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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2018

Yongzhuo Gao, Zhijiang Du, Xueshan Gao, Yanyu Su, Yu Mu, Li Ning Sun and Wei Dong

This paper aims to present an open-architecture kinematic controller, which was developed for articulated robots, facing the demands of various applications and low cost…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present an open-architecture kinematic controller, which was developed for articulated robots, facing the demands of various applications and low cost on robot system.

Design/methodology/approach

A general approach to develop this controller is described in hardware and software design. The hardware consists of embedded boards and programable multi-axes controller (PMAC), connected with ethernet, and the software is implemented on a robot operating system with MoveIt!. The authors also developed a teach pendant running as a LAN node to provide a human–machine interface (HMI).

Findings

The proposed approach was applied to several real articulated robot systems and was proved to be effective and portable. The proposed controller was compared with several similar systems to verify its integrality and flexibility. The openness of this controller was discussed and is summarized at the end of this paper.

Practical implications

The proposed approach provided an open and low-complex solution for experimental studies in the lab and short-run production in small workshops.

Originality/value

Several contributions are made by the research. The actuation model and communication were implemented to integrate the trajectory planning module and PMAC for setting up the physical interface. Method and program interface based on kinematics was provided to generate various interpolations for trajectory planning. A teach pedant with HMI was developed for controlling and programing the robot.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 45 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 June 2017

Weidong Wang, Wenrui Gao, DongMei Wu and Zhijiang Du

The paper aims to present a tracked robot comprised of several biochemical sampling instruments and a universal control architecture. In addition, a dynamic motion…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to present a tracked robot comprised of several biochemical sampling instruments and a universal control architecture. In addition, a dynamic motion planning strategy and autonomous modules in sampling tasks are designed and illustrated at length.

Design/methodology/approach

Several sampling instruments with position tolerance and sealing property are specifically developed, and a robotic operation system (ROS)-based universal control architecture is established. Then, based on the system, two typical problems in sampling tasks, i.e. arm motion planning in unknown environment and autonomous modules, are discussed, implemented and tested. Inspired by the idea of Gaussian process classification (GPC) and Gaussian process (GP) information entropy, three-dimensional (3D) geometric modeling and arm obstacle avoidance strategy are implemented and proven successfully. Moreover, autonomous modules during sampling process are discussed and realized.

Findings

Smooth implementations of the two experiments justify the validity and extensibility of the robot control scheme. Furthermore, the former experiment proves the efficiency of arm obstacle avoidance strategy, while the later one demonstrates the time reduction and accuracy improvement in sampling tasks as the autonomous actions.

Practical implications

The proposed control architecture can be applied to more mobile and industrial robots for its feasible and extensible scheme, and the utility function in arm path planning strategy can also be utilized for other information-driven exploration tasks.

Originality/value

Several specific biochemical sampling instruments are presented in detail, while ROS and Moveit! are integrated into the system scheme, making the robot extensible, achievable and real-time. Based on the control scheme, an information-driven path planning algorithm and automation in sampling tasks are conceived and implemented.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 44 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 August 2016

Frederick Proctor, Stephen Balakirsky, Zeid Kootbally, Thomas Kramer, Craig Schlenoff and William Shackleford

This paper aims to describe an information model, the Canonical Robot Command Language (CRCL), which provides a high-level description of robot tasks and associated…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe an information model, the Canonical Robot Command Language (CRCL), which provides a high-level description of robot tasks and associated control and status information.

Design/methodology/approach

A common representation of tasks was used that is understood by all of the resources required for the job: robots, tooling, sensors and people.

Findings

Using CRCL, a manufacturer can quickly develop robotic applications that meet customer demands for short turnaround, enable portability across a range of vendor equipment and maintain investments in application development through reuse.

Originality/value

Industrial robots can perform motion with sub-millimeter repeatability when programmed using the teach-and-playback method. While effective, this method requires significant up-front time, tying up the robot and a person during the teaching phase.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 43 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 25 March 2021

Bartłomiej Kulecki, Kamil Młodzikowski, Rafał Staszak and Dominik Belter

The purpose of this paper is to propose and evaluate the method for grasping a defined set of objects in an unstructured environment. To this end, the authors propose the…

1134

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose and evaluate the method for grasping a defined set of objects in an unstructured environment. To this end, the authors propose the method of integrating convolutional neural network (CNN)-based object detection and the category-free grasping method. The considered scenario is related to mobile manipulating platforms that move freely between workstations and manipulate defined objects. In this application, the robot is not positioned with respect to the table and manipulated objects. The robot detects objects in the environment and uses grasping methods to determine the reference pose of the gripper.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors implemented the whole pipeline which includes object detection, grasp planning and motion execution on the real robot. The selected grasping method uses raw depth images to find the configuration of the gripper. The authors compared the proposed approach with a representative grasping method that uses a 3D point cloud as an input to determine the grasp for the robotic arm equipped with a two-fingered gripper. To measure and compare the efficiency of these methods, the authors measured the success rate in various scenarios. Additionally, they evaluated the accuracy of object detection and pose estimation modules.

