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Article
Publication date: 7 May 2019

Moshe Sharabi, Brian Polin and Galit Yanay-Ventura

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of social and economic changes, particularly the transition from a collectivistic to an individualistic society, on the meaning…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of social and economic changes, particularly the transition from a collectivistic to an individualistic society, on the meaning of work (MOW) in Israel.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire probing the MOW domains (economic orientation, intrinsic orientation, interpersonal relations, entitlement and obligation norms and job satisfaction) was conducted on a representative sample of the Israeli labor force in 1981 (n=973) and 2006 (n=898).

Findings

A comparison between the results of the 1981 and 2006 surveys shows a significant increase in economic and intrinsic orientation, and a significant decrease in interpersonal relations orientation, job satisfaction and obligation and entitlement norms. Work centrality remained stable. The demographic factors, especially education, have some impact on the MOW domains.

Practical implications

The transformation of work values reflects the changes in employees’ expectations and needs. Therefore, organizations are compelled to find new material and non-material reward systems and methods to maintain employee commitment, motivation and satisfaction. Various implications for organizations and management are discussed.

Originality/value

This cross-sectional study explores how the combination of economic and social changes is reflected in employees’ job satisfaction and other work values. Furthermore, the study examines the impact of the main demographic factors on the MOW and offers suggestions to gain employees loyalty and commitment based on all the findings.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 41 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 May 2022

Moshe Sharabi and Galit Yanay-Ventura

Women's participation in the workforce and in managerial positions, which has led to greater diversity, reconstructs professional perceptions and preferences. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

Women's participation in the workforce and in managerial positions, which has led to greater diversity, reconstructs professional perceptions and preferences. The purpose of this research is to examine “Work Outcome Preferences” among men and women according to organizational status and the impact of other demographic factors.

Design/methodology/approach

The Meaning of Work (MOW) questionnaire was filled by 1,161 men and women employees in organizations: 744 workers, 256 junior managers and 161 middle managers. To examine the hypotheses, authors conducted an analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and a linear regression analysis for women and men.

Findings

The gender differences regarding work outcomes preferences decreases with career promotion. Further, the higher the organizational status, the higher the need for interesting and satisfying work among both men and women. Among women, the higher the organizational status, the higher the need for status and prestige and for serving society and the lower the need for interpersonal contacts and income.

Practical implications

Better understanding of the preferred outcomes among women and men in the three organizational statuses and the impact of promotion and varied demographic variables can help in the planning of material and non-material reward systems and methods suitable to the different sub-groups.

Originality/value

As far as authors know, there is not a single study focusing on the differences between narrow career stages such as workers, junior and middle managers according to gender regarding work values/work outcome preferences.

Details

EuroMed Journal of Business, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1450-2194

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 October 2017

Moshe Sharabi

The purpose of this paper is to examine life domains centrality (work, family, leisure, community and religion) among workers, junior managers and middle managers, both men and…

1165

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine life domains centrality (work, family, leisure, community and religion) among workers, junior managers and middle managers, both men and women and the impact of demographic factors on those life domains.

Design/methodology/approach

The “Meaning of Work” questionnaire was conducted on 1,201 participants of whom 928, 453 men and 475 women, were employed in organizations in middle managerial, junior managerial and worker positions.

Findings

The findings indicate that work centrality increases while religion centrality decreases with higher organizational status among men and women. The centrality of family is higher among women than among men in the three organizational levels. However, in the new millennium, for the first time in Israel, no traditional gender differences were found in work centrality among employees in the three organizational levels.

Practical implications

Human resource professionals have to take into consideration the increasing work centrality among working women at all organizational levels and focus on decreasing work-family/life conflict, especially among women managers. This can be achieved by implementing flexible hours, working from home, work-life balance programs, and management by objectives systems.

Originality/value

This study, which compares middle managers, junior managers, and workers according to gender, reveals how they balance the five life domains as well as the strategies women managers use to cope with work/non-work conflict.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 44 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Moshe Sharabi

Over the course of time, more and more women have been joining the labor force, achieving meaningful roles and managerial positions. The purpose of this paper is to examine…

Abstract

Purpose

Over the course of time, more and more women have been joining the labor force, achieving meaningful roles and managerial positions. The purpose of this paper is to examine contemporary meaning of work (MOW) among men and women in different organizational statuses and the impact of other demographic factors on the MOW dimensions.

