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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2022

Nahed Abdelrahman, Beverly J. Irby, Rafael Lara-Alecio, Fuhui Tong and Hamada Elfarargy

The purpose of this study was to explore intrinsic and extrinsic motivations that led 28 teachers of emergent bilingual (EB) students to seek a master's in educational…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to explore intrinsic and extrinsic motivations that led 28 teachers of emergent bilingual (EB) students to seek a master's in educational administration with a focus on bilingual/English as a second language (ESL).

Design/methodology/approach

To address the study objectives, the authors used a qualitative phenomenological design. The authors conducted online interviews with 28 teachers of EBs. The authors used the self-determination theory as the theoretical framework.

Findings

Primarily, teachers of EBs were intrinsically motivated to seek the principalship. The authors identified additional motivators that were not found in the previous literature which heretofore was based on general education teachers' responses. Those motivators were, gain advice from mentors, promote cultural awareness, commit to a campus-wide impact, increase awareness of the importance of bilingual/ESL education programs, and foster a relationship with the school community.

Practical implications

Identifying the intrinsic and extrinsic motivators for teachers of EBs who desire to move into a principal position may aid faculty in university principal preparation programs and administrators in school districts to support and mentor these teachers to better serve as leaders in high need schools.

Originality/value

There is little known about intrinsic and extrinsic motivations of teachers of EBs which influence their decisions to change their career paths to become principals.

Article
Publication date: 26 July 2022

Aimee Riedel, Amanda Beatson, Rory Mulcahy and Byron Keating

The purpose of this study is to examine the underresearched transformative service research (TSR) and social marketing segment of young adults who use drugs and identify…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the underresearched transformative service research (TSR) and social marketing segment of young adults who use drugs and identify motivators that have been studied in previous literature, using a service ecosystem lens and provide direction for future research into this area. This research provides the evidence-based knowledge for transformative service and social marketing practitioners to design transformative services that target these motivators.

Design/methodology/approach

This systematic review, guided by the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis framework, examines and analyses 207 articles published between 2015 and 2020.

Findings

This study identified that young adults are motivated to take drugs to enhance one’s experience, to cope, for social reasons, because of individual characteristics and for other reasons. Research has largely focused on microsystem and mesosystem motivators with data collected mainly using a microsystem approach.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the TSR and social marketing literature by providing a holistic investigation into all motivators relevant to young adult drug use. An ecosystem classification and theoretical framework of the motivators is curated to help guide future TSR and social marketing research and interventions.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 December 2021

Ricardo Figueiredo Belchior and Roisin Lyons

Entrepreneurial motivations are considered key determinants of the direction, intensity and duration of entrepreneurial processes and outcomes. To measure attitudes and…

Abstract

Purpose

Entrepreneurial motivations are considered key determinants of the direction, intensity and duration of entrepreneurial processes and outcomes. To measure attitudes and outcome expectations related to an entrepreneurial career, researchers often use a set of predetermined behavioral beliefs or motivators. However, motivators can be numerous, context-specific and there is a lack of evidence regarding their stability over time. This study addresses this gap, while also providing a rich description of how Portuguese college students perceive entrepreneurship and how these perceptions relate to levels of entrepreneurial intentions (EI).

Design/methodology/approach

Using qualitative and quantitative methods to analyze data over a 5-year period, this study seeks to confirm existing evidence on entrepreneurship motivators' diversity and heterogeneity and to explore differences in motivators' temporal stability. Using an initial sample of 851 Portuguese college students and 3 different survey waves, this study first aggregates the most frequently cited motivators for EI to compile a series of meaningful motivational factors. Subsequently, it extensively analyzes the robustness of these factors by examining their validity against EI and stability over time.

Findings

Based on their superior association with EI and greater temporal stability, the findings suggest that entrepreneurship-intrinsic motivational factors are more relevant for college students' EI models. Prominently, being motivated to create one's own new business due to a particular occupational interest is the most consistently stable individual motivation.

Practical implications

The results may interest those studying entrepreneurial motivations and EI longitudinally and who invest in promoting entrepreneurial behavior of college students.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to analyze entrepreneurship motivators/reasons' temporal stability, which is relevant for assessing their value for longitudinal entrepreneurship research and education. It is also the most complete assessment of Portuguese college students' perceptions of entrepreneurship.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 December 2021

Ernan Haruvy and Peter Popkowski Leszczyc

The purpose of this study is to determine how self-driven (intrinsic motivators) and monetary incentives (extrinsic motivators) are mediated by an effort to affect…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to determine how self-driven (intrinsic motivators) and monetary incentives (extrinsic motivators) are mediated by an effort to affect fundraising outcomes. This integration sheds light on crowding out between the two types of incentives as well the drivers of fundraising outcomes, specifically effort and donations.

