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Article

James M. Crick

The purpose of this study is to explore the facets, antecedents and consequences of coopetition using three dimensions of entrepreneurial marketing. Coopetition is the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the facets, antecedents and consequences of coopetition using three dimensions of entrepreneurial marketing. Coopetition is the interplay between competition and cooperation in which companies seek to collaborate with their rivals with the aim of enhancing performance compared to if they operated independently.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reports on 38 interviews across 25 firms competing in the New Zealand wine industry. Triangulation procedures were via primary and secondary methods. This data was analysed through a series of techniques to produce credible findings.

Findings

Coopetition is comprised of resource- and capability-sharing activities. These activities are driven by an industry-wide cooperative mind-set; also, firms having access to competitors’ resources and capabilities. Coopetition was found to increase performance in ways that would not be possible if firms did not collaborate with their rivals.

Originality/value

Previous studies have focused on the facets and consequences of coopetition rather than its antecedents. Whilst exploration of these facets was undertaken in this study to reinforce prior research, this paper also investigates the antecedents of coopetition underpinned by the resource-based theory to contribute to the entrepreneurial marketing literature.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

Keywords

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Book part

Markus Helfen, Elke Schüßler and Sebastian Botzem

Corporate elites are increasingly held responsible for issues of sustainability including working conditions and workers’ rights in global production networks. We still…

Abstract

Corporate elites are increasingly held responsible for issues of sustainability including working conditions and workers’ rights in global production networks. We still know relatively little about how they respond to concrete stakeholder initiatives aiming to restrict corporate voluntarism through transnational regulation. In this paper we report comparative findings on corporate legitimation strategies in response to requests by labor representatives to sign Global Framework Agreements (GFAs). These agreements are intended to hold multinational corporations (MNCs) accountable for the implementation of core labor standards across their supply chains. We propose to broaden management-focused analyses of corporate legitimation strategies by applying a field-oriented perspective that considers the embeddedness of management in a broader web of strategic activity and variable opportunity structures. Our findings suggest that legitimation strategies are developed dynamically along with the rules, positions, and understandings developing around specific regulatory issues in sequences of interactions between elites and challenging groups.

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Article

Morgan Andersson, Christer Svennerlind, Inga Malmqvist and Henrik Anckarsäter

The purpose of this paper is to map significant features of the physical design of nine recently planned facilities for forensic psychiatric care in Sweden. The present…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to map significant features of the physical design of nine recently planned facilities for forensic psychiatric care in Sweden. The present paper is focused on differences in the physical design, static security adaptations, visions and goals for the projects, economy and steering processes.

Design/methodology/approach

In June 2008, records concerning major forensic psychiatric construction projects, planned or carried out between 1970 and 2008, were requested from all 21 regions in Sweden. The documents were collected, organized, critically examined, and analyzed in their contexts. Extensive data have also been retrieved from the internet.

Findings

In spite of the common national legislation governing forensic psychiatric care, the projects show great diversity in the physical design and, after 2006, increasing emphasis on static security. The collected material indicates different visions and goals and little coordination between them. It also suggests that the decisions rarely have been preceded by scientific studies or, as it appears, systematic needs assessments. There were also considerable variations in the interpretation of the legislation stipulating public access to official documentation and the time‐frame allowed for such requests.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations of the project especially relate to the incompleteness of the documents received.

Originality/value

This mainly descriptive paper provides an overview of contemporary Swedish forensic psychiatric construction projects, planned for or realized after 2000. This paper points out structural and physical differences between these projects. The systematised documents are made available for research purposes within different disciplines.

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Book part

Peggy Cunningham

The primary purpose of this chapter is to provide insight as to why some privately held small-to-medium sized firms (SMEs) have been able to outperform their peers in…

Abstract

Purpose

The primary purpose of this chapter is to provide insight as to why some privately held small-to-medium sized firms (SMEs) have been able to outperform their peers in terms of their performance defined as revenue growth, profit growth, growth in number of employees and markets. Little is known about privately held firms and what drives their performance. The second purpose is to synthesize and provide clarity to the extant literature on rapid-growth SMEs (gazelles). The third purpose is to bring a unifying theoretical lens to the literature.

Methodology

The research was conducted using elite interviews with 47 informants drawn from 21 rapid-growth, private companies. Qualitative methods were used to identify themes related to the strategies used by these firms to outperform their peers over a five-year period.