Design/methodology/approach

Out of 1,201 participants that filled out the MOW questioner, 908 were employed in organizations as middle managers (118 men and 67 women) or junior managers (120 men and 97 women) and workers (208 men and 298 women).

Findings

No differences were found between men and women middle managers regarding MOW dimensions. It was found that the higher the organizational status, the higher the work centrality and intrinsic orientation and the lower the economic orientation, among both men and women. Regression analysis reveals that demographic variables have a low impact on the MOW dimensions and hardly explain the differences among men and women.

Practical implications

The understanding of contemporary MOW similarities and differences among men and women according to organizational status and the impact of varied demographic variables on those differences can influence the way organizations consider men’s and women’s (both managers and workers) needs in their working life, with implications for their satisfaction and productivity.

Originality/value

While there are various studies about gender differences regarding work values and the MOW, not a single study focusing on the differences in the MOW between managers and workers according to gender was found.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 39 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Moshe Sharabi

The purpose of this paper is to examine work outcomes preferences of Jewish, Muslim and Christian employees. The study attempts to explain the similarities and the differences…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine work outcomes preferences of Jewish, Muslim and Christian employees. The study attempts to explain the similarities and the differences among the ethno-religious groups.

Design/methodology/approach

The Meaning-of-Work (MOW) questionnaire was conducted on 898 Jews, 215 Muslims and 103 Christians working respondents. The work outcomes were: status and prestige, income, time filling, interpersonal relations, serving society, interest and satisfaction.

Findings

Significant differences were found between the three ethno-religious groups, especially between Jews and Muslims, regarding the preferences of work outcomes and their rankings. The findings can be explained mainly by cultural differences.

Research limitations/implications

There is the unbalanced proportion of Jews, Muslims and Christians in the study.

Practical implications

This study provides a better understanding of the three ethno-religious groups and their valued work outcomes. This knowledge can help in the planning of material and non-material rewards systems and methods suitable to the different ethnic groups. Implementing “Diversity Management” programs in organizations based on the variance among sub-groups can maximize the potential of the organizational human resources.

Originality/value

There are no other studies that compared the work values of Jews, Muslims and Christians, in or out of Israel. This study explores the work outcomes preferences of the three ethno-religious groups in Israel and the causes for those differences.

Details

EuroMed Journal of Business, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1450-2194

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 July 2020

Moshe Sharabi, Ilan Shdema and Oriana Abboud-Armaly

The Nonfinancial employment commitment (NFEC) of Muslims in general, and of Arab Muslims in particular, has not yet been studied. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to fill…

Abstract

Purpose

The Nonfinancial employment commitment (NFEC) of Muslims in general, and of Arab Muslims in particular, has not yet been studied. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to fill this gap by exploring the NFEC among Arab Muslims in Israel and comparing it to that of Jews in Israel.

Design/methodology/approach

The most common indicator of NFEC is the classic “Lottery Question,” which asked whether an individual would continue or stop working if they won a lottery or inherited a large sum of money. The sample included 215 Muslims and 898 Jews representing the Israeli labor force.

Findings

The findings reveal higher NFEC among Arab Muslims, particularly among women, compared to Jews. Muslims and Jews in urban areas have a lower NFEC then those who live in smaller localities. Among both Jews and Muslims, NFEC significantly increases with education level and income.

Social implications

NFEC is an important measure of the work ethic. A high NFEC of Arab Muslims, especially among women, reflects a high nonactualized potential for Western societies integrating Arab Muslim immigrants and refugees into the labor market.

Originality/value

The authors adapted the core–periphery model and found that it could explain the authors’ findings regarding NFEC differences among ethnoreligious groups in different residential areas. As the authors indicated before, it is the first time that NFEC of Arab Muslims has been studied.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 43 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 January 2022

Avi Kay and Moshe Sharabi

This article aims to provide an examination of the impact of Jewish religious tradition on attitudes toward life domains among Jewish Israeli women. This is the first study of…

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to provide an examination of the impact of Jewish religious tradition on attitudes toward life domains among Jewish Israeli women. This is the first study of importance of life-domains among women in the ultra-Orthodox community: the fastest growing population in Israel. This population exhibits a unique occupational pattern in which women are the primary economic actors. As women are transitioning into more central occupational and economic players throughout the world, this research has both theoretical and practical implications.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 567 employed Jewish Israeli women (309 secular, 138 traditional and 120 ultra-Orthodox) completed a survey about relative importance of life domains. Responses were analyzed via mean-comparison tests, ANOVA and regression analysis.

