Search results

1 – 10 of 157
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 25 August 2021

Ali Shams Nateri and Ehsan Dehnavi

This work aims to study the effect of mordanting method as pre-mordanting (on-chrome), meta-mordanting (meta-chrome) and post-mordanting (after-chrome) on wool dyeing with…

Abstract

Purpose

This work aims to study the effect of mordanting method as pre-mordanting (on-chrome), meta-mordanting (meta-chrome) and post-mordanting (after-chrome) on wool dyeing with madder natural dye without tannin and pomegranates peel, as a natural dye contains tannin.

Design/methodology/approach

The woolen yarn was dyed with madder and pomegranate peel natural dyes by three methods as pre-mordant, meta-mordant and pos-mordant. The color parameters and reflectance spectra of dyed samples were analyzed by using derivative spectroscopy and the principal component analysis (PCA) techniques.

Findings

The obtained results indicate that the color difference between the samples dyed with madder by pre-mordanting, and the samples dyed by other methods is more than the color difference between the samples dyed by meta-mordanting and post-mordanting. However, the color difference between samples dyed with pomegranate peel by pre-mordanting and meta-mordanting methods is less compared to other pairs. Also, analysis of reflectance spectra and color depth (K/S) values indicate that the color depth of dyed sample with madder by pre-mordanting method is more than other dyeing methods. But, the color depth of sample dyed with pomegranate peel by post-mordanting method is less compared to other methods. The analysis of first-, second-, third- and fourth-order derivatives of reflectance spectra and the study of the first, second, third and fourth PCs of reflectance spectra indicate that the reflectance of dyed samples with madder and pomegranates peel depends on the mordanting method.

Originality/value

Evaluation of the effect of mordanting method on color and reflectance of wool dyed with madder and pomegranates peel natural dyes using derivative spectroscopy and the PCA techniques

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 18 October 2021

Ainur Rosyida, Suranto Suranto, Mohammad Masykuri and Margono Margono

This paper aims to examine the recipe for and standard methods of dyeing cotton fabric with natural dyes from jackfruit wood extract. The dyeing of the fabric was…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the recipe for and standard methods of dyeing cotton fabric with natural dyes from jackfruit wood extract. The dyeing of the fabric was performed by immersion it without heating for a short time to obtain the best results.

Design/methodology/approach

The dyeing experiment using cotton fabric with jackfruit wood extract was conducted by immersion at room temperature. The independent variables studied were the mordant method, type of mordant, mordant concentration, salt concentration and dyeing pH. The dependent variables were colour strength and colour fastness to washing and rubbing. The orthogonal array L16 (45) was used in the study to obtain the optimal values for each parameter of the response variables. The multi-response signal-to-noise (MRSN) method was used to optimise the five response variables with different quality characteristics so that the best parameters could be obtained based on the highest MRSN ratio value.

Findings

The best parameters were obtained at an MRSN value of 4.5254 under A3B3C1D2E4 conditions, namely, the dyeing process with post mordant, aluminium nitrate type mordant, mordant concentration of 10 g/L, salt concentration of 15 g/L and dyeing a pH: of 10. Under these conditions, the value of K/S was obtained at 1.893, colour fastness to washing (GS: 4) and (SS: 4–5), dry rubbing (SS: 5) and wet rubbing (SS: 4–5).

Research limitations/implications

Obtaining a standard recipe and method for dyeing cotton cloth with jackfruit wood extract by immersion without heating is expected to lead to the development of natural dyes, and especially their application on an industrial scale. This standard and method can be used as technical guidelines by industry. The use of aluminum nitrate as a mordant will help achieve optimal dyeing results. The use of polyaluminium chloride (PAC) mordant, which has the potential to produce high colour strength, and papaya fruit sap, which has the capacity to increase colour fastness, still need to be developed to improve the results of natural dyes.