Findings

The study organizes and summarizes the extant literature on rapid-growth companies, provides support for some findings, and clarifies equivocal findings. It also suggests that early strategic choices made by the owners of private firms along with their attitudes and capabilities positioned the private firms for rapid growth. The Morgan and Hunt (1994) trust–commitment theory of relationship marketing emerged from the data as the model used most often by rapid-growth private firms and the one that best integrates the factors driving private firm performance. A modified, two-stage model appears to be warranted. The first stage focuses on respect for the value employees bring, and building their trust and commitment is an essential first step that subsequently drives the second stage of the model – building customer trust and commitment. While some of the outcomes are similar to those suggested by Morgan and Hunt, new outcomes (collaborative innovation, citizenship behaviors, sustained growth, and premium prices) also emerged as important outcomes in this study.

Practical implications

This study provides owners of private firms with insight on how to build and grow their firms in a rapid and sustainable fashion.

Originality/value

Little research has been undertaken on private firms. This study addresses this knowledge gap. The modified trust–commitment relationship marketing model that emerged from the data had not been utilized to date in the field of rapid-growth firms and it provides an integrating theory that explains the performance of rapid-growth private firms.

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Book part

Ricardo Madureira

This paper illuminates the distinction between individual and organizational actors in business-to-business markets as well as the coexistence of formal and informal…

Abstract

This paper illuminates the distinction between individual and organizational actors in business-to-business markets as well as the coexistence of formal and informal mechanisms of coordination in multinational corporations. The main questions addressed include the following. (1) What factors influence the occurrence of personal contacts of foreign subsidiary managers in industrial multinational corporations? (2) How such personal contacts enable coordination in industrial markets and within multinational firms? The theoretical context of the paper is based on: (1) the interaction approach to industrial markets, (2) the network approach to industrial markets, and (3) the process approach to multinational management. The unit of analysis is the foreign subsidiary manager as the focal actor of a contact network. The paper is empirically focused on Portuguese sales subsidiaries of Finnish multinational corporations, which are managed by either a parent country national (Finnish), a host country national (Portuguese) or a third country national. The paper suggests eight scenarios of individual dependence and uncertainty, which are determined by individual, organizational, and/or market factors. Such scenarios are, in turn, thought to require personal contacts with specific functions. The paper suggests eight interpersonal roles of foreign subsidiary managers, by which the functions of their personal contacts enable inter-firm coordination in industrial markets. In addition, the paper suggests eight propositions on how the functions of their personal contacts enable centralization, formalization, socialization and horizontal communication in multinational corporations.

Details

Managing Product Innovation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-311-2

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Book part

Anne-Maria Holma

This study provides a comprehensive framework of adaptation in triadic business relationship settings in the service sector. The framework is based on the industrial…

Abstract

This study provides a comprehensive framework of adaptation in triadic business relationship settings in the service sector. The framework is based on the industrial network approach (see, e.g., Axelsson & Easton, 1992; Håkansson & Snehota, 1995a). The study describes how adaptations initiate, how they progress, and what the outcomes of these adaptations are. Furthermore, the framework takes into account how adaptations spread in triadic relationship settings. The empirical context is corporate travel management, which is a chain of activities where an industrial enterprise, and its preferred travel agency and service supplier partners combine their resources. The scientific philosophy, on which the knowledge creation is based, is realist ontology. Epistemologically, the study relies on constructionist processes and interpretation. Case studies with in-depth interviews are the main source of data.

Details

Deep Knowledge of B2B Relationships within and Across Borders
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-858-7

Keywords

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Book part

Christoph Dörrenbächer and Mike Geppert

This article takes stock of interdisciplinary research on Multinational Corporations (MNCs) by elucidating paradigmatic shifts in the world of MNCs in the new millennium…

Abstract

This article takes stock of interdisciplinary research on Multinational Corporations (MNCs) by elucidating paradigmatic shifts in the world of MNCs in the new millennium and analysing more recent developments in the disciplines of International Business (IB) and Organization Theory (OT). The article also introduces the altogether 14 individual contributions of this 49th volume of the Research in the Sociology of Organizations series. It closes by looking into the questions of where interdisciplinary OT/IB research on MNCs is now and where it is likely to go in the future.