Findings

The performed experiments revealed that the CNN-based object detection and the category-free grasping methods can be integrated to obtain the system which allows grasping defined objects in the unstructured environment. The authors also identified the specific limitations of neural-based and point cloud-based methods. They show how the determined properties influence the performance of the whole system.

Research limitations/implications

The authors identified the limitations of the proposed methods and the improvements are envisioned as part of future research.

Practical implications

The evaluation of the grasping and object detection methods on the mobile manipulating robot may be useful for all researchers working on the autonomy of similar platforms in various applications.

Social implications

The proposed method increases the autonomy of robots in applications in the small industry which is related to repetitive tasks in a noisy and potentially risky environment. This allows reducing the human workload in these types of environments.

Originality/value

The main contribution of this research is the integration of the state-of-the-art methods for grasping objects with object detection methods and evaluation of the whole system on the industrial robot. Moreover, the properties of each subsystem are identified and measured.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. 48 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 November 2019

Pedro Tavares, Daniel Marques, Pedro Malaca, Germano Veiga, Pedro Costa and António P. Moreira

In the vast majority of the individual robot installations, the robot arm is just one piece of a complex puzzle of components, such as grippers, jigs or external axis…

Abstract

Purpose

In the vast majority of the individual robot installations, the robot arm is just one piece of a complex puzzle of components, such as grippers, jigs or external axis, that together compose an industrial robotic cell. The success of such installations is very dependent not only on the selection of such components but also on the layout and design of the final robotic cell, which are the main tasks of the system integrators. Consequently, successful robot installations are often empirical tasks owing to the high number of experimental combinations that could lead to exhaustive and time-consuming testing approaches.

Design/methodology/approach

A newly developed optimized technique to deal with automatic planning and design of robotic systems is proposed and tested in this paper.

Findings

The application of a genetic-based algorithm achieved optimal results in short time frames and improved the design of robotic work cells. Here, the authors show that a multi-layer optimization approach, which can be validated using a robotic tool, is able to help with the design of robotic systems.

Practical implications

The usage of the proposed approach can be valuable to industrial corporations, as it allows for improved workflows, maximization of available robotic operations and improvement of efficiency.

Originality/value

To date, robotic solutions lack flexibility to cope with the demanding industrial environments. The results presented here formalize a new flexible and modular approach, which can provide optimal solutions throughout the different stages of design and execution control of any work cell.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. 47 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Abstract

Details

The Global Private Health & Fitness Business: A Marketing Perspective
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-851-4

Article
Publication date: 19 October 2020

Nailong Liu, Xiaodong Zhou, Zhaoming Liu, Hongwei Wang and Long Cui

This paper aims to enable the robot to obtain human-like compliant manipulation skills for the peg-in-hole (PiH) assembly task by learning from demonstration.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to enable the robot to obtain human-like compliant manipulation skills for the peg-in-hole (PiH) assembly task by learning from demonstration.

Design/methodology/approach

A modified dynamic movement primitives (DMPs) model with a novel hybrid force/position feedback in Cartesian space for the robotic PiH problem is proposed by learning from demonstration. To ensure a compliant interaction during the PiH insertion process, a Cartesian impedance control approach is used to track the trajectory generated by the modified DMPs.

Findings

The modified DMPs allow the robot to imitate the trajectory of demonstration efficiently and to generate a smoother trajectory. By taking advantage of force feedback, the robot shows compliant behavior and could adjust its pose actively to avoid a jam. This feedback mechanism significantly improves the dynamic performance of the interactive process. Both the simulation and the PiH experimental results show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model.

Originality/value

The trajectory and the compliant manipulation skill of the human operator can be learned simultaneously by the new model. This method adopted a modified DMPs model in Cartesian space to generate a trajectory with a lower speed at the beginning of the motion, which can reduce the magnitude of the contact force.

