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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2020

Bowen Zheng, Yarou Wang, Muhammad Abdul Kamal and Assad Ullah

Culture and institutions are among the essential sources of comparative advantage in international trade and may influence a country's FDI influx. This paper aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

Culture and institutions are among the essential sources of comparative advantage in international trade and may influence a country's FDI influx. This paper aims to analyze the impact of cultural distance (CD) and institutional distance (ID) on the efficiency of China's outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) for the panel of 43 countries during 2003–2016.

Design/methodology/approach

The stochastic frontier approach (SFA) has been incorporated into the standard gravity model of gravity Kalirajan, 1999; Ravishankar and Stack, 2014). SFA has traditionally been implemented to evaluate the production frontier as the highest yield that could possibly be generated from specified input levels. The production process is viewed to be fully efficient if the real output is performed at frontier level. Otherwise, the production process is assumed technically inefficient, which implies potential scope for enhanced output. This error term is split into two parts, a non-negative term and more standard asymmetrical term. The former identifies inefficiencies in production, while the latter retrieves random disorders

Findings

The outcomes assert a U-shaped relationship between CD and the efficiency of China's OFDI. Put differently, when the CD is minimal, the “liability of foreignness” (LOF) effect plays a dominant role; and CD tends to reduce the efficiency of China's OFDI. On the flip side, when the culture distance is greater than a certain threshold level, the “advantages of foreignness” (AOF) effect plays a predominant role, and CD improves the efficiency of China's OFDI. Institutional distance results in the “LOF” effect significantly reduce the efficiency of China's OFDI.

Research limitations/implications

Notwithstanding these contributions, our study has some limitations which offer directions for future research. The major limitation of this research work is the availability of comprehensive data for a well extended time, in particular for the variable of CD. Further, a firm-level study can shed light on the motivations and performance of China OFDI. Finally, given that our analysis focuses on emerging market multinational enterprises (EMNEs) from China, the findings might not be explicitly generalizable to MNEs from other developing countries. Future studies should concentrate on the comparative study of China's OFDI with other developing countries, to deepen our understanding of the effects of ID and CD on the efficiency of OFDI.

Originality/value

(1) The work is novel in nature as the authors attempt to explore the effect of ID and CD on efficiency of Chinese FDI. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no research is conducted in this direction in terms of Chinese FDI. (2) Further, the prior studies employed standard gravity model, which may not correctly evaluate the trade potential viewed as the highest potential value. To overcome the shortcomings of the standard gravity model in estimation of the trade performance and efficiency, the SFA has been incorporated into the standard gravity model of gravity.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 August 2020

Sakina Abbad Al Jisr, Abdul Rahman Beydoun and Nehale Mostapha

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of one personal variable (locus of control) and two relationship variables (leader-member exchange and co-worker…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of one personal variable (locus of control) and two relationship variables (leader-member exchange and co-worker cooperation) on perceptions of organizational politics in Lebanese small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data was collected from 300 Lebanese employees from different SMEs located between Tripoli and Beirut.

Findings

Results of regression analysis indicated that all the three variables were significant predictors of perceptions of politics, and that perceptions of politics affected employee outcomes. More specifically, higher levels of politics are associated with higher turnover intention and lower job satisfaction.

Practical implications

Results of this study raise several implications for companies and employers. Perceptions of politics were found to have a negative impact on employee attitudinal and behavioral outcomes. Therefore, employers must examine the factors that affect employee perceptions of politics in the workplace. Since leader-member exchange and co-worker cooperation were found to predict politics, management's efforts should focalize on improving the relationships between employees and their supervisor as well as their relationships with each other. Management should develop strategies to create an atmosphere of cooperation and support in the organization.

Originality/value

There is paucity of studies on organizational politics in Arabic cultures. This study extends the organizational politics literature by investigating antecedents and outcomes of politics in Lebanon, a country that differs in its culture from US and European contexts.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 39 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 9 September 2020

Hillman Wirawan, Muhammad Jufri and Abdul Saman

This study aims to investigate the effect of authentic leadership and psychological capital (PsyCap) on work engagement via job satisfaction by employing the job…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the effect of authentic leadership and psychological capital (PsyCap) on work engagement via job satisfaction by employing the job demands-resources (JD-R) model.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants were 307 (52% male and 48% female) employees randomly recruited from a state-owned company in the eastern part of Indonesia. Most participants had completed an undergraduate degree with a mean age of 27.55 (SD = 7.89). The study employed a three-wave data collection technique to rule out any common method biases.

