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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2011

Galen. T. Trail and Yu Kyoum Kim

Although the understanding of both positive and negative factors influencing sports consumption is essential, previous research has mainly focused on motivators. The…

Abstract

Although the understanding of both positive and negative factors influencing sports consumption is essential, previous research has mainly focused on motivators. The purpose of this study was to examine three different models of constraints and motivators that influence attendance: a correlated model, a hierarchical model and a moderated model. Twenty factors were identified and classified into four main categories. The results indicated that 16 out of 20 motivators and constraints had a significant relationship with attendance in the theoretically expected direction.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2017

Vassilios Stouraitis, Pattana Boonchoo, Mior Harris Mior Harun and Markos Kyritsis

Success in export ventures has been linked to managerial capabilities. The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of exporting motivators on managerial…

Abstract

Purpose

Success in export ventures has been linked to managerial capabilities. The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of exporting motivators on managerial perceptions of UK manufacturing small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) by investigating the links between export motivators and decision bias (i.e. predictable behavior).

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the Uppsala and resource-based view perspectives (using a sample of the UK’s independent manufacturing SMEs and utilizing a survey, correlation analysis, and factor analysis), this study finds and describes the effect of the most recurrent motivators and clusters of motivators from the literature on the SMEs’ decision to export by investigating the dimensions (research, external, reactive).

Findings

This study finds that export motivators can be separated into specific dimensions leading to potential selection bias. In addition, the importance of size, knowledge of foreign markets, and unsolicited orders show an association with the perceptions of motivator stimuli toward specific dimensions (research, external, reactive).

Practical implications

Government policy and SME export strategy need to understand managerial perceptions and bias better in order to allocate resources efficiently toward stimulating exporting.

Originality/value

The literature and empirical work on the topic have been fragmented and conflicting focusing on specific motivators but not necessarily explaining the selection or origin of motivators even less on SMEs. Dimensions have not been taken into account as clusters of motivators.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2019

Jen-Shou Yang

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the moderating effects of power distance and collectivistic orientations on the effectiveness of intrinsic, extrinsic and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the moderating effects of power distance and collectivistic orientations on the effectiveness of intrinsic, extrinsic and reciprocal motivators in promoting employees’ willingness to cooperate for organizational interest. An integrated theoretical framework which incorporated cultural influence on need priority and on legitimacy of social exchange was established to develop the hypotheses.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used the methodology of information-integration theory to test the research hypotheses.

Findings

This study found that power distance orientation enhanced the effectiveness of extrinsic motivator but mitigated that of intrinsic motivator, and was irrelevant to that of reciprocal motivator. In contrast, collectivistic orientation mitigated the effectiveness of extrinsic motivator but enhanced that of reciprocal motivator, and was irrelevant to that of intrinsic motivator.

Practical implications

Managers may use reciprocal motivators for employees with high collectivism in order to increase their willingness to cooperate for the interest of the organization. Meanwhile, extrinsic motivators may be utilized for employees with high power distance but may not be as effective for those with low power distance. However, managers should not expect intrinsic motivators to be as attractive to those with high power distance as to those with low power distance.

Originality/value

By integrating multiple cultural orientations and multiple work motivators in one study, this research clarified the differential moderating effects of power distance and collectivistic orientations on the effectiveness of intrinsic, extrinsic and reciprocal motivators in promoting employees’ willingness to cooperate. Potential confounding problems in prior studies derived from the correlation between cultural values and coexistence of multiple motivators were discussed.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 58 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2017

Vassilios Stouraitis, Mior Harris Mior Harun and Markos Kyritsis

A global reach in exporting has been linked to profitability. The purpose of this paper is to answer the influence of EU regulations on exporting decisions of UK…

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Abstract

Purpose

A global reach in exporting has been linked to profitability. The purpose of this paper is to answer the influence of EU regulations on exporting decisions of UK manufacturing small- and medium-sized firms (SMEs) by investigating the home and host country-based motivators behind SMEs’ choice to export, and export regionally, within the EU.