Details

Multinational Corporations and Organization Theory: Post Millennium Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-386-3

Keywords

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Article

Stephan Gerschewski, Valerie J. Lindsay and Elizabeth Rose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how entrepreneurial orientation (EO) is manifested in the context of born global firms. Specifically, the authors investigate the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how entrepreneurial orientation (EO) is manifested in the context of born global firms. Specifically, the authors investigate the extent to which the EO dimensions of the influential Miller/Covin & Slevin scale are demonstrated in born globals. In addition, following calls in the literature, some as-yet unrecognised dimensions of EO in born globals are examined.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use a qualitative research approach by conducting semi-structured, in-depth interviews with eight born global firms from New Zealand and Australia.

Findings

The authors find that the EO dimensions of proactiveness and innovativeness are strongly prevalent in these firms. In contrast to the extant literature, the results also indicate that these born global firms generally display a relatively low level of risk-taking. The authors find strong empirical support for two additional emerging dimensions of EO: passion and perseverance.

Originality/value

The study provides two key contributions to the area of international entrepreneurship by investigating how EO is prevalent in the context of born globals and by proposing the new dimensions of passion and perseverance.

Details

Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

Keywords

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Book part

Inessa Laur

This chapter aims to enrich knowledge about cluster initiatives acting as intermediaries primarily between members in a cluster or in regional context. This is a…

Abstract

This chapter aims to enrich knowledge about cluster initiatives acting as intermediaries primarily between members in a cluster or in regional context. This is a practically oriented manuscript written to contribute to refinement of existing policies by proposing recommendations based on recent empirical studies regarding funding, actors’ and activities’ content, as well as cluster initiatives’ assessment. It is proposed that public support should be balanced, targeting new as well as established, well-functioning cluster initiatives. Furthermore, regional authorities should encourage multifaceted collaboration (e.g., Triple Helix), stimulate variation in activities to maximize the benefit of cluster initiatives as well as define and communicate success factors that make it possible to evaluate cluster initiatives from a holistic perspective. These recommendations are primary aimed for regional authorities and reflect a bottom-up perspective where both logic of initiatives’ actions and their development are captured. Yet, even national authorities can make use of the recommendations in this chapter to improve governance of cluster initiatives and to determine further directions of regional policies.

Details

New Technology-Based Firms in the New Millennium
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-032-6

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Book part

Tiina Ritvala, Per Andersson and Asta Salmi

This chapter analyses the multiple embeddedness of MNEs, and their participation in solving contemporary societal issues. We aim to increase understanding on the…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter analyses the multiple embeddedness of MNEs, and their participation in solving contemporary societal issues. We aim to increase understanding on the relational processes and network dynamics present in MNEs’ participation in cross-sector partnerships.

Design/methodology/approach

Our study addresses the issue of the poor ecological state of the Baltic Sea and illustrates the early developments in cross-sector collaboration. We build on a single exploratory case study of the cooperation of one MNE (IBM) with an environmental NGO (BSAG) in Finland. We analyse how participation in the cross-sector collaboration manifests itself in the external and internal networks of the MNE.

Findings

We show that an initiative by the NGO to participate in environmental work was actively adopted within the MNE and led to network changes. These changes concerned both the activation of existing links and the establishment of new links with such actors as authorities and research institutes. The NGO acted as a catalyser and cultural mediator to create a bridge between the MNE and governmental actors.

Research implications

There is a need to investigate cross-sector collaboration in other contexts – particularly from the perspective of MNEs and (international) business networks. Questions such as how do enduring (business and socio-political) relationships emerge from MNE’s participation in issue networks and how technology that has been developed to solve a specific societal issue may be translated into commercial solutions are especially promising. We also urge scholars to investigate the ties, texture and dynamics (including tensions) of business relationships with those of public actors and civil society.

Practical implications

Participation in cross-sector initiatives may grant an MNE a forerunner position in the creation of new sustainable markets and technologies. It may also create an opportunity to influence policymakers and build new socio-political networks. From the perspective of a subsidiary of an MNE, engagement with cross-sector partnerships may strengthen its voice within the MNE network.

Originality/value

Our study contributes to the understanding of the relationship dynamics between actors in cross-sector collaboration around a societal (environmental) issue. Our analysis illustrates the embeddedness of MNE networks, where actions in the regional and global networks (the representatives of the headquarters) overlap with and strengthen the local actions of the subsidiary.

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