Findings

The results suggested that the theoretical model and empirical data showed a good fit (CMIN/DF = 2.19 and RMSEA = 0.06), indicating an indirect effect of authentic leadership and PsyCap on work engagement via job satisfaction. The effect of authentic leadership on work engagement was fully mediated by job satisfaction. In contrast, job satisfaction only partially mediated the relationship between PsyCap and work engagement.

Research limitations/implications

First, this study did not explore any further consequences of gender equality. Second, although the data have been compared with some existing studies, this study did not collect cross-cultural data from different countries. Lastly, the data were collected from a state-owned enterprise, which may limit generalisation to other organisations.

Originality/value

This study offered a new perspective by examining the implications of the JD-R model in the eastern part of Indonesia, where organisation culture is predominantly influenced by Buginese values. Furthermore, the inclusion of job satisfaction into the model added new information regarding the importance of mediating variables in explaining the indirect effect of job and personal resources.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 41 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2019

Rusni Hassan and Ilyana Ilias

Hisbah is one of the distinguished institutions that had emerged since the early days of the Islamic empire. Based on its cardinal duty to enjoin good and prohibit evil…

Abstract

Hisbah is one of the distinguished institutions that had emerged since the early days of the Islamic empire. Based on its cardinal duty to enjoin good and prohibit evil, over time, its functions gradually expanded, and its responsibilities increasingly grew. In light of the contemporary trend in establishing institutional framework for consumer protection, entrusting an agency with multifarious tasks may not be the best and effective way in handling consumer protection issues. Thus, this chapter attempts to explore the new paradigm of hisbah as a consumer protection institution in Malaysia with a special reference to the Islamic consumer credit industry. While utilising the doctrinal legal research methodology, relevant sources of law have been examined and analysed. This research finds that the classical hisbah institution provides a good reference point in establishing regulatory agency and dispute management body. Nevertheless, some modifications are required to remain relevant especially in terms of specialisation of role and function. Likewise, it is viewed that adjustment of the hisbah institution is also necessary regarding the characteristic of the muhtasib (ombudsman).

Details

Emerging Issues in Islamic Finance Law and Practice in Malaysia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-546-8

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Article
Publication date: 29 January 2020

Jarita Duasa, Suhaimi Mhd Sarif and Nur Arfifah Abdul Sabian

Four main strategies required for firms to be able to achieve their main objectives in organizations under the unified theory of the firm are technological advance…

Abstract

Purpose

Four main strategies required for firms to be able to achieve their main objectives in organizations under the unified theory of the firm are technological advance, intellectual development, spirituality conducts and customer satisfaction concern. This study aims to explore the inclination of firms to adopt all these strategies in, factors that contribute to the adoption of all these strategies and significant relationship between these strategies of firms in the context of Malaysian firms.

Design/methodology/approach

Using primary data from the survey on a sample of firms in the financial sector of Malaysia, the study adopts several methods of analysis such as t-test for dependent sample, t-test for independent sample and correlation. Furthermore, ordinary least squares regressions are estimated to determine factors that have an impact on a particular strategy.

Findings

It is found that the strategies of the unified theory of the firm significantly contributed to the education level of managers. Highly educated managers tend to adopt strategies most of the time. It is also found that scores of customer satisfaction concern are highly related to scores of intellectual development and spirituality conduct. The correlation coefficient is also high between spirituality conduct and intellectual development.

