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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Firdaus Basbeth, Roselina Ahmad Saufi and Khaeruddin Bin Sudharmin

Assessing the impact of hygiene factors on faculty motivation and satisfaction in online teaching will advance the literature. It will especially demystify that both…

Abstract

Purpose

Assessing the impact of hygiene factors on faculty motivation and satisfaction in online teaching will advance the literature. It will especially demystify that both factors (hygiene factors and motivator) can cause job satisfaction in online education. The purpose of this paper is to firstly determine the level of faculty motivation and satisfaction in online teaching. Secondly, this study analyses the extent to which hygiene factors affect motivation and faculty satisfaction with online teaching.

Design/methodology/approach

The population of this study consists of university faculty in Indonesia and Malaysia. The sample is randomly chosen in 50 higher education institutions in Indonesia and Malaysia. The sample size is 206. The participants completed a survey, including perceived student engagement, institutional support, motivation, faculty satisfaction and demographical questions. To test the model, PLS-SEM was used using SmartPLS3 software. The hygiene factors construct was operationalized as a second-order construct consisting of first-order construct: student engagement and institutional support.

Findings

There were no statistically significant differences concerning institutional support and motivation by country of residence. However, there were significant differences in student engagement and faculty satisfaction by country residence. Concerning satisfaction and motivation, the most satisfied and motivated was the faculty member in Indonesia. Hygiene factors were found as the antecedent to faculty motivation and faculty motivation multiplying hygiene factors' effect on job satisfaction. The results showed that student engagement has the highest impact on faculty satisfaction, followed by motivation. Work motivation mediates the relationship between hygiene factors and faculty satisfaction.

Research limitations/implications

This study has limitations; firstly, causal inferences are not warranted as the data is cross-sectional. However, a future direction is to analyse the causal relationship between the hygiene factors, and motivation factors on faculty satisfaction using a formative first-order construct through a longitudinal study. Secondly, the results’ generalizability is another limitation of this study because the sample comprised only Indonesia and Malaysia faculty across 51 higher education institution in big cities in the island of Java in Indonesia and Malaysia peninsular only; however, the factors determined in this study represent the job-related aspects taken from the literature and the researchers’ experiences; other parts influence faculty satisfaction with online teaching. Therefore, identifying other elements is a future path.

Practical implications

When managers aim at increasing faculty satisfaction, the priority should be given to improve the performance of indicators with the highest effect but a relatively low in performance. All of this implies that higher education institution first needs to find ways to increase motivation by rewarding faculty in many forms, and improve the quality of instruction. Secondly, implementing policies and make some decisions that require an investment such as providing a learning management system.

Social implications

Indonesia and Malaysia higher education institutions may ameliorate faculty satisfaction with online teaching in several ways. Firstly, before the online course begins, higher education institutions should attempt to have faculty believe teaching online is worthwhile and understand the institution itself also believes it is significant. Administer training for faculty, especially regarding increasing connections with and between students, gives faculty the time needed to design an online course and provide faculty with a course management system with multiple capabilities. Secondly, during the online course, higher education institutions should support technical issues and try to have faculty believe they have an accommodating work schedule and independence with the online course.

Originality/value

This research firstly contributes to the literature by establishing the relationship between hygiene factors and motivation, and hygiene factors and satisfaction, which did not exist according to the two-factor theory in the past. Secondly, the authors provide evidence of motivation constructs as a mediating variable. Thirdly, this study broadens the literature scope by including faculty in two countries (Indonesia and Malaysia). It includes faculty from 51 higher education systems (e.g. public and private four-year universities), incudes graduate school in seven big cities in two countries, Indonesia and Malaysia.

Details

Quality Assurance in Education, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-4883

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 May 2013

Samantha Organ, David Proverbs and Graham Squires

The existing housing stock needs substantial adaptation to meet national and international carbon reduction targets. The largest proportion of housing is owner‐occupied…

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Abstract

Purpose

The existing housing stock needs substantial adaptation to meet national and international carbon reduction targets. The largest proportion of housing is owner‐occupied, and will require improvement works which go beyond those measures provided through the Green Deal and similar programmes. Therefore, the motivation of owner‐occupiers to perform more substantial energy efficiency refurbishments is essential to facilitate greater action. This paper aims to address these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

A synthesis of the extant literature from a range of disciplines reveals the role of motivation and the factors influencing motivation and pro‐environmental action in the context of the home. Based on this synthesis of the literature, a new motivation model for energy efficiency refurbishment in the owner‐occupied housing stock is then described.