Practical implications

The standard recipe and dyeing method will be able to improve the results of the dyeing of cotton fabrics with natural dyes. Short immersion dyeing without heating and the optimal results obtained are the main attractions for their use by the textile/batik industry, as the process is easier and a lower cost. The results of dyeing with dark colours and good colour fastness mean the textile products are of the higher quality demanded by consumers, thereby increasing sales. This will encourage the use of and increase the need for natural dyes by industry, consequently reducing the use of synthetic dyes.

Social implications

The use of natural dyes, chemical mordant from aluminum salts, and natural mordant from papaya fruit sap in the dyeing process in the textile/batik industry in Indonesia will produce eco-textile and eco-batik products that are environmentally friendly and of high quality. This in turn will increase consumer interest and sales, meaning that the income and economy of workers in the textile industry/crafts sector will also increase. In addition, the use of natural dyes with the selection of a safe mordant (not containing heavy metals) will reduce the use of synthetic dyes, which pollute and damage the aquatic environment.

Originality/value

This study found a standard recipe and method of dyeing cotton fabric with natural dyes from jackfruit wood extracted by immersion without heating for a short time to obtain the best results. In addition, the discovery was of PAC, a new mordant which is effective in the use of natural dyes can give high colour strength to cotton fabric. In addition to the discovery of a new mordant, PAC, which has the potential to produce high colour strength, papaya fruit sap also has the capacity to increase colour fastness with the use of natural dyes from the flavonoid group.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 28 May 2021

Ainur Rosyida, Suranto, Mohammad Masykuri and Margono

This paper aims to select a type of mordant from aluminium salts, namely, aluminium sulphate, aluminium nitrate and polyaluminium chloride (PAC) with the lowest potential…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to select a type of mordant from aluminium salts, namely, aluminium sulphate, aluminium nitrate and polyaluminium chloride (PAC) with the lowest potential for contamination so that their use will minimise pollution from natural dye waste. It also aims to determine the pollution value of natural dye immersion waste from jackfruit wood extract, secang wood, mangsi fruit and several synthetic dyes, to identify potential environmental pollution.

Design/methodology/approach

Dyeing with natural dyes was performed by exhaust at room temperature by the pre-mordant method, while with synthetic dyes it was performed by exhaust according to the dyeing procedure (reactive, vat and naphthol). The groundwater, mordant solutions, natural dye extract and the waste-water from the natural and synthetic dyes were then tested to determine their biological oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), pH, Al and heavy metal contents such as chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co) and lead (Pb).

Findings

Aluminium sulphate had the lowest pollution load while PAC had the highest, as aluminium sulphate had a higher BOD5/COD ratio (0.62–0.67) than aluminium nitrate (0.56–0.64) or PAC (0.44–0.54). The dyeing waste from the three natural dyes contained an acidic pH of 3.5–4.2, Al of 75.280–621.34 mg/L, Cr of 0.154–0.215 mg/L and Cu of 0.035–0.072 mg/L. The values of TSS, COD and BOD5 are higher than the quality standards of the waste but are environmentally friendly because the ratio of the BOD5/COD values from the waste ranges from 0.44–0.67.

Research limitations/implications

The findings indicate that as a mordant, aluminium sulphate results in lower pollution loads than aluminium nitrate and PAC. However, all three mordants contain Cr and Cu, albeit in negligible concentrations. Therefore, it is recommended that future studies strive to identify a mordant that has lower pollution loads and does not contain metals but can increase dyeing results to satisfy consumer requirements. It is the hope that, with the discovery of a new mordant, natural dyes will be the solution for the heavy metal pollution caused by synthetic dyes.

Practical implications

The use of environmentally-friendly mordants and natural dyes in the Indonesian textile and batik industry will give rise to superior quality eco-textile and eco-batik products. Such environmentally-friendly and high-quality products will not only increase competition and consumer interest but increase product sales as well which will, in turn, increase incomes and the economy. Additionally, an increase in the use of natural dyes by the textile and batik industry will serve as additional income to the communities and farmers from which the raw materials for the natural dyes are sourced thereby creating jobs and increasing welfare.