Originality/value

The study analyzes the adoption of important strategies of a unified theory of firm among several firms using first-hand data (primary data) collected from the survey.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 11 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2019

Saheed Abdullahi Busari, Akhtarzaite AbdulAziz, Luqman Zakariyah and Muhammad Amanullah

This study aims to analyse the facts of the case in the judgement made by the High Court of Justice, England, UK, in the case of Dana Gas Public Joint Stock Company (PJSC)

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyse the facts of the case in the judgement made by the High Court of Justice, England, UK, in the case of Dana Gas Public Joint Stock Company (PJSC) v. Dana Gas Sukuk Limited (Ltd.) and Ors.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses descriptive and juristic analysis to explain the factual terms in the case of Dana Gas sukuk default. It also uses juristic opinions to analyse the underpinning argument in the Dana Gas court case between the decision of Sharjah Court, UAE, and the English Court, UK.

Findings

The study concluded that despite the position of Dana Gas PJSC that specific element of the muḍārabah sukuk is non-Sharī’ah-compliant, the English court decision which established the enforceability of the purchase undertaking seems to be fair based on the Islamic maxims such as “Difficult situation cannot violate the right of other” and “The conditional matters among Muslims are binding.”

Research limitations/implications

The impact of this study is that Dana Gas sukuk default has thought stakeholders of Sukuk investment lessons on the importance of documentation and consideration of tighter clauses to ensure its bindingness in the law court. Hence, this study is expected to be a contribution towards the call for standardization of the role of Sharī’ah scholars across the globe.

Originality/value

This study illustrates the fact in the case of Dana Gas sukuk default and analyses the court’s decision from a fiqh perspective.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2019

Muhammad Ahmed, Syed Ahmad Ali, Muhammad Tahir Jan and Arif Hassan

Organizations today strive to differentiate themselves from others with the help of various tools. Aaker’s brand personality model is one of them. It comprises five…

Abstract

Purpose

Organizations today strive to differentiate themselves from others with the help of various tools. Aaker’s brand personality model is one of them. It comprises five components namely, sincerity, excitement, sophistication, competence and ruggedness. This model has been tested and supported by various scholars in the past. Similarly, it also attracted a lot of criticism especially in terms of generalizability across countries and cultures. The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to study Aaker’s model from an Islamic perspective; second, considering the dearth of brand personality knowledge in the services sector, to develop Islamic Banks’ Brand Personality (IBBP) model.

Design/methodology/approach

To propose IBBP model, traits in Aaker’s model have been investigated in the light of selected Quranic verses and sayings of Prophet Muhammad (ahadith). Later on, content validation was conducted as a pilot study with experts from the relevant fields.

Findings

Findings exhibit that Quran and hadith clearly elaborate and support majority dimensions of the existing model. Importantly, three new dimensions, namely, trustworthiness, justice and Shariah compliance, were added to develop a comprehensive IBBP model. Once the dimensions of IBBP model were finalized, the underlying items were content validated from 12 experts. Most of the items were approved; some were recommended for amendments and a few items were eliminated.

Practical implications

This research contributes to the branding as well as bank marketing literature as it is the first Islamic banks’ brand personality framework. With the help of IBBP model, Islamic banks can create a better brand image, use advertising strategies effectively and ultimately retain existing and attract more potential customers.

Social implications

This research elaborates the personality traits of Muslim consumer market. Following IBBP model, financial needs of Muslim consumer market can be catered effectively.

Originality/value

The IBBP model being first of its kind is significant for Islamic banking industry as it reflects dimensions that are supported by the Quran and hadith, and therefore suits Muslim customer market.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Mohd Hafiz Zulfakar, Caroline Chan and Ferry Jie

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of institutional forces in shaping the operations of halal meat supply chain in Australia, one of the world’s largest…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of institutional forces in shaping the operations of halal meat supply chain in Australia, one of the world’s largest producers and exporters of halal meat. This research examines how the halal meat production requirements are fulfilled and maintained throughout the supply chain in a non-Muslim-majority country.

Design/methodology/approach

The research uses a single-case study approach and uses semi-structured interviews as the primary method of data collection. It considers the perspectives of various stakeholder groups in the Australian halal meat supply chain (AHMSC). In all, 31 participants have participated in this research.

Findings

The findings show that institutional forces, especially which come through coercive forces, do affect and shape the overall operations of the AHMSC in particularly the way the stakeholders act within the supply chain, particularly in their role in ensuring the protection of halal status or halal integrity of the meat.

