of NARDL and Naïve models outperforms all combination of models by scoring the least mean absolute percentage error value, i.e. 1.588. The combined forecasting of NARDL and Naïve techniques under var-cor method also outperforms the forecasting accuracy of individual models other than NARDL. It means the euro exchange rate against the US dollar which is dependent upon the macroeconomic fundamentals and recent observations of the time series.

Practical implications

The findings could help the FOREX market, hedgers, traders, businessmen, policymakers, economists, financial managers, etc., to minimize the risk indulged in global trade. It also helps to produce more accurate results in different financial models, i.e. capital asset pricing model and arbitrage pricing theory, because their findings may not be useful if exchange rate fluctuations do not trace effectively.

Originality/value

The NARDL models have been applied previously in different time series and only limited to the asymmetric or symmetric relationships. This study is using it for the forecasting exchange rate which is almost abandoned in earlier literature. Furthermore, this study combined the NARDL with univariate models to produce the accuracy which itself is a novelty. Moreover, the findings help to enhance the effectiveness of different financial theories as well.

Details

foresight, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 14 July 2006

Nafeez Mosaddeq Ahmed

Al-Qaeda is conventionally portrayed as a monolithic, hierarchical organization whose activities – coordinated by the network's leader Osama bin Laden – are the source of…

Abstract

Al-Qaeda is conventionally portrayed as a monolithic, hierarchical organization whose activities – coordinated by the network's leader Osama bin Laden – are the source of international terrorism today. Al-Qaeda is considered a radical tendency within the broader Islamist Salafi movement, legitimizing its terrorist operations as a global Islamist jihad against Western civilization. Al-Qaeda's terrorist activity today is considered, “blowback” from long finished CIA and western covert operations in Afghanistan.

The conventional wisdom is demonstrably false. After the Cold War, Western connections with al-Qaeda proliferated around the world, challenging mainstream conceptions of al-Qaeda's identity. Western covert operations and military – intelligence connections in strategic regions show that “al-Qaeda” is a network whose raison d’etre and modus operandi are inextricably embedded in a disturbing conglomerate of international Western diplomatic, financial, military and intelligence policies today. US, British, and Western power routinely manipulates al-Qaeda through a complex network of state-regional and human nodes. Such manipulation extended directly to the 9-11 hijackers, and thus to the events of 9-11 itself.11This paper advances an original argument based partially on research in Ahmed (2005), supplemented here with significant new data and analysis. Also see Ahmed (2002).

Details

The Hidden History of 9-11-2001
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-408-9

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 14 July 2006

Abstract

Details

The Hidden History of 9-11-2001
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-408-9

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 4 March 2019

Maliah Sulaiman and Muntaka Alhaji Zakari

This paper aims to measure the financial sustainability and vulnerability of state-managed waqf institutions in Malaysia.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to measure the financial sustainability and vulnerability of state-managed waqf institutions in Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

The study mainly applied the commonly used Tuckman and Chang’s (1991) model to measure the financial health of non-profits. Content and ratio analysis of the 2014 audited reports of seven institutions were used to determine their equity balance, revenue concentration, administrative costs and operating margin ratios.

Findings

The results indicate that only one waqf institution was financially sustainable in all the four components.

Research limitations/implications

Because the data used are not the latest and focussed only on a single year, the findings may not be necessarily true, currently. Second, the study focussed only on Malaysia. Thus, the results may not be generalisable to other waqfs in other countries or to privately managed waqf institutions. Accordingly, future research should address these limitations.

Practical implications

The findings provide useful insights into the financial sustainability of waqf institutions and highlight the need for policymakers in Malaysia and other Muslim countries to give due attention to the holistic accountability of waqf institutions to ensure waqf’s systematic revival.

Originality/value

The paper, being the first to investigate the financial sustainability and vulnerability of state waqf institutions in Malaysia, serves as a reference for future researchers.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 18 May 2010

Muhammad Rafiq Awan and Khalid Mahmood

The purpose of this paper is to explore leadership style, organizational culture and job commitment in university libraries of Pakistan and the relationships among them.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore leadership style, organizational culture and job commitment in university libraries of Pakistan and the relationships among them.

Design/methodology/approach

A structured questionnaire was developed and self administered to 115 professional librarians. Hypotheses were tested through t‐test, Pearson chi‐square and ANOVA.

Findings

The results show that the library professionals were not very sensitive about any relationship among these three variables at their workplace. A majority of the professionals perceived that their chief librarians had an autocratic style of leadership and libraries tend to adopt an achievement and bureaucratic culture. Most of the library professionals seemed to be highly committed with their organizations. It means that they favored result‐oriented culture.

Research limitations

The research was limited to university libraries in Pakistan's province of Punjab and federal capital Islamabad.

Originality/value

The study is useful to understand leadership style, organizational culture and job commitment in university libraries.

