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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1992

John Conway O'Brien

A collection of essays by a social economist seeking to balanceeconomics as a science of means with the values deemed necessary toman′s finding the good life and society…

Abstract

A collection of essays by a social economist seeking to balance economics as a science of means with the values deemed necessary to man′s finding the good life and society enduring as a civilized instrumentality. Looks for authority to great men of the past and to today′s moral philosopher: man is an ethical animal. The 13 essays are: 1. Evolutionary Economics: The End of It All? which challenges the view that Darwinism destroyed belief in a universe of purpose and design; 2. Schmoller′s Political Economy: Its Psychic, Moral and Legal Foundations, which centres on the belief that time‐honoured ethical values prevail in an economy formed by ties of common sentiment, ideas, customs and laws; 3. Adam Smith by Gustav von Schmoller – Schmoller rejects Smith′s natural law and sees him as simply spreading the message of Calvinism; 4. Pierre‐Joseph Proudhon, Socialist – Karl Marx, Communist: A Comparison; 5. Marxism and the Instauration of Man, which raises the question for Marx: is the flowering of the new man in Communist society the ultimate end to the dialectical movement of history?; 6. Ethical Progress and Economic Growth in Western Civilization; 7. Ethical Principles in American Society: An Appraisal; 8. The Ugent Need for a Consensus on Moral Values, which focuses on the real dangers inherent in there being no consensus on moral values; 9. Human Resources and the Good Society – man is not to be treated as an economic resource; man′s moral and material wellbeing is the goal; 10. The Social Economist on the Modern Dilemma: Ethical Dwarfs and Nuclear Giants, which argues that it is imperative to distinguish good from evil and to act accordingly: existentialism, situation ethics and evolutionary ethics savour of nihilism; 11. Ethical Principles: The Economist′s Quandary, which is the difficulty of balancing the claims of disinterested science and of the urge to better the human condition; 12. The Role of Government in the Advancement of Cultural Values, which discusses censorship and the funding of art against the background of the US Helms Amendment; 13. Man at the Crossroads draws earlier themes together; the author makes the case for rejecting determinism and the “operant conditioning” of the Skinner school in favour of the moral progress of autonomous man through adherence to traditional ethical values.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 19 no. 3/4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2011

Christopher Robertson and Scott Geiger

The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of cultural differences on managerial attitudes about moral philosophies and ethics codes, accomplished through a sample…

2535

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of cultural differences on managerial attitudes about moral philosophies and ethics codes, accomplished through a sample of US and Peruvian managers.

Design/methodology/approach

Managerial attitudes about moral philosophies are assessed in Peru and the USA. Specifically, the cultural dimension individualism vs collectivism is integrated with the moral philosophies egoism and utilitarianism to serve as the theoretical foundation for the three hypotheses in this study. Hypotheses are tested using survey data from 187 Peruvian and 117 US managers.

Findings

The results suggest that important ethical differences exist between these two nations with respect to the impact of utilitarianism and egoism on the perceived benefits of ethics codes as deterrent mechanisms.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited in the generalizability of results because data from only two countries are collected. Another limitation is the lack of control over the industry of respondents. Implications include the facilitation of a deeper understanding of cultural and moral differences between the USA and Peru.

Practical implications

One implication is that US managers can learn more about the collectivistic sentiment that underlies the Peruvian tendency to take a cost‐benefit, or utilitarian, approach when assessing moral scenarios. Also, the development of cross‐border codes of ethics and implementation of policies related to behavioral expectations of workers should also be considered in light of national differences in managerial attitudes about ethical philosophies.

Originality/value

There have been very few studies in which US and Peruvian managerial and moral values have been contrasted. This study sheds new light on two nations that have witnessed a surge in trade in the past decade.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1985

Tomas Riha

Nobody concerned with political economy can neglect the history of economic doctrines. Structural changes in the economy and society influence economic thinking and…

1982

Abstract

Nobody concerned with political economy can neglect the history of economic doctrines. Structural changes in the economy and society influence economic thinking and, conversely, innovative thought structures and attitudes have almost always forced economic institutions and modes of behaviour to adjust. We learn from the history of economic doctrines how a particular theory emerged and whether, and in which environment, it could take root. We can see how a school evolves out of a common methodological perception and similar techniques of analysis, and how it has to establish itself. The interaction between unresolved problems on the one hand, and the search for better solutions or explanations on the other, leads to a change in paradigma and to the formation of new lines of reasoning. As long as the real world is subject to progress and change scientific search for explanation must out of necessity continue.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 12 no. 3/4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Book part
Publication date: 12 September 2014