Design/methodology/approach

A field experiment is conducted over a two-month period, involving an online fundraising campaign with over 300 volunteers assigned to one of five different incentive conditions. A special website was created to monitor fundraiser efforts. Fundraisers filled out pre- and post-study surveys.

Findings

While high monetary incentives result in the greatest immediate increase in funds raised, they crowd out future intentions to volunteer once incentives are withdrawn. Mediation analyzes show that fundraiser effort fully mediates the effect of intrinsic motivators and partially mediates the direct effect of extrinsic motivators on funds raised.

Research limitations/implications

A major limitation of field experiments is the lack of control, resulting in higher variation. However, while a more controlled experiment will reduce this variation, this goes at the expense of lower external validity.

Practical implications

Results indicate that – at least in the short run – monetary incentives can result in higher fundraising outcomes. However, this goes at the expense of a reduction in future volunteering once the incentives are withdrawn.

Originality/value

This study examines whether extrinsic or intrinsic motivators have a greater impact on funds raised and whether extrinsic motivators crowd out future intentions to volunteer. Different from previous research in which effort is a latent variable, the effort is directly observed over time.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 56 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2011

Galen. T. Trail and Yu Kyoum Kim

Although the understanding of both positive and negative factors influencing sports consumption is essential, previous research has mainly focused on motivators. The…

Abstract

Although the understanding of both positive and negative factors influencing sports consumption is essential, previous research has mainly focused on motivators. The purpose of this study was to examine three different models of constraints and motivators that influence attendance: a correlated model, a hierarchical model and a moderated model. Twenty factors were identified and classified into four main categories. The results indicated that 16 out of 20 motivators and constraints had a significant relationship with attendance in the theoretically expected direction.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 July 2017

Vassilios Stouraitis, Pattana Boonchoo, Mior Harris Mior Harun and Markos Kyritsis

Success in export ventures has been linked to managerial capabilities. The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of exporting motivators on managerial…

Abstract

Purpose

Success in export ventures has been linked to managerial capabilities. The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of exporting motivators on managerial perceptions of UK manufacturing small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) by investigating the links between export motivators and decision bias (i.e. predictable behavior).

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the Uppsala and resource-based view perspectives (using a sample of the UK’s independent manufacturing SMEs and utilizing a survey, correlation analysis, and factor analysis), this study finds and describes the effect of the most recurrent motivators and clusters of motivators from the literature on the SMEs’ decision to export by investigating the dimensions (research, external, reactive).

Findings

This study finds that export motivators can be separated into specific dimensions leading to potential selection bias. In addition, the importance of size, knowledge of foreign markets, and unsolicited orders show an association with the perceptions of motivator stimuli toward specific dimensions (research, external, reactive).

Practical implications

Government policy and SME export strategy need to understand managerial perceptions and bias better in order to allocate resources efficiently toward stimulating exporting.

Originality/value

The literature and empirical work on the topic have been fragmented and conflicting focusing on specific motivators but not necessarily explaining the selection or origin of motivators even less on SMEs. Dimensions have not been taken into account as clusters of motivators.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 September 2019

Jen-Shou Yang

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the moderating effects of power distance and collectivistic orientations on the effectiveness of intrinsic, extrinsic and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the moderating effects of power distance and collectivistic orientations on the effectiveness of intrinsic, extrinsic and reciprocal motivators in promoting employees’ willingness to cooperate for organizational interest. An integrated theoretical framework which incorporated cultural influence on need priority and on legitimacy of social exchange was established to develop the hypotheses.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used the methodology of information-integration theory to test the research hypotheses.

Findings

This study found that power distance orientation enhanced the effectiveness of extrinsic motivator but mitigated that of intrinsic motivator, and was irrelevant to that of reciprocal motivator. In contrast, collectivistic orientation mitigated the effectiveness of extrinsic motivator but enhanced that of reciprocal motivator, and was irrelevant to that of intrinsic motivator.

Practical implications

Managers may use reciprocal motivators for employees with high collectivism in order to increase their willingness to cooperate for the interest of the organization. Meanwhile, extrinsic motivators may be utilized for employees with high power distance but may not be as effective for those with low power distance. However, managers should not expect intrinsic motivators to be as attractive to those with high power distance as to those with low power distance.

Originality/value

By integrating multiple cultural orientations and multiple work motivators in one study, this research clarified the differential moderating effects of power distance and collectivistic orientations on the effectiveness of intrinsic, extrinsic and reciprocal motivators in promoting employees’ willingness to cooperate. Potential confounding problems in prior studies derived from the correlation between cultural values and coexistence of multiple motivators were discussed.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 58 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 January 2017

Vassilios Stouraitis, Mior Harris Mior Harun and Markos Kyritsis

A global reach in exporting has been linked to profitability. The purpose of this paper is to answer the influence of EU regulations on exporting decisions of UK…

1286

Abstract

Purpose

A global reach in exporting has been linked to profitability. The purpose of this paper is to answer the influence of EU regulations on exporting decisions of UK manufacturing small- and medium-sized firms (SMEs) by investigating the home and host country-based motivators behind SMEs’ choice to export, and export regionally, within the EU.