Design/methodology/approach

Contrasting the Uppsala and resource-based view perspectives (using a sample of UK independent manufacturing SMEs and utilizing a survey, correlation analysis and factor analysis), the paper finds and describes the effect of the most recurrent motivators from the literature on the SMEs’ decision to export within the EU or not.

Findings

The paper finds that SMEs whose latest international market entry was not in the EU scored significantly higher in the factor scorings for the motivators in the external dimension than participants whose latest entry was in the EU. Several motivators show an association with the choice to export per se. The importance of regionalization to export initiation (and EU membership) within the EU is emphasized in the results.

Research limitations/implications

The sample size is limited.

Practical implications

In the current climate, how can SMEs reduce market research costs for managers by relying solely and proactively on home country and internal advantages and motivators and being more aware of their surroundings? Managers and policymakers can direct their strategy, resources and policy more efficiently according to motivators; internal home country motivators (e.g. strengths of prices of products) direct the SME to overcome inter-regional liability of foreignness, while host country motivators (e.g. legal restrictions in the host country) direct them to regional ventures.

Originality/value

The theoretical and empirical work on the topic, until recently, has been fragmented and inconsistent focusing on specific motivators but not necessarily justifying the selection or origin of variables even less on SMEs.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1999

Patricia Huddleston and Linda K. Good

Success of retail firms is dependent on a motivated workforce, yet little is known about what job characteristics motivate employees from former command economies…

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3507

Abstract

Success of retail firms is dependent on a motivated workforce, yet little is known about what job characteristics motivate employees from former command economies. Investigates 11 valent job motivators for Russian and Polish retail sales staff and their expectations of receiving these rewards. Retail sales managers rated the importance of these motivators to their employees. Data were collected in two Russian and two Polish cities. The most important motivators to Russian and Polish sales employees are pay and friendliness of co‐workers. In most cases, managers’ perceptions of job motivators were similar to their employees. The expectation of receiving incentives were measured and results show both Russian and Polish employees had significantly lower expectations of receiving all 11 job motivators relative to the importance they attached to them.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 27 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 10 December 2020

ShiNa Li, Lawrence Hoc Nang Fong, Carol Xiaoyue Zhang and Mengxin Chen

This paper aims to identify peer-to-peer accommodation hosts’ perceived motivations and constraints, to examine the prediction of the motivation and constraint factors on…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify peer-to-peer accommodation hosts’ perceived motivations and constraints, to examine the prediction of the motivation and constraint factors on hosts’ intention to continue business based on hosts’ attitudes and to explore the moderating role of the business scale.

Design/methodology/approach

A scale for hosts’ perceived motivators and constraints was developed. Mixed methods were used to develop and analyse a conceptual framework for demonstrating how constraints and motivations influence hosts’ behavioural intentions. Findings from interviews with hosts interpretatively supported the survey results.

Findings

Chinese hosts’ perceived constraints and motivators are identified and explained. The survey results indicate that constraints lower intention to continue one’s business and motivators heightens it. Motivators have a higher effect on attitudes and intentions than constraints do. The business scale was confirmed as a moderator in the constraint–attitude link but not in the motivator–attitude relationship.

Practical implications

This paper offers policy implications for governments, online platforms and hosts in terms of establishing incentives and solving problems so that Chinese hosts can sustainably operate their businesses.

Originality/value

This paper identifies constraints and motivators and develops a measurement scale for both simultaneously, which provides a holistic explanation of hosts’ attitude and behavioural intention. It also reveals the moderating role of the business scale. In investigating the thoughts of existing hosts operating on global and local platforms in China, this paper complements the literature, which mainly focuses on the Western context and a single global platform.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 15 September 2020

Kurt C. Mayer and Eric Hungenberg

The purpose of this paper was to explore a new sport attendance behavior spectrum framework where sport consumer behavior is not derived from just a dichotomy of a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to explore a new sport attendance behavior spectrum framework where sport consumer behavior is not derived from just a dichotomy of a motivator positively impacting attendance or a constraint negatively impacting attendance. Rather, when accounting for the context of the setting (e.g. sport, playing level, locality, patron type, etc.), some areas belong on a spectrum that fluctuates between positive and negative impacts on attendance that are dependent on the context of the given environment.