Social implications

As environmentally-friendly mordants and natural dyes replace the hazardous and toxic materials currently used in the textile and batik industry, it guarantees the health and safety of its consumers and workers. Furthermore, as the waste-water produced is biodegradable, it reduces river and groundwater pollution. It is, therefore, expected that this information will not only lead to a shift in attitude within the textile and batik industries but the adoption of environmentally-friendly materials, for the sake of the environment, as well as the development of eco-textile and eco-batik products.

Originality/value

Aluminium sulphate is a mordant type of aluminium salt with a lower potential for contamination than aluminium nitrate and PAC. However, PAC has been discovered to be a mordant for natural dyes, as has the fruit of the mangsi shrub, which has recently been discovered as a naturally occurring blue dye.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 26 October 2020

Mark Peter Odero, Ambrose Kipchumba Kiprop, Isaac Odhiambo K'Owino, Milton Arimi and Scolastica Manyim

Considered as one of the most unwanted species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, the Prosopis juliflora plant is a noxious and invasive weed. Recent…

Abstract

Purpose

Considered as one of the most unwanted species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, the Prosopis juliflora plant is a noxious and invasive weed. Recent studies suggest that the heartwood of the plant has an unusually high amounts of flavonoids with potential medicinal properties and dyeing potentials. In this work, acetonic extracts were successfully valorized into a natural dye.

Design/methodology/approach

After extraction and optimization of dyeing conditions, the fabric was treated by using pre-mordanting, simultaneously mordanting and post mordanting techniques. The dyed samples were then evaluated by using standard methods ISO 105-C06, ISO 105-A02, ISO 105-X12 for wash, light and rub fastness, respectively.

Findings

Dye fastness ranged from good to very good with mordants improving both wash and rub fastness. Optimum pH for dyeing was found to be at 7.2 at temperatures of 60°C and a dyeing time of 80 min. Application of mordant in dyeing white fabric showed improved dyeing properties in post mordanting than both pre-mordanting and simultaneous mordanting.

Originality/value

To best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper details for the first time how a noxious weed can be transformed into a natural dye, with potential applications to the textile industry.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 5 August 2020

Akshita Agrawal and Sheetal Chopra

This paper aims to extract the dye colourant from teak leaves using different aqueous mediums (Alkaline, Neutral and Acidic); to characterize the dye in terms of yield %;…

Downloads
98

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to extract the dye colourant from teak leaves using different aqueous mediums (Alkaline, Neutral and Acidic); to characterize the dye in terms of yield %; ash content and moisture content; to standardize the conditions of application of dye extracted from teak leaves on selected natural and synthetic fabrics using selected natural and chemical mordants; to assess the colour value (K/S, L*, c*/ h*, a*, b*) and fastness properties of the dyed samples in terms of wash, rub, light and perspiration fastness; and to develop dyed and printed designs using combinations of mordant and extracted dye.

Design/methodology/approach

Stage 1 – Extraction of dye from teak leaves; and characterization of dye: yield% ash content and moisture content. Stage 2 – Preparation of fabrics for dyeing; optimization of mordanting parameters using pre mordanting method followed by post mordanting; and optimization of dyeing parameters. Stage 3 – Testing of dyed fabric – Colour Measurement; K/S L*a*b*/L*c*h*; fastness properties; wash fastness done in the Laundrometer using ISO 2 standard test method; crock fastness done by Crockmeter using AATCC 116–1995 test method; perspiration fastness tested by perspirometer using AATCC 15– 2007 test method; and light fastness assessment in Mercury Bulb Tungsten Filament (MBTF) light fastness tester using AATCC Test Method 16–2004.