Findings

The study has found that multiple factors affect motivation to refurbish in the owner‐occupied housing stock. Key motivations for energy efficient refurbishment can be categorized into the broad themes of economic, social, and environmental motivations. These motivations will be affected by a wide number of interrelated internal and external factors and mediated by the emotions of the individual. The model presented demonstrates the relationship between the multiple factors that affect energy efficiency refurbishment in relation to specific contexts.

Originality/value

The study represents a potential addition to motivational theory and concepts for use within the field of energy efficient refurbishment of the owner‐occupied housing stock. Implications for future government policy and towards raising the motivation of owner‐occupiers are identified: it can be used to shape national and local policy and information campaigns to motivate energy efficiency refurbishment in the owner‐occupied housing stock. To be successful, this should take differing internal factors and contexts into consideration and the dynamic nature of owner‐occupier motivation. The model can also be used by industry professionals to better understand the owner‐occupier customer motivations for energy efficiency refurbishment and therein provide a better service.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 2 September 2020

Umut Eroğlu and İbrahim Kiray

Introduction: – Together with the increasing competition between businesses each day, the sales and marketing process of products and services have become increasingly…

Abstract

Introduction: – Together with the increasing competition between businesses each day, the sales and marketing process of products and services have become increasingly difficult. For this reason, sales have become a marketing activity with an ever-growing importance to businesses. The performance of salespeople who undertake this challenge on behalf of the business is highly valuable for firms. Many researches have noted that there is a relationship between the performance of salesperson and motivation. The purpose of motivation in sales literature is to direct salespeople to exert more effort in reaching sales-oriented goals and aims. In order to ensure this, many businesses use various motivation tools/factors.

Purpose – The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of motivation factors on performance of salesperson.

Methodology – Quantitative research method was used in the study. A questionnaire was prepared with this aim in mind and administered to 315 employees working as salesperson in Çanakkale and Bursa provinces.

Findings – The findings from the analysis of the data show that the five dimensions namely satisfaction, image, relations, knowledge of product and service and advertisement related to motivation factors have a significant effect on the task performance of the salesperson.

Details

Contemporary Issues in Business Economics and Finance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-604-4

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 10 December 2015

Dekar Urumsah

The concept and practice of e-services has become essential in business transactions. Yet there are still many organizations that have not developed e-services optimally…

Abstract

The concept and practice of e-services has become essential in business transactions. Yet there are still many organizations that have not developed e-services optimally. This is especially relevant in the context of Indonesian Airline companies. Therefore, many airline customers in Indonesia are still in doubt about it, or even do not use it. To fill this gap, this study attempts to develop a model for e-services adoption and empirically examines the factors influencing the airlines customers in Indonesia in using e-services offered by the Indonesian airline companies. Taking six Indonesian airline companies as a case example, the study investigated the antecedents of e-services usage of Indonesian airlines. This study further examined the impacts of motivation on customers in using e-services in the Indonesian context. Another important aim of this study was to investigate how ages, experiences and geographical areas moderate effects of e-services usage.

The study adopts a positivist research paradigm with a two-phase sequential mixed method design involving qualitative and quantitative approaches. An initial research model was first developed based on an extensive literature review, by combining acceptance and use of information technology theories, expectancy theory and the inter-organizational system motivation models. A qualitative field study via semi-structured interviews was then conducted to explore the present state among 15 respondents. The results of the interviews were analysed using content analysis yielding the final model of e-services usage. Eighteen antecedent factors hypotheses and three moderating factors hypotheses and 52-item questionnaire were developed. A focus group discussion of five respondents and a pilot study of 59 respondents resulted in final version of the questionnaire.

In the second phase, the main survey was conducted nationally to collect the research data among Indonesian airline customers who had already used Indonesian airline e-services. A total of 819 valid questionnaires were obtained. The data was then analysed using a partial least square (PLS) based structural equation modelling (SEM) technique to produce the contributions of links in the e-services model (22% of all the variances in e-services usage, 37.8% in intention to use, 46.6% in motivation, 39.2% in outcome expectancy, and 37.7% in effort expectancy). Meanwhile, path coefficients and t-values demonstrated various different influences of antecedent factors towards e-services usage. Additionally, a multi-group analysis based on PLS is employed with mixed results. In the final findings, 14 hypotheses were supported and 7 hypotheses were not supported.

The major findings of this study have confirmed that motivation has the strongest contribution in e-services usage. In addition, motivation affects e-services usage both directly and indirectly through intention-to-use. This study provides contributions to the existing knowledge of e-services models, and practical applications of IT usage. Most importantly, an understanding of antecedents of e-services adoption will provide guidelines for stakeholders in developing better e-services and strategies in order to promote and encourage more customers to use e-services. Finally, the accomplishment of this study can be expanded through possible adaptations in other industries and other geographical contexts.