Findings

Surprisingly, religiosity was associated with higher lower work centrality. Work centrality was the highest among ultra-Orthodox women, and family centrality the lowest. Centrality of religion increased and centrality of leisure decreased with religiosity. No differences emerged regarding centrality of community.

Research limitations/implications

A limitation of this study is that attitudes toward life domains are based on one-time responses to one question. With that, the psychometric characteristics of the measure and its wide-spread use indicate its acceptability and applicability for the issue studied.

Practical implications

The data point to changes in the attitudes of ultra-Orthodox women toward life-domains. Those changes and the increased presence of these women at the workplace challenge both organizational and community leaders to reexamine how to best react to and benefit from the above.

Social implications

Ultra-orthodox society is a fundamentalist, enclave society that has, generally, been able to retain traditional internal social and familial patterns until now. However, increased exposure of community members – and particularly women – to a variety of organizations and individuals operating in them, may be contributing to changes in attitudes of those women regarding their traditional social and familial roles.

Originality/value

This study closes gaps in research examining the impact of religion and of gender on work attitudes. It does so among women in the fastest growing population of Israel, that exhibit a unique occupational pattern that can contribute to both theoreticians and policy planners regarding implications of the transition of women to more central economic roles.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 23 March 2012

415

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-669X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 June 2013

Moshe Sharabi and Itzhak Harpaz

The purpose of this paper is to examine the changes of life domains centrality (work, family, leisure, community and religion) and of work goals preferences (interest, good pay…

1618

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the changes of life domains centrality (work, family, leisure, community and religion) and of work goals preferences (interest, good pay, interpersonal relations, job security, etc.) in Israel, according to gender, between 1981 and 2006.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a follow‐up research regarding “meaning of work” studies, held in 1981 and 1993. The participants constitute representative samples of the Israeli labor force in 1981, 1993 and 2006.

Findings

While in the past, men showed a higher work centrality than women, in 2006 no traditional gender differences were found in work centrality; however, family centrality, as in the past, was higher among women than among men. The most meaningful change among men and women was regarding “job security”, and this goal has become more and more important throughout the 25 years of the study.

Social implications

The transformation of men's and women's work values reflect the economic and social changes and those changes are influenced mainly by governmental decisions, for better or for worse. The findings disclose an increased potential for work‐family conflict among Israeli women in the last decade and this conflict can be reduced by economic and social policy.

Originality/value

This unique cross‐sectional study explores the changes in the importance of life domains and work goals among men and women over the course of time. Moreover, the study explains the causes for the major trends by social, economical and political factors.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 40 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 September 2012

Moshe Sharabi

The purpose of this paper is to examine and compare the meaning of work (MOW) according to religiosity among Jews and Muslims in Israel. The paper attempts to explain the…

1033

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine and compare the meaning of work (MOW) according to religiosity among Jews and Muslims in Israel. The paper attempts to explain the similarities and the differences between the two ethno‐religious groups.

Design/methodology/approach

In 2006 the MOW questionnaire was conducted on 1,464 working respondents and the final sample included 898 Jews and 215 Muslims, representing the labor force. The MOW dimensions were: work centrality, intrinsic orientation, economic orientation and interpersonal relations.

Findings

While among Jews, religiosity degree affected all four dimensions of the MOW, there were no differences among Muslims with a different religiosity degree concerning all MOW dimensions, except for the economic orientation. Furthermore, among Muslims when religiosity is controlled, the other demographic variables do not influence the MOW domination.

Practical implications

This additional knowledge of the relationship between religion, religiosity and the MOW, can help to better understand the employee's needs and how to fulfil them (e.g. implementing “Diversity Management” programs). This suitability will eventually lead to more desirable work outcomes.

Social implications

Governmental policy can lead to higher participation of orthodox Jews in the labor market. Moreover, the extra‐high work centrality among Arab Muslims reflects a high non‐actualized potential for organizations and for the Israeli economy in general.

Originality/value

There are no studies that compared work values of Jews and Muslims according to religiosity, in and out of Israel, and this paper explores the MOW of the ethno‐religious groups in Israel and the causes for the different patterns.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 39 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

1 – 10 of 16