Article
Publication date: 29 October 2021

Xiaojun Zhu, Yinghao Liang, Hanxu Sun, Xueqian Wang and Bin Ren

Most manufacturing plants choose the easy way of completely separating human operators from robots to prevent accidents, but as a result, it dramatically affects the…

Abstract

Purpose

Most manufacturing plants choose the easy way of completely separating human operators from robots to prevent accidents, but as a result, it dramatically affects the overall quality and speed that is expected from human–robot collaboration. It is not an easy task to ensure human safety when he/she has entered a robot’s workspace, and the unstructured nature of those working environments makes it even harder. The purpose of this paper is to propose a real-time robot collision avoidance method to alleviate this problem.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, a model is trained to learn the direct control commands from the raw depth images through self-supervised reinforcement learning algorithm. To reduce the effect of sample inefficiency and safety during initial training, a virtual reality platform is used to simulate a natural working environment and generate obstacle avoidance data for training. To ensure a smooth transfer to a real robot, the automatic domain randomization technique is used to generate randomly distributed environmental parameters through the obstacle avoidance simulation of virtual robots in the virtual environment, contributing to better performance in the natural environment.

Findings

The method has been tested in both simulations with a real UR3 robot for several practical applications. The results of this paper indicate that the proposed approach can effectively make the robot safety-aware and learn how to divert its trajectory to avoid accidents with humans within the workspace.

Research limitations/implications

The method has been tested in both simulations with a real UR3 robot in several practical applications. The results indicate that the proposed approach can effectively make the robot be aware of safety and learn how to change its trajectory to avoid accidents with persons within the workspace.

Originality/value

This paper provides a novel collision avoidance framework that allows robots to work alongside human operators in unstructured and complex environments. The method uses end-to-end policy training to directly extract the optimal path from the visual inputs for the scene.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. 49 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 October 2016

Pedro Tavares, José Lima, Pedro Costa and A. Paulo Moreira

Streamlining automated processes is currently undertaken by developing optimization methods and algorithms for robotic manipulators. This paper aims to present a new…

Abstract

Purpose

Streamlining automated processes is currently undertaken by developing optimization methods and algorithms for robotic manipulators. This paper aims to present a new approach to improve streamlining of automatic processes. This new approach allows for multiple robotic manipulators commonly found in the industrial environment to handle different scenarios, thus providing a high-flexibility solution to automated processes.

Design/methodology/approach

The developed system is based on a spatial discretization methodology capable of describing the surrounding environment of the robot, followed by a novel path-planning algorithm. Gazebo was the simulation engine chosen, and the robotic manipulator used was the Universal Robot 5 (UR5). The proposed system was tested using the premises of two robotic challenges: EuRoC and Amazon Picking Challenge.

Findings

The developed system was able to identify and describe the influence of each joint in the Cartesian space, and it was possible to control multiple robotic manipulators safely regardless of any obstacles in a given scene.

Practical implications

This new system was tested in both real and simulated environments, and data collected showed that this new system performed well in real-life scenarios, such as EuRoC and Amazon Picking Challenge.

Originality/value

The new proposed approach can be valuable in the robotics field with applications in various industrial scenarios, as it provides a flexible solution for multiple robotic manipulator path and motion planning.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 43 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 October 2018

Istvan Jankovics and Utku Kale

The main purpose of this study is to introduce the pilots’ load model and developed concept of load measuring system for operator load management.

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this study is to introduce the pilots’ load model and developed concept of load measuring system for operator load management.

Design/methodology/approach

In future aeronautical system, the role of operators (pilots and air traffic controllers [ATCOs]) will be in transition from active controlling to passive monitoring. Therefore, the operators’ load (task, information, work and mental) model was developed. There were developed measuring systems integrating into the pilot and ATCOs working environment eye tracking system outside measuring equipment. Operator load management was created by using the measurement.

Findings

In future system depending on time and automation level, the role of information and mental load will be increased. In flight simulator practice, developed load management method serves as a good tool for improving the quality of pilot training. According to the test results, the load monitoring and management system increase the safety of operators’ action in an emergency situation.

Research limitations/implications

The developed method were tested in two flight simulators (one developed for scientific investigation and other one applied for pilot training) and ATM management laboratory.

Practical implications

By deployment of the develop load monitoring and management system, the safety of aircraft flights and air transport management will be increased, especially in an emergency situation.

Social implications

People and society’s acceptance of future highly automated system will be increased.

Originality value

The analysis focuses on the following: developing operator’s load model as improved situation awareness model of Endsley, developing monitoring system integrated into operator’s working environment, creating load management system.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 91 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

1 – 10 of 11