Practical implications

This paper suggests that the integrity of halal meat supply chain management operations in a non-Muslim-majority environment can be protected with heavy involvement from the relevant authorities, i.e. the federal government agency and the halal certifiers. With the implementation of specific halal meat production policy, i.e. Australian Government Authorised Halal Program, all parties dealing with the halal meat production for export purpose are obliged to fulfil the religious and food safety requirements, thus providing the necessary assurance for halal meat consumers, especially from the Muslim communities.

Originality/value

This paper is one of the first to provide insights of halal meat supply chain operations in a non-Muslim-majority environment. This paper also took in account various stakeholder groups that were involved directly with halal meat supply chain operations in Australia rather than focusing on a single stakeholder group which gives a better understanding of the whole supply chain operations.

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Article
Publication date: 5 August 2014

Farhana Mohamad Suhaimi, Asmak Ab Rahman and Sabitha Marican

This study aimed to analyse the role of the Waqf Fund Scheme, by taking Penang (or Pulau Pinang) as one of the states in Malaysia as a sample of the study. Waqf Fund…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aimed to analyse the role of the Waqf Fund Scheme, by taking Penang (or Pulau Pinang) as one of the states in Malaysia as a sample of the study. Waqf Fund Scheme was established by the Islamic Religious Council of Penang, Majlis Agama Islam Negeri Pulau Pinang (MAINPP), in an effort to develop the economy of the Muslim community in the state.

Design/methodology/approach

This study analysed the contribution that this endowment fund makes towards a comprehensive scheme of economic development, namely, in terms of the economic, spiritual and social welfare of the Muslim community in Penang. The primary source of data was obtained through interviews conducted by the researcher with the Manager of the Waqf Fund Scheme, the Head of Administration and Finance Section and the Account Executive of MAINPP. The researcher also interviewed respondents from four institutions that were beneficiaries of the Waqf Fund Scheme.

Findings

The findings of this research show that the endowment fund scheme plays an important role in the economic development of the Muslim community in Penang. The Waqf Fund Scheme contributes by way of providing a financing facility towards the acquisition of waqf assets or through cash support channelled to associations or committees of a masjid.

Research limitations/implications

This study only focuses on Waqf Fund Scheme which was established by MAINPP.

Practical implications

This study is expected to contribute to the improvement of the Waqf Fund Scheme management.

Originality/value

The paper is the first attempt to address the Waqf Fund Scheme contributions by MAINPP, particularly in Penang.

Details

Humanomics, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2016

Asmadi Mohamed Naim, Mohd Noor Habibi Hj Long, Mahyuddin Abu Bakar and Muhammad Nasri Md Hussain

The purpose of this paper is to examine the Shariah view on the legitimacy of requiring the entrepreneur to prove that he/she has complied with all business requirements…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the Shariah view on the legitimacy of requiring the entrepreneur to prove that he/she has complied with all business requirements in case the actual profit was below the expected profit in trust-based contracts such as mudarabah and musharakah.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is part of the research which applies qualitative research approaches, including among others, content analysis, interviews, observations and descriptive analysis using fiqh muqaran (comparative analysis of jurists’ arguments) in few phases.

Findings

The study found that shifting the burden of proof to the fiduciary is the weightier view and necessary to ensure that both sides are protected. The considerations of protecting people’s wealth (ḥifẓ amwāl al-nās) and mitigating widespread greed (ṭamaʿ) are among the reasons for allowing elements such as ʿurf, tuhmah and dalālat al-ḥāl to be treated as bayyinah in trust-based contracts when the fiduciary is obliged to defend himself from litigation.

Research limitations/implications

The study is meant to strengthen the practices of Islamic banks world wide.

Practical implications

Few protections can be applied for capital provider.

Social implications

This study is meant to give solution in dealing with moral hazard of both parties, and to provide solution to the regulator for policy drafting and to increase confidence to the industry.

Originality/value

The finding is important in assisting the regulators in drafting the policy to protect both parties without neglecting the essence of trust-based contracts.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

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