Findings

The findings of the study show that waste teak leaves can be used as an effective dye for natural as well as synthetic fabrics giving a wide range of colours on wool, silk and nylon. The maximum relative colour strength of the extracted dye on unmordanted dyed samples was found to be at pH 5 on wool and silk and at pH 7 on nylon. A range of shades was obtained with the use of different mordants. The extracted dye showed moderate to good fastness properties in terms of light, wash, rub and perspiration on wool and silk and excellent on nylon. Fastness properties were found to improve with the application of mordants both as pre and post method. Various combinations of mordants and dye result in obtaining pleasing and harmonious colours which were used aesthetically for printing.

Research limitations/implications

Due to time constrains, extraction in an organic medium could not be done, which could be a further scope for study.

Practical implications

Dyeing using teak leaves is a step towards sustainability and effective waste utilization with promising potential for application on natural as well as synthetic fabrics. Good colour with added properties will provide excellent solutions for eco-friendly methods of dyeing.

Social implications

This paper demonstrates the new possibilities offered by innovative uses of by-products of the timber industry and open good prospects for alternatives to synthetic colourants and new markets for the textile industry. It offers a new tool for the development of slow fashion.

Originality/value

It is a common practice to prune the tree branches to improve wood quality; thus, leaves are easily available as by product from pruning and also from wood harvesting. In the present study, waste teak leaves (Tectona grandis L.) were used for the extraction of dye.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 29 April 2014

C. Swami, S. Saini and V.B. Gupta

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the efficacy and kinetics along with diffusion properties of a new source of natural dye obtained from leaves and fine stems of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the efficacy and kinetics along with diffusion properties of a new source of natural dye obtained from leaves and fine stems of the Sesbania aculeata plant, using metallic mordants for cotton dyeing.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach followed in this work is to conduct experiments with the application of the natural dye obtained from Sesbania aculeata plant and to study the kinetics, dye uptake and the diffusion properties of this dye.

Findings

Sesbania aculeata with simultaneous mordanting with different metal mordants imparted shades which varied from cream to light brown to dark brown in case of aqueous extract. The different mordants used not only changed the hue colour and K/S values but also L* and brightness index values. The results of fastness properties of the dyes were found to vary from fair to good. The percentage dye exhaustion values varied with different mordants. The dye uptake value increased with time and reached its saturation limit after 4 hours of dyeing. In the absence of mordants, the diffusion coefficient values increased with increase in the temperature. In the presence of mordants, the diffusion process appears to slow down, which could be attributed to the binding effects of mordants.

Research limitations/implications

The extraction and dyeing process of Sesbania aculeata plant is less tedious and time consuming compared to the other sources of natural dyes.

Practical implications

Sesbania aculeata is relatively easier to grow and does not require much tending operations. Thus, it promises to be an affordable source of natural dye. If this dye is commercialised, it will help to generate sustainable employment and income for the farmers in rural and sub-urban areas. This could be both for dyeing and for non-food crop farming.

Originality/value

An advantageous feature of this plant, in contrast to the other natural dyes based on vegetable and fruit sources, is that its usage in making the natural dye does not result in any wastage of an otherwise highly commercial product. The current experimental study on a new source of natural dye would be a significant contribution to the existing database of knowledge regarding the kinetics and diffusion properties of natural dyes. There are several reported studies in the literature pertaining to the application of natural colourants and evaluation of their dyeing properties on various fibers. However, relatively fewer studies exist on the kinetic and exhaustion aspects. Thus, the current study would help to develop a set of predictable settings for application of natural dyes on various textiles.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 43 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 3 September 2019

Özlenen Erdem Ismal and Leyla Yıldırım

The purpose of this paper is to reveal the potential use of faba bean husk as natural dye, to create a color gamut and to observe the effect of different mordants. Dyeing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to reveal the potential use of faba bean husk as natural dye, to create a color gamut and to observe the effect of different mordants. Dyeing properties of polyamide/elastane fabric using faba been husk were investigated. The effect of alum [KAl(SO4)2], iron II sulfate Fe(SO4)7H2O, tin II chloride (SnCI22H2O), copper II sulfate (CuSO4), citric acid (C6H8O7), tartaric acid (C4H6O6), oxalic acid (H2C2O4), ammonium sulfate [(NH4)2SO4], sodium acetate (C2H3NaO2), combination of alum-iron, iron-tin and alum-tin were evaluated in terms of color yield, color coordinates and wash fastness.