Design/methodology/approach

Contrasting the Uppsala and resource-based view perspectives (using a sample of UK independent manufacturing SMEs and utilizing a survey, correlation analysis and factor analysis), the paper finds and describes the effect of the most recurrent motivators from the literature on the SMEs’ decision to export within the EU or not.

Findings

The paper finds that SMEs whose latest international market entry was not in the EU scored significantly higher in the factor scorings for the motivators in the external dimension than participants whose latest entry was in the EU. Several motivators show an association with the choice to export per se. The importance of regionalization to export initiation (and EU membership) within the EU is emphasized in the results.

Research limitations/implications

The sample size is limited.

Practical implications

In the current climate, how can SMEs reduce market research costs for managers by relying solely and proactively on home country and internal advantages and motivators and being more aware of their surroundings? Managers and policymakers can direct their strategy, resources and policy more efficiently according to motivators; internal home country motivators (e.g. strengths of prices of products) direct the SME to overcome inter-regional liability of foreignness, while host country motivators (e.g. legal restrictions in the host country) direct them to regional ventures.

Originality/value

The theoretical and empirical work on the topic, until recently, has been fragmented and inconsistent focusing on specific motivators but not necessarily justifying the selection or origin of variables even less on SMEs.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 November 1999

Patricia Huddleston and Linda K. Good

Success of retail firms is dependent on a motivated workforce, yet little is known about what job characteristics motivate employees from former command economies…

3541

Abstract

Success of retail firms is dependent on a motivated workforce, yet little is known about what job characteristics motivate employees from former command economies. Investigates 11 valent job motivators for Russian and Polish retail sales staff and their expectations of receiving these rewards. Retail sales managers rated the importance of these motivators to their employees. Data were collected in two Russian and two Polish cities. The most important motivators to Russian and Polish sales employees are pay and friendliness of co‐workers. In most cases, managers’ perceptions of job motivators were similar to their employees. The expectation of receiving incentives were measured and results show both Russian and Polish employees had significantly lower expectations of receiving all 11 job motivators relative to the importance they attached to them.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 27 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

David Conrad, Amit Ghosh and Marc Isaacson

Motivation is a widely explored topic and numerous studies have been done to determine motivation importance and implementation. However, no studies have been identified…

12258

Abstract

Purpose

Motivation is a widely explored topic and numerous studies have been done to determine motivation importance and implementation. However, no studies have been identified that investigate what motivators are most important to physicians and if physician leaders agree with the importance physicians place on specific motivational aspects. The purpose of this paper is to investigate this missed management learning opportunity.

Design/methodology/approach

A fully inclusive sampling of all (n=2,547) public-practice physicians and physician leaders (clinic and hospital employed, non-private practice) in Minneapolis and St. Paul Minnesota was conducted in the summer and fall of 2013. The surveys were sent in a link via a web survey software program by the study researchers. The surveys were anonymous and minimally intrusive, asking only for perspectives regarding the most important motivational elements by physicians and physician leaders.

Findings

Generally, the responses were surprisingly similar between physicians and physician leaders. The two statistically different motivators – interesting work and job security – were ranked as more important by physicians than the physician leaders. This suggests that leaders should be more attentive to ensuring variety, challenge, and engagement is an active part of the physicians’ work. This also suggests that managers should emphasize and reinforce the fact that – if it is the case – jobs are secure and that staffing stability is a key goal for management. As Kovach (1987) suggests, as employees’ income increases, money becomes less of a motivator and as employees get older, interesting work becomes more of a motivator.

Research limitations/implications

Conclusions and generalizations can be made about the population sampled.

Practical implications

The two statistically different motivators – interesting work and job security – were ranked as more important by physicians than the physician leaders. This suggests that leaders should be more attentive to ensuring variety, challenge, and engagement is an active part of the physicians’ work. This also suggests that managers should emphasize and reinforce the fact that – if it is the case – jobs are secure and that staffing stability is a key goal for management.

Social implications

As this study reveals, physicians have clear preferences when it comes to workplace motivation. It is not unreasonable then to determine that the more satisfied the employee, the better he or she will perform. Accordingly, the environment that managers create for their employees must be one that is constructive to positive energy. If employees feel happy when they are working, then they will be naturally encouraged to work, thus producing improved quality healthcare for patients.

Originality/value

What are the most important motivators for physicians and do physician leaders understand what motivators are to enhance physician productivity, well-being, and morale? Answers to this question may be beneficial to designing leadership education that enhances the understanding of the impact effectively identified and effectively applied motivation techniques may have on employee behavior and attitudes. Insights will also benefit the design of motivational structures and methods in the healthcare workplace.

Details

International Journal of Public Leadership, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4929

Keywords

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