Design/methodology/approach

Through factor analysis and structural equation modeling, the proposed model attempted to explain relationships between five second-order factors and game attendance, which expanded to include the new internal contextual and external contextual factors, and ultimately team fandom.

Findings

The results indicated three significant main effects where internal contextual exhibited a positive relationship with attendance, while constraints and external contextual demonstrated a negative relationship. Internal and external motives were not significant. Further, the moderating effect of high and low sport interest groupings largely indicated no significant spectator differences. The model explained 24% of the variance in attendance, and attendance accounted for 41% of the variance in team fandom.

Originality/value

Attendance is intricate, and this study highlighted the importance of considering and adapting to the sporting context as some factors exist on a sport attendance behavior spectrum and differently impact spectators positively or negatively, given the context of the setting. Further, in this lower-level sport setting, consumers viewed minor league hockey more as a leisure commodity than a premier sport contest.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 21 July 2020

Marek Bodziany, Zbigniew Ścibiorek and Stanisław Ślusarczyk

The purpose of this paper is to identify common and differentiating (external and internal) factors of motivation of the subordinates in the Polish uniformed services such…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify common and differentiating (external and internal) factors of motivation of the subordinates in the Polish uniformed services such as the armed forces, the fire service and the police. Moreover, this study aims to explore their relationship with the specificity of the profession and the selected socio-professional variables shaping their needs and value systems.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve the research objective, the research problem has been specified: Which factors are universal and which significantly differentiate the strategies of motivating soldiers, firefighters and police officers? Therefore, the hypothesis assumes that motivating strategies in the examined institutions (uniformed services) depend not only on their structural and functional or legal and organizational culture specificity but also on the individual needs related to the position, corps (officer/noncommissioned officer), an individual system of values and social factors such as material and social. Methods were based on the survey research technique on a deliberately selected sample of soldiers and officers occupying different positions.

Findings

The research results have a dual character. On the one hand, they confirm the effectiveness of financial factors in the motivating process in the organization, and on the other hand, they show the specifics of total institutions, in which, apart from financial motivators, promotion and position in the hierarchy are important.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation of this study was the availability of respondents and their willingness to consent to the study. It is probably related to the nature of the organizations surveyed. It aims to explore their relationship with the specificity of the profession and the selected socioprofessional variables shaping their needs and value systems. Five motivators were adopted for the study, including two material ones, cash prizes and material prizes, and three nonmaterial motivators, promotion, participation in training (upgrading qualifications) and vacation. Two premises justify choosing such a research subject. The first reason concerns the common specificity of this type of organization that is relatively closed, unified, with a high level of hierarchization and formalization. The second one relates to differences in organizational cultures and systems to motivate subordinates.

Practical implications

Research results provide the basis for identifying a change in value systems (subsequent studies) in total institutions and for assessing motivational preferences in the examined organizations.

Social implications

The examined uniformed services constitute an essential element of the social structure, which along with the 1989 political transformation transformed from closed and resistant to open and socialized institutions subject to similar laws that apply in other organizations. Also, the values and expectations of people serving in them changed radically. Service became a profession, and purely autotelic motivations turned into materialistic ones. This change provides grounds for conducting research in this area.