Design/methodology/approach

Mainly, dyeings were conducted in accordance with a simultaneous mordanting method. However, pre-mordanted dyeings were also implemented with selected concentration (0.8 g/L) of metallic mordants to enrich color gamut. Control sample (without mordant) was used as a reference for examining the effect of different mordants. Dyed samples were compared mutually in the light of visual evaluation and color measurements and alternatives to metallic mordants were also assessed.

Findings

Significant differences occurred in color coordinates of dyed samples. The biggest color difference and completely different color shades were achieved with tin II chloride. The type of acid did not create visible color differences. As alternatives to metallic mordants; all of them may be used instead of alum (0.8 g/L). Tartaric acid and oxalic acid, instead of iron II sulfate (0.2 g/L), and ammonium sulfate (0.2 g/L) and sodium acetate (0.8 g/L), instead of alum (0.8 g/L), can be used. Sodium acetate cannot be replaced with iron. A combination of alum-iron and iron-tin can be the alternative to 0.2 and 0.8 g/L copper, respectively. All the samples provided good wash fastness (4/5) values.

Originality/value

Valorization of industrial, agricultural and domestic wastes as novel natural dye sources is an ecological and sustainable approach. Moreover, the use of man-made fibers in natural dyeing is an issue that needs to be developed and expanded. Few literatures have been found concerning the use of husks of faba bean as a natural colorant. In this initial study, husks of faba been as a vegetable waste were utilized in natural dyeing of polyamide/elastane fabric. It is suggested that this waste can be turned into an economic value through its valorization in natural dyeing.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 3 January 2017

Monthon Nakpathom, Buppha Somboon, Nootsara Narumol and Rattanaphol Mongkholrattanasit

The present study aims to focus on the feasibility of using an aqueous extract from the fruit shell of Camellia oleifera Abel as a source of natural colourant in…

Abstract

Purpose

The present study aims to focus on the feasibility of using an aqueous extract from the fruit shell of Camellia oleifera Abel as a source of natural colourant in printing-paste preparation for pigment printing of cotton fabric. The effects of pre- and post-mordanting with three common metallic mordants, that is AlK(SO4)2, CuSO4 and FeSO4 on colour yield and colour fastness properties are also investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

The printing paste was prepared by mixing the concentrated Camellia oleifera Abel fruit shell extract solution with commercially available synthetic thickener and binder. The fabric sample was printed with the prepared printing paste using a flat-screen printing technique. To determine the effects of pre- and post-mordanting, AlK(SO4)2, CuSO4 and FeSO4 mordant aqueous solutions with various concentrations were applied using the pad-dry technique. Comparisons between printing with and without mordants were evaluated in terms of colour strength (K/S values) and colour fastness to washing, light, crocking and perspiration.

Findings

Without the mordants, the printed fabric had a yellowish brown shade with acceptable colour fastness properties, that is fair to good wash fastness, moderate light fastness, good to very good crocking fastness and fair to good perspiration fastness. The use of mordants, especially CuSO4 and FeSO4, not only enhanced colour strength but also imparted different colours to the fabric. Compared to the unmordanted fabrics, colour fastness properties were mostly comparable or improved in the mordanted fabrics depending on the type and concentration of mordants.

Research limitations/implications

Although in the case of CuSO4 the light fastness was increased to a good to very good level, it is recommended that the final print be produced with a concentration of less than 0.125 gL−1 to yield the print with the residual amount of Cu metal under the limit, that is less than 50 ppm as regulated by the Oeko-Tex® standard.

Practical implications

The obtained prints from Camellia oleifera Abel fruit shell extract provided shades with satisfactory colour fastness to washing, light, crocking and perspiration. The extract from Camellia oleifera Abel fruit shell has the potential to be used as an alternative to synthetic dye in the textile industry.