Details

E-services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-709-7

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 November 2015

Mohamed Syazwan Ab Talib, Abu Bakar Abdul Hamid and Thoo Ai Chin

– The purpose of this paper is to review, analyse, and synthesise the motivation and limitation factors in implementing Halal food certification.

2673

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review, analyse, and synthesise the motivation and limitation factors in implementing Halal food certification.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic online library search gathered 50 recent journal articles between the years 2004 and 2014. After common motivation and limitation factors were identified and reviewed, a Pareto analysis was performed. This is done to prioritise the motivation and limitation factors and ultimately revealed the major factors that influence the implementation of Halal food certification.

Findings

A total of 36 motivation and 37 limitation factors were identified. Through Pareto analysis, 15 motivation factors accounted for 80.07 per cent and 20 limitation factors are responsible for 79.65 per cent. These factors are considered the major factors in implementing Halal food certification.

Practical implications

For academicians, this study provides the most recent review of food safety and quality certification literature and the highlighted factors could assist in designing research instruments and set the foundation for future research endeavours. For industrialists, factors drawn from this study highlight the information critical for effective and efficient decision making.

Originality/value

This paper is unique as it is the first study to review and analyse the relevant literature from which the authors synthesised the major factors in implementing Halal food certification. The result of this study will provide greater insights to researchers, food companies, and other stakeholders in an effort to encourage greater implementation of Halal food certification.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 117 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Reidar J. Mykletun and Krista Himanen

The purpose of this paper is to examine the antecedents of volunteer commitment and intention to remain volunteering for the same event in the future, in the context of…

1197

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the antecedents of volunteer commitment and intention to remain volunteering for the same event in the future, in the context of two annually held Norwegian cycling race events.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional design was used, applying a questionnaire that was developed and distributed to the cycling events volunteers both in hard copies and as online format by QuestBack.

Findings

The volunteers were motivated by egoistic, altruistic, connection to the sport, and external factors. They were highly committed and intended to remain as a volunteers in the future events. Older age; satisfaction from their own contribution and type of work, from recognition; and motivation as personal connections to the sport predicted commitment. Higher levels of education, commitment, and motivation by personal connections to the sport predicted intention to remain as a volunteer for future events. A factor-based structure of sport event volunteer satisfaction was presented, which, to the best of the knowledge is the first of its kind.

Research limitations/implications

The study should be replicated across several events to test the external validation of the models.

Practical implications

This understanding of motivation and satisfaction can be beneficial for the management of volunteers in order to retain the experienced and motivated volunteers and to ensure the continuation of the event in the future.

Originality/value

The study adds new knowledge to the research field by presenting an extensive, updated literature review, development of a fist factor-analysed scale for volunteer satisfaction, and the first application of the model including volunteer demographics, satisfaction, motivation, and commitment in predicting intention to remain volunteers for the biking event in the future.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 March 2022

Sayyid Ali Banihashemi and Mohammad Khalilzadeh

Recognizing the factors affecting employees’ job motivation is one of the necessities that can improve people’s performance and increase their effectiveness. This study…

Abstract

Purpose

Recognizing the factors affecting employees’ job motivation is one of the necessities that can improve people’s performance and increase their effectiveness. This study aims to determine the factors affecting job motivation and to examine effective strategies to increase motivation through identifying internal and external factors.

Design/methodology/approach

In this descriptive study, the statistical population was the employees of the largest petrochemical company in Iran. The questionnaire was randomly distributed to the organization’s employees and managers based on Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory. To analyze the obtained data, first, the best and the worst factors were identified using SPSS software and then were ranked using best–worst method (BWM).

Findings

The results demonstrated that the highest rank among the motivational factors of employees is related to working environment conditions and the lowest rank is related to career advancement and development indicator. In the second stage, the best strategies for motivational factors were determined using the fuzzy goal programming method. The findings showed that 12 out of the 17 proposed solutions have the highest motivation among employees, the implementation of which can increase employee productivity in the petrochemical company under study.

Originality/value

Further to the best of the authors’ knowledge, job motivation factors in the petrochemical industry have never been examined and ranked by using the BWM method so far. Also, the goal programming approach has never been applied to determine strategies for increasing job motivation and ultimately productivity.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 March 2021

Sunan Babar Khan, David G. Proverbs and Hong Xiao

Health and safety in small construction firms is often neglected by owners leading to poor health and safety performance and unacceptably high fatality and injury rates. A…

Abstract

Purpose

Health and safety in small construction firms is often neglected by owners leading to poor health and safety performance and unacceptably high fatality and injury rates. A body of knowledge has established significant links between the motivational behaviours of operatives towards health and safety. Motivation is also considered as a key tool for improving operative productivity as when operatives experience safe worksites, they can carry out their work in a more productive manner. The purpose of this research is to develop a framework to examine the motivational factors that affect operative health and safety in small construction firms.

