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Article

Abeer Mahrous, Mohamed Ashraf Genedy and Morris Kalliny

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the entrepreneurial marketing (EM) paradigm by empirically investigating the relationship between intra-organizational…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the entrepreneurial marketing (EM) paradigm by empirically investigating the relationship between intra-organizational environment, EM intensity (EMI) and organizational performance in an emerging market context. Specifically, the paper identifies the elements of the intra-organizational environment that enhances EMI and also examines the impact of EMI on organizational performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected from large-sized companies in Egypt. Data were analyzed by using path analysis on Smart-PLS.

Findings

The findings suggest that the characteristics of the intra-organizational environment that support developing and increasing EMI in large-sized companies in emerging markets are cooperative competency, deep locus of planning and institutional support. Also, it was found that the long planning horizon hinders EMI. Finally, it was found that EMI is positively related to organizational performance and competitive advantage.

Practical implications

The study provides guidelines for managers of large-sized organizations, especially in emerging economies, on how to develop the intra-organizational environment to enhance EMI.

Originality/value

The study of EMI received little or no attention in previous research. Also, there is a paucity of empirical research on the impact of the intra-organizational environment on EMI and also on the impact of EMI on the organizational performance of large-sized companies in emerging markets. Therefore, the results of this research are a step toward filling these gaps.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

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Article

Morris Kalliny, Angela Hausman, Anshu Saran and Dina Ismaeil

The purpose of this paper is threefold: to extend the animosity model developed by Klein et al. (1998) by adding cultural and religious animosity constructs, to provide a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is threefold: to extend the animosity model developed by Klein et al. (1998) by adding cultural and religious animosity constructs, to provide a tool with which to measure the cultural and religious constructs and to provide explanations, and thus an understanding, of how cultural and religious differences impact consumer intention to purchase.

Design/methodology/approach

Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to test the model.

Findings

The cultural and religion animosity scale is created.

Originality/value

This fills a gap in the literature where there is not currently a scale to measure cultural or religious animosity.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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Article

Monica D. Hernandez, Yong Wang, Hong Sheng, Morris Kalliny and Michael Minor

The authors aim to examine the effect of location-driven logo placement on attention and memory on the web addressing differences between individuals that read…

Abstract

Purpose

The authors aim to examine the effect of location-driven logo placement on attention and memory on the web addressing differences between individuals that read unidirectionally (left-to-right [LTR]) versus bidirectionally (both right-to-left and LTR).

Design/methodology/approach

Using an eye-tracking approach combined with traditional verbal measures, the authors compared attention and memory measures from a sample composed of bidirectional (Arab/English) readers and unidirectional readers.

Findings

The findings reveal that unidirectional and bidirectional readers differ in attention patterns. Compared to bidirectional readers, unidirectional readers pay less attention to the logo on the bottom right corner of the webpage based on verbal measures. The eye-tracking data of the two groups further identify differences based on total hits and duration time. Unidirectional LTR readers demonstrate higher fluency in feature-based attention whereas bidirectional readers show higher fluency in spatial attention.

Originality/value

The authors expand on scarce research on reading direction bias effect on location-driven stimuli placement in online settings. They contribute to the understanding of the differences between unidirectional and bidirectional readers in their cognitive responses (attention and memory) to organization of marketing stimuli.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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Article

Morris Kalliny and Mamoun Benmamoun

The purpose of the current study is to examine the empirical research conducted on the Arab region as reported in the top 46 business journals over the past 23 years…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the current study is to examine the empirical research conducted on the Arab region as reported in the top 46 business journals over the past 23 years (1990-2013). After identifying patterns over time (focal country and methodologies), the identified methodological challenges that scholars have reported in their published research are presented.

Design/methodology/approach

The Arab region in this study comprised all 22 member-countries in the Arab League. We also added three other countries that are very much tied to the Arab region and are usually included in the Middle East: Turkey, Israel and Iran. Following the recommendations of previous authors (DuBois and Reeb, 2000; Nicholls-Nixon et al., 2011; Martinez and Kalliny, 2012), published articles are reviewed, but not book chapters, book reviews and dissertation abstracts from our sample, as they do not meet the sample selection criteria (Inkpen and Beamish, 1994; Samiee and Athanassiou, 1998).

Findings

As Table I indicates, the Arab region has not received much attention in the top business journals as evidenced by the number of articles published from 1990 to 2013. No papers were published in many of the top management journals such as the Academy of Management Review and Strategic Management Journal. Few found publication in other top management outlets such as the Academy of Management Journal, the Administrative Science Quarterly, the Journal of Management and the Journal of Management Studies. Our sample also revealed a similar result in the field of marketing where there are also no papers published in some of the top marketing journals such as the Journal of Marketing Research, Journal of Consumer Psychology and Marketing Science. There was one paper published in the Journal of Marketing and one in the Journal of Retailing. Bearing in mind that this literature review covered a span of 23 years, these results indicate an under-representation of the Arab region as an empirical context. This trend has started to change after the eruption of the Arab Spring. Academic business research on the Arab region has increased significantly since then. Another significant finding is the lack of investigation of the firm and country factors in studying the region.

