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Article
Publication date: 22 February 2022

Khaled Amri, Fatma Wyème Ben Mrad Douagi and Mouna Guedrib

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of internal and external corporate governance mechanisms on the probability of engaging in tax aggressiveness.

1225

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of internal and external corporate governance mechanisms on the probability of engaging in tax aggressiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a sample of 52 firms listed on the Tunis stock exchange observed over the 2003–2016 period (The authors had to stop sampling in 2016 because the measurement of tax aggressiveness requires 4 years after the year of study. Therefore, the data on the measurement of tax aggressiveness were collected until 2020). This paper uses the logistic regression technique.

Findings

The results of the first logistic regression show that ownership structure and the supervision role of the tax authorities are determining factors that explain tax aggressiveness; while, the attributes of the board of directors does not seem to explain the probability of engaging in aggressive tax strategies. To further probe this question, the authors carried out additional analyses that examine the moderating effect of controlling shareholders on the relationship between the attributes of the board and tax aggressiveness. The results of our additional regressions indicate that the effect of these attributes improves in cases of non-presence of a controlling shareholder. This implies that the role that the board of directors can play in controlling management is possibly conditioned by the presence or no of control block holders.

Research limitations/implications

The major limitation of this study is that it concentrates only on Tunisian listed companies because they are the only companies the financial statements of which are publicly available in Tunisia. Although the sample is relatively small due to the problem of data availability, it appears to be satisfactory given the 15-year sampling period (i.e. from 2003 to 2016).

Practical implications

The results of the study may help Tunisian regulators create requirements for corporate governance (such as the size of the board of directors and audit committee or the concentration of ownership). Moreover, this study not only focuses on the effect of corporate governance mechanisms on tax aggressiveness but also provides shareholders with information on the governance mechanisms to which they should pay more attention in their desire to obtain more efficient tax results.

Social implications

The findings are also useful for tax policymakers seeking to identify the circumstances that give rise to an increased risk of tax aggressiveness, as tax aggressive behavior and the resulting non-payment of taxes also have societal implications. In fact, taxes also play an important role in financing the provision of public goods, making corporation tax a matter of public concern.

Originality/value

The present study differs from others in the existing literature by designing a more precise measure of tax aggressiveness and examining the interaction between two internal governance mechanisms; the presence of a controlling shareholder and the attributes of the board of directors. This study also examines the impact of the control exercised by the tax authorities on the behavior of firms in terms of tax aggressiveness.

Details

Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-1168

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 February 2024

Mouna Guedrib and Fatma Bougacha

This paper aims to study the impact of tax avoidance on corporate risk. It also examines the moderating impact of tax risk on the relationship between tax avoidance and firm risk.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the impact of tax avoidance on corporate risk. It also examines the moderating impact of tax risk on the relationship between tax avoidance and firm risk.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on available information in the DATASTREAM database about a sample of French firms listed in the CAC 40 from 2010 to 2022, the study uses the feasible generalized least squares method to investigate the impact of tax avoidance on firm risk and the moderating impact of tax risk. To check the robustness of our results, the authors changed the measurement of variables to identify potential biases and they significantly mitigated the endogeneity concerns using instrumental variable regression. Additional estimations were performed, first by using book-tax differences (BTD) and its components, i.e. temporary and permanent, and second by retesting hypotheses of years before the outbreak of the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.

Findings

The results show that tax avoidance negatively affects the firm risk while tax risk has a positive effect on firm risk. More importantly, tax risk moderates the negative impact of tax avoidance on the firm risk. When tax avoidance is associated with a high level of tax risk, it leads to a high firm risk. Accordingly, tax avoidance should be considered in conjunction with tax risk when studying the effect put on the firm risk. Further analyses indicate that tax risk moderates the negative relationship between permanent BTD and firm risk.

Research limitations/implications

The major limitation of this study is that it focuses only on French-listed firms, which make it difficult to generalize the results. Furthermore, the authors did not introduce governance variables into our models. An effective governance system and transparent information can reduce some of the perverse effects of risky tax avoidance by reducing the tax avoidance costs. The obtained results are of great interest to researchers who need to include the tax risk concept in their examination of the tax avoidance impacts.

Practical implications

The results are useful for investors wishing to make sound decisions regarding risky tax avoidance practices. Furthermore, the results may signal the need for French policymakers to make more efforts to reduce risky tax avoidance activities that are harmful to investors. They must enforce the existence and the reporting of a tax risk management strategy by firms.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the growing body of literature on the tax avoidance effects with a special focus on firm risk. This study provides the first French evidence of the role of tax risk in the relationship between tax avoidance and firm risk.

Details

International Journal of Law and Management, vol. 66 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 January 2023

Mouna Guedrib and Ghazi Marouani

The purpose of this study is to examine the interactive impact of tax avoidance and tax risk on the firm value.

1431

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the interactive impact of tax avoidance and tax risk on the firm value.

Design/methodology/approach

This study covers 290 observations on non-financial corporations listed on the Tunisian Stock Exchange for the period ranging from 2008 to 2020, using the multiple linear regression technique.

Findings

The results show that tax avoidance positively affects the firm value while tax risk has a negative influence on the company value. More importantly, tax risk moderates the positive impact of tax avoidance on the firm value. Accordingly, tax avoidance must be considered in conjunction with tax risk when studying the effect on the firm value. The findings of additional analyses indicate that when tax avoidance is associated with a high level of tax risk, it negatively affects the firm value. Thus, investors negatively rate the high-risk tax avoidance.

Research limitations/implications

The major limitation of this study is that it focuses only on Tunisian listed companies since their financial statements are publicly available. Although the sample is relatively small due to the problem of data availability, it is satisfactory owing to the twelve-year sampling period (from 2008 to 2020). Research implications- The results obtained are of great interest to researchers as they should be more careful in simply using effective tax rates as a measure of risky or aggressive tax avoidance.

Practical implications

The findings may signal the need for Tunisian firm managers to consider spillovers when adopting risky tax avoidance strategies and to implement a tax risk management policy within the firm. They are also substantial for Tunisian regulators to create requirements for reporting risky tax avoidance practices in the company annual reports to protect the investors’ rights and the society interest in general. The results are also useful for the investors who would like to make good decisions with respect to tax planning strategies. It is not enough to rely on the Effective Tax Rate (ETR) to judge whether or not tax planning is risky. Volatile ETRs, as a proxy of the tax risk, can be useful for them in decision-making.

Social implications

The results also highlight that risky tax avoidance decreases the firm value, and thus confirm the negative repercussions that such behavior can have not only on the firm, but also on the society in general, as the corporate tax contributes to covering the State public expenditure. Hence, it is considered a general concern.

Originality/value

The present study differs from others in the existing literature. In fact, it examines the joint effect of tax avoidance and tax risk on the firm value for Tunisian listed companies which are characterized by the predominance of agency conflicts between major shareholders and minor ones. Therefore, the authors seek to investigate if small shareholders can penalize risky tax avoidance practices by decreasing the firm value.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

Keywords

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