Details

Library Management, vol. 31 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-5124

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 26 February 2020

Adnan Muhammad Shah, Xiangbin Yan, Syed Asad Ali Shah and Mudassar Ali

The latest mobile technology may shape consumers' motivations by allowing them to order a variety of foods using smartphone apps. Following the stimulus–organism–response…

Abstract

Purpose

The latest mobile technology may shape consumers' motivations by allowing them to order a variety of foods using smartphone apps. Following the stimulus–organism–response (SOR) framework and using a mixed methods approach, this study investigates the impacts of different components of mobile dining on customers' perceived value, which leads to actual purchase intentions. Furthermore, this study examines the moderating effect of the restaurant type.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected via an online questionnaire survey from 351 individuals in the city of Jakarta (Indonesia) who actually used mobile apps to order food online. Data analysis was carried out using structural equation modeling.

Findings

The findings reveal that source credibility, review valence, the navigation system, food quality and service quality significantly impact customers' perceived value. Customers' perceived value, in turn, positively affects their purchase intentions. The findings also reveal that the impacts of review valence, the navigation system, food quality and service quality on customers' perceived value depend on the different levels of restaurants.

Originality/value

This study is among the first in the mobile commerce research that studies the impacts of mobile electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM), system quality and overall restaurant image on dining choices by considering actual mobile shoppers. Second, this study extends the SOR model to examine the impact of the mobile environment-based characteristics on the perceived value that leads to purchase intentions. Third, the current study examines whether the relationships that are discussed early on differ based on the restaurant type. The findings of this study could help practitioners achieve a deeper understanding of diners' behaviors due to the perceived benefits of mobile dining.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 28 April 2020

Florence Malongane, Lyndy Joy McGaw and Fhatuwani Nixwell Mudau

The present study was carried out to determine (1) essential minerals, total polyphenols, total flavonoids, moisture and ash of four selected South African herbal teas and…

Abstract

Purpose

The present study was carried out to determine (1) essential minerals, total polyphenols, total flavonoids, moisture and ash of four selected South African herbal teas and (2) the effect of blending bush tea with other known commercial herbal teas.

Design/methodology/approach

The method used to determine moisture and ash contents followed that of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). Nine minerals were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined by Folin–Ciocalteu assay and aluminum chloride colorimetric assay, respectively.

Findings

The results of the study demonstrated that bush tea had a high ash content of 8.01% and special tea (9.23%), while honeybush (1.96%) and rooibos tea (2.17%) exhibited a low ash percentage. The mineral content was higher in bush tea and special tea than in rooibos tea and honeybush tea except for sodium, which was higher in rooibos tea. The blending of bush tea with special tea improved its potassium content from 22,937.00 mg/kg to 23,379.20 mg/kg. Blending bush tea with rooibos tea at a ratio of 25:75 increased the flavonoid content to 12.21 µg/mL.

Research limitations/implications

The results of the nutrients composition cannot be generalized as it is influenced by other factors such as soil type and seasons.

Social implications

Increasing the commercialization of indigenous teas.

Originality/value

The results of the study suggest that bush tea and special tea are nutritionally comparable with South African commercial herbal teas. Thus, the consideration for commercialization of these teas is crucial.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 122 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 27 September 2011

Hairul Suhaimi Nahar and Hisham Yaacob

The concept of accountability has long been argued in the academic and public policy debate to have been contextually ingrained in the technical processes of accounting…

Abstract

Purpose

The concept of accountability has long been argued in the academic and public policy debate to have been contextually ingrained in the technical processes of accounting and reporting. Both processes provide lenses through which the extent of managerial accountability in the corporate context could be objectively examined. The sacred religion of Islam as a social order with a complete code of life classifies accountability as being dual; in line with the duality concept in life – in this temporal world and eternal hereafter, necessitating for accountability concept in accounting and reporting from the Islamic worldview to transcend beyond the point of worldly objectives. Parallel to this line of reasoning, the purpose of this paper is to undertake a preliminary empirical investigation with respect to accounting, reporting and accountability practices of a Malaysian cash awqaf (Islamic endowment) management institution over a six‐year period, from 2000 to 2005.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses triangulation research approach, consisting of case study method and archival documentation review and analysis.

Findings

The preliminary findings indicate that, while the root of accountability in the management, accounting and reporting practices seems to exist in the awqaf entity studied, significant improvements remain necessary to ensure accountability could be continuously enhanced and uphold.

Originality/value

Debating accountability concept in the context of management, accounting and reporting as practiced by faith‐based institution of awqaf from the Islamic perspective inevitably directs this study to highlight the notion of Islamic accounting and reporting commonly and extensively discussed in the realm of Islamic finance and banking. The study's conjecture is that, by debunking the myth of Islamic accounting and reporting as only serving the acute domain of transactions reflecting the Islamic financial products in banking environment, it helps to reshape, broaden and emphasize the all encompassing relevance of Islamic accounting and reporting to that of not‐for‐profits, religiously grounded entities such as awqaf institutions. The study further contributes to the accountability and financial reporting literature in Islamic not‐for‐profit organizations by studying the importance of sound accounting practices and reporting transparency in ensuring accountability.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

1 – 10 of 16