Originality/value

This research fills in the empirical gap in previous research on motivation in total institutions. They are justified by the changing sociopolitical and economic situation in Poland and the change in the value systems of Poles.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

David Conrad, Amit Ghosh and Marc Isaacson

Motivation is a widely explored topic and numerous studies have been done to determine motivation importance and implementation. However, no studies have been identified…

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12033

Abstract

Purpose

Motivation is a widely explored topic and numerous studies have been done to determine motivation importance and implementation. However, no studies have been identified that investigate what motivators are most important to physicians and if physician leaders agree with the importance physicians place on specific motivational aspects. The purpose of this paper is to investigate this missed management learning opportunity.

Design/methodology/approach

A fully inclusive sampling of all (n=2,547) public-practice physicians and physician leaders (clinic and hospital employed, non-private practice) in Minneapolis and St. Paul Minnesota was conducted in the summer and fall of 2013. The surveys were sent in a link via a web survey software program by the study researchers. The surveys were anonymous and minimally intrusive, asking only for perspectives regarding the most important motivational elements by physicians and physician leaders.

Findings

Generally, the responses were surprisingly similar between physicians and physician leaders. The two statistically different motivators – interesting work and job security – were ranked as more important by physicians than the physician leaders. This suggests that leaders should be more attentive to ensuring variety, challenge, and engagement is an active part of the physicians’ work. This also suggests that managers should emphasize and reinforce the fact that – if it is the case – jobs are secure and that staffing stability is a key goal for management. As Kovach (1987) suggests, as employees’ income increases, money becomes less of a motivator and as employees get older, interesting work becomes more of a motivator.

Research limitations/implications

Conclusions and generalizations can be made about the population sampled.

Practical implications

The two statistically different motivators – interesting work and job security – were ranked as more important by physicians than the physician leaders. This suggests that leaders should be more attentive to ensuring variety, challenge, and engagement is an active part of the physicians’ work. This also suggests that managers should emphasize and reinforce the fact that – if it is the case – jobs are secure and that staffing stability is a key goal for management.

Social implications

As this study reveals, physicians have clear preferences when it comes to workplace motivation. It is not unreasonable then to determine that the more satisfied the employee, the better he or she will perform. Accordingly, the environment that managers create for their employees must be one that is constructive to positive energy. If employees feel happy when they are working, then they will be naturally encouraged to work, thus producing improved quality healthcare for patients.

Originality/value

What are the most important motivators for physicians and do physician leaders understand what motivators are to enhance physician productivity, well-being, and morale? Answers to this question may be beneficial to designing leadership education that enhances the understanding of the impact effectively identified and effectively applied motivation techniques may have on employee behavior and attitudes. Insights will also benefit the design of motivational structures and methods in the healthcare workplace.

Details

International Journal of Public Leadership, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4929

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Article
Publication date: 25 November 2013

Maria Münderlein, Jan F. Ybema and Ferry Koster

This paper aims to provide an empirical test of theories proposed in the literature stating that turnover and retirement (two kinds of work withdrawal) involve different…

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1697

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide an empirical test of theories proposed in the literature stating that turnover and retirement (two kinds of work withdrawal) involve different employee decisions. It also aims to provide a more general theoretical framework understanding turnover and retirement intentions integrating insights from different theories.

Design/methodology/approach

Research hypotheses are tested using the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM). This dataset includes information from approximately 15,000 respondents in The Netherlands. Respondents between the age of 45 and 64 were the target group in order to model transitions in the labor market for older workers. This dataset provides a unique opportunity to test turnover and retirement intentions.

Findings

First, the results show that personal characteristics such as income, age or health, add more to the explanation of retirement intentions compared to turnover intentions and that work characteristics provide a better explanation of the turnover intention compared to retirement intention. Second, by focusing more closely on retirement intentions, the results show that organizational motivators can increase older workers' labor market participation.

Research limitations/implications

First, it is acknowledged that the study investigates intentions rather than actual behavior. Second, given that the data are cross sectional, we cannot make claims about causality. Finally, some of the measures can be improved in future studies.

Originality/value

This paper aims at integrating different perspectives on two kinds of work withdrawal (turnover and retirement) into one theoretical model.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 18 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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