Originality/value

The use of Camellia oleifera Abel fruit shells, which are considered as abundant byproducts of tea seed oil production, as natural colouring agents for pigment printing of cotton fabric has been reported for the first time. It will minimise the environmental impact of this waste and create more valuable textile products.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 46 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 3 July 2009

Padma S. Vankar, Rakhi Shanker and Samudrika Wijayapala

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of dyeing on cotton wool and silk fabrics with natural dye obtained from kitchen waste of dry skin extract of Allium cepa.

Downloads
1536

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of dyeing on cotton wool and silk fabrics with natural dye obtained from kitchen waste of dry skin extract of Allium cepa.

Design/methodology/approach

The dry skin of onion produces natural dye which has been used for dyeing textiles. In the present study, innovative dyeing with onion has been shown to give good dyeing results. Pretreatment with 2 per cent metal mordant and using 5 per cent of plant extract (owf) was found to be optimum and showed very good fastness properties for cotton, wool and silk dyed fabrics. For effective natural dyeing with dry skin extract of Allium cepa, conventional method of dyeing was carried out using metal mordants. The purpose of using this source was with an idea to produce value addition dyed product from kitchen waste as the dye has very good potential of uptake, adherence to the fabric and has good wash and light fastnesses. Results show very attractive hue colours.

Findings

The preference of using easily and cheaply available material for dyeing by conventional dyeing lowers the cost of natural dyeing and enhances resource productivity and as a result, reduces waste. This makes onion scale one of the easily available materials for natural dyeing industry.

Research limitations/implications

Although metal mordanting with copper sulphate and potassium dichromate are not ecofriendly but we have used only 2 per cent of these metal salts to prepare different shades with dry scales of Allium cepa extract.

Practical implications

The method developed for natural dyeing of cotton, silk and wool fabrics using skin extract of allium in conjunction with metal mordanting has shown very deep coloration. The stepwise dyeing of cotton fabric with metal mordant by the natural dye Allium cepa showed that the stepwise dyeing process gave very good result. The dye uptake in case of stepwise dyeing was from 65‐68 per cent in the case of cotton, 70‐74 per cent in silk and 78‐82 per cent in wool with different mordants.

Originality/value

The method developed for natural dyeing of cotton, silk and wool fabrics using skin extract of allium in conjunction with metal mordanting has shown marked improvement in terms of dye adherence and fastness properties and can thus be recommended for industrial application.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 11 January 2016

M Kumaresan

The purpose of this paper is to extract the eco-friendly natural dye obtained from the flower of Spathodea campanulata and apply on silk fabric using combination of…

Downloads
249

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to extract the eco-friendly natural dye obtained from the flower of Spathodea campanulata and apply on silk fabric using combination of mordants. The fastness properties of the flower of Spathodea campanulata dyed silk fabric have been studied using different combination (1:3, 1:1 and 3:1) of various mordants, such as myrobolan: nickel sulphate, myrobolan: aluminium sulphate, myrobolan: potassium dichromate, myrobolan: ferrous sulphate and myrobolan: stannous chloride. The wash, rub, light and perspiration fastness of the dyed samples have been evaluated.

Design/methodology/approach

For dyeing there are three methods are used. They are Pre mordanting, Simultaneous mordanting and Post mordanting methods. Dyed silk materials are tested by using wash fastness, rub fastness, light and perspiration fastness methods.

Findings

It is found that Spathodea campanulata dye can be successfully used for the dyeing of silk to obtain a wide range colours by using various combinations of mordants. With regards to colour fastness, test samples exhibit excellent fastness to washing, rubbing, except for pre-mordanting using myrobolan: potassium dichromate combination; and good to excellent fastness to perspiration in both acidic and alkaline media.

Originality/value

Availability of literature related to this work is not available. The study of combination of mordants of this natural dye on silk is a new research work and the large scale preparation is definitely very useful to the society.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

1 – 10 of 157