Design/methodology/approach

A critical review and synthesis of the body of knowledge incorporating motivational theory, health and safety literature and the factors which characterise small firms, is used to develop the framework.

Findings

Key components of the framework include the presence of intrinsic and extrinsic components, appropriate health and safety policies and procedures, the type of work environment, the operatives (i.e. attitude, experience and training) as well as the presence of appropriate management and supervision. The study revealed that operatives in small firms are less likely to be extrinsically motivated due to the absence of training, management commitment, policies and the wider working environment

Research limitations/implications

Failure of motivational support can result in increased danger and risk in exposing operatives to injury in the small firm environment. In this context, the damage caused to operative's health and safety in small construction firms is dependent mainly on the extrinsic factors.

Practical implications

The framework provides a basis for improving our understanding of how to motivate operatives to act safely and will help to improve the health and safety performance of small firms. It is therefore vital to emphasise enhancement efforts on these extrinsic strategies in the small firms' environment especially in the initial stages of the project (or activity), so that the health and safety of operatives in small firms can be improved.

Originality/value

This study proposes a contribution in developing an understanding of the motivational factors and their influence on the health and safety of operatives in small construction firms. The study revealed that operatives in small firms are less likely to be extrinsically motivated and have only intrinsically motivated elements in their workplace. The study proposes an indirect link between the extrinsic and intrinsic factors that affect motivation.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 February 2009

Cynthia Benzing and Hung M. Chu

This paper sets out to examine the reasons why 599 entrepreneurs in Kenya, Ghana and Nigeria started their small businesses. It aims to compares ten motivations across…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper sets out to examine the reasons why 599 entrepreneurs in Kenya, Ghana and Nigeria started their small businesses. It aims to compares ten motivations across three countries and by gender.

Design/methodology/approach

Ten Likert‐style questions were used to determine start‐up motivations. The mean scores were calculated and compared to test for significant differences. A factor analysis was conducted to see whether the ten items could be synthesized into distinct factors. Then, the factors were compared across countries and by gender.

Findings

The strongest motivator across countries was the opportunity to increase income. A factor analysis found three motivation factors: a family factor, an external validation factor, and a self‐betterment factor. The three countries showed significant differences with Ghanaian entrepreneurs rating the family factor as more important. The item analysis showed that female entrepreneurs were less motivated to create a business as a legacy or for external validation.

Research limitations/implications

The list of motivations here is non‐exhaustive. The addition of other motivation items could change the results. Results should not be generalized to other countries or other regions of the countries surveyed.

Practical implications

Since motivations differ across countries and gender, countries can benefit from developing country‐ and gender‐specific programs to encourage business creation. For instance, Nigeria and Kenya should develop stronger succession laws so that businesses can be inherited by family members. Ghana and Nigeria might stimulate more enterprise development by providing public recognition for entrepreneurial behavior.

Originality/value

This is the first cross‐country study of the motivations of entrepreneurs in sub‐Saharan Africa.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 August 2011

Fang Yang

The purpose of this paper is to investigate employees' work motivation in China. It aims to give answers to two questions: what motivates employees in China? What are the…

6941

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate employees' work motivation in China. It aims to give answers to two questions: what motivates employees in China? What are the effects of personal characteristics on work motivation for employees in China?

Design/methodology/approach

The study used convenience sampling to select the sample and the respondents were randomly selected from employees of six organizations, from people in the personnel market and also from people walking around in shopping centres in a very representative city of China – Ningbo. Then, descriptive statistics, t‐test (one sample t‐test, independent sample t‐test and one‐way ANOVA), regression analysis and scatter plots were used to analyze the data.

Findings

The findings of the study are: all the 15 motivation factors listed in the questionnaire, including good pay, promotion, desirable work environment, good welfare package, good bonus system, good company policy, good interpersonal relationships, good supervisors, job security, the opportunity to use my ability, a sense of challenge and achievement, positive recognition, autonomy, self‐actualization and interesting job, do motivate employees in China; good pay is the most important motivator for employees in China; employees' work motivation is affected by their personal characteristics.

Originality/value

It is believed that these findings can assist organizations in China, those located in Ningbo in particular, in effectively motivating their employees. It may also be applied to organizations located in other parts of the world which have Chinese employees.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

Keywords

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