Originality/value

As the world becomes increasingly connected and the fates of countries and regions become more intertwined, it is imperative that scholars and practitioners acquire a deeper understanding of individual countries and regions, particularly those that have been relatively understudied in the extant academic research (i.e. the Arab region). While there is a substantial body of Asian management research, as well as several comprehensive literature reviews of other regions (Bruton and Lau, 2008), a systematic review of Arab and Middle Eastern business research has not been undertaken. Despite much regional attention in political science research due to the Arab – Israel conflict, management research has lagged behind.

Details

The Multinational Business Review, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Abstract

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

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Article

Candace A. Martinez and Morris Kalliny

The purpose of this literature review is to provide a systematic overview and analysis of the trends and methodological issues of empirical scholarship in the Latin…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this literature review is to provide a systematic overview and analysis of the trends and methodological issues of empirical scholarship in the Latin American context.

Design/methodology/approach

The publications of a 21‐year period (1990‐2010) were reviewed in 45 business journals; 108 empirical studies were found that utilized a Latin American context.

Findings

Country‐specific and research design patterns were identified. This paper discusses how three methodological challenges – language, data collection, and response rates – have evolved in the context of Latin America over a period of two decades.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to presenting Latin America as a more tractable empirical context for future qualitative and quantitative scholarship and highlights the feasibility of including this understudied region to test scholars' hypotheses in the developing world.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Keywords

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Article

Morris Kalliny, Mamoun Benmamoun, Robert A. Cropf and Seung H. Kim

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of large business corporations, particularly media corporations, such as television (e.g. satellite networks)…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of large business corporations, particularly media corporations, such as television (e.g. satellite networks), newspapers and social media (e.g. Facebook), on institutional change in the Arab world, which directly impact political and civil liberties in the region.

Design/methodology/approach

Although there are several methods to measure institutional change, this paper relied on Kaufmann et al. (2010)’s governance indicators that capture, historically, how authority is exercised in a nation state. As the focus of this paper is on how information flows have empowered citizens in the Arab world, we built a panel database around one relevant governance indicator: “Voice and Accountability”. As a measure of governance, “Voice and Accountability” summarizes the condition of political, civil and human rights such as freedom of expression and freedom of association in a given country. This indicator takes scores ranging from 2.5, corresponding to strong governance, to −2.5, corresponding to weak governance.

Findings

As predicted, the information flows variable has a positive and significant effect on institutional change. Table II also suggests that political globalization has a positive and significant effect on institutional change in the Arab world. In contrast, the variables for cultural proximity and human capital are associated with negative effects on institutional change.

Originality/value

This paper is unique in the sense that it tackles a growing trend in the Arab world, namely, the impact of media on institutions.

Details

The Multinational Business Review, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

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Article

Mamoun Benmamoun, Morris Kalliny and Robert A. Cropf

Although multinational enterprises (MNEs), according to John Dunning's work, are driven by motives of ownership, location, internalization and, ultimately, higher returns…

Abstract

Purpose

Although multinational enterprises (MNEs), according to John Dunning's work, are driven by motives of ownership, location, internalization and, ultimately, higher returns, these business entities, by virtue of their transnational products and services, and extensive reach and resources, provide direct and indirect mechanisms that can shape political and social outcomes. This paper seeks to explore those mechanisms in the context of the so‐called “Arab Spring”, the popular uprising that has ensued in a number of Arab countries. The paper also aims to explore virtual public spheres, the platform from which the Arab Spring was launched, and which owes much to the presence of MNEs.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis is grounded on the theoretical construct of the virtual public sphere. The approaches taken are that of a general review and secondary research.

Findings

The main findings of this paper are three‐fold. First, in the examination of the role of MNEs and the virtual public sphere in the Arab Awakening, it is found that the new information and networking technologies have already made a sizable impact in terms of paving the way toward political and social changes. Second, it is found that foreign investments in Arab media, mobile, and internet markets are dominantly regional. Third, behind the social media phenomenon in the Arab world are “born‐global” American firms (MNEs), notably Facebook, Inc., Twitter, Inc., and Google, Inc.

Originality/value

Most research on the Arab Spring has not incorporated the likely distinctive influence of MNEs. In addition, the paper highlights the association between regional and transnational orientations of business activities of multinational firms and political outcomes.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Keywords

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Article

Mohammed Z. Salem, Samir Baidoun, Grace Walsh and Netham Sweidan

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of female portrayal in advertisements on Palestinian female consumers’ purchasing decisions. TV and online media were…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of female portrayal in advertisements on Palestinian female consumers’ purchasing decisions. TV and online media were selected as the medium for the study. Specifically, the researchers examine the one-dimensional sexualized female portrayal in advertisements.

Design/methodology/approach

Culture is used as the lens through which the study examines the relationship between independent and dependent variables concerning the topic of this study. The study collected primary data from 395 Palestinian participants through a survey questionnaire.

Findings

The findings of the study revealed that there is a relationship between the independent variable (the sexualized female portrayal in foreign advertisements – advertisements originating in foreign countries) and the dependent variable (Palestinian female consumers’ purchase decision). Additionally, the study found that the cultural differences between Palestine and other foreign countries have a negative impact on the Palestinian female consumers’ perception of the product being advertised.

Practical implications

Although traditional marketing procedures would allow companies to filter and adapt particular adverts to suit various cultural, social and political environments, the advent of the open web and satellite TV channels extend the advertisements reach to audiences beyond their intended demographic.

Originality/value

This is the first study set in the Arab context (including Palestine) to explore the impact of sexualized female portrayal in advertisements on Palestinian female consumers’ purchasing decision.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

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