Michael Schwartz and Debra R. Comer

Neither moral philosophy nor history provides a satisfactory explanation for Oskar Schindler’s extraordinary rescue of more than 1,200 Jews during the Holocaust. Thomas…

Abstract

Neither moral philosophy nor history provides a satisfactory explanation for Oskar Schindler’s extraordinary rescue of more than 1,200 Jews during the Holocaust. Thomas Keneally’s Schindler’s Ark does. Although Schindler’s Ark is technically a work of fiction, that generic label obscures its contribution as a fictionalised account of true events. By using a novelist’s tools to tell an historical story, Keneally allows us to make inferences as to the motives of his protagonist and thereby helps us to understand what propelled the moral behaviour of Oskar Schindler.

Details

The Contribution of Fiction to Organizational Ethics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-949-2

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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2009

Charles G. Smith, Ērika Šumilo and Viesturs Pauls Karnups

Given system‐wide lapses in moral decision making in large US corporations and the inherited corruption from formerly planned economies, the development of moral reasoning…

Abstract

Purpose

Given system‐wide lapses in moral decision making in large US corporations and the inherited corruption from formerly planned economies, the development of moral reasoning is an important issue for business educators in the USA and Latvia. The purpose of this paper is to present a comparison of Latvian and US business persons.

Design/methodology/approach

Kohlberg's et al., theory of cognitive moral development (CMD), as operationalized by Rest as framework to study the antecedents of moral judgment in both lands. Survey data from 340 employed MBA students as a proxy for current and future business leaders are used. A total of 18 scenarios are reduced to four unique components, which are regressed on measures of CMD, Country of Respondent, and Moral Philosophy to test three hypotheses. Gender and age are added as controls.

Findings

CMD and Country of Respondent are strongly associated with increased moral judgment, while Moral Philosophy is less influential. In addition, the positive functional relationship between CMD and moral judgment exists in both countries but at lesser absolute values in Latvia. Findings also suggest that the efficacy of the independent variables varies with the issues at hand. Interestingly, moral dilemmas concerned with marketing strategies appear to be immune from moral reasoning. This indirectly gives support to Jones' concept of moral intensity and future research may wish to continue this line of inquiry as well as expand the comparison to other European Union countries.

Originality/value

The paper is the first to use the defining issues test to study levels of CMD in the Latvian business community.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1998

Alan Duhs

Economics and political philosophy tend to lead separate existences in separate university departments. This paper argues that there are gains to be had in the…

Abstract

Economics and political philosophy tend to lead separate existences in separate university departments. This paper argues that there are gains to be had in the understanding of the teaching of economics if the intellectual divide between these disciplines is bridged. The history of economic thought owes its evolution in part to responses at particular points in time to the enduring questions of political philosophy. A more deep‐seated understanding of economics and of HET is therefore available if considered in conscious alliance with the history of political philosophy (HPP). In short, the argument of this paper ‐ which considers five dimensions of the interdependence of HET and HPP ‐ is the reverse of Scott Gordon’s conclusion that economists have little or nothing to learn from philosophers.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 25 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 August 2021

Jan G. Langhof and Stefan Gueldenberg

The article aims at examining the ethical limits and risks of servant leadership. During the Second World War, the German army officer Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg is a…

Abstract

Purpose

The article aims at examining the ethical limits and risks of servant leadership. During the Second World War, the German army officer Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg is a loyal servant to his nation and homeland. But when he learns about the Nazis’ mass murders and crimes, he begins to have doubts about whom he should serve. Being confronted with numerous moral dilemmas, he finally decides to join a resistance group. Of course, Stauffenberg's situation as colonel and leader was an extreme case. Time and again, however, managers and leaders are faced with similar dilemmas. Indeed, the current COVID-19-crisis shows that even today’s leaders are repeatedly faced with almost insoluble dilemmas. The recent literature about ethics and leadership suggests a philosophy which is almost portrayed as a panacea to any ethical issues: servant leadership (SL). This study, however, questions the commonly held view that SL is always ethical. The purpose of our historical case study is twofold. First, this study explores the ethical challenges Stauffenberg (and other officers) faced and how they dealt with them. Second, this study elaborates on what responses (if any) SL would provide to these challenges.

Design/methodology/approach

The applied method is a historical case study, in which the authors draw on a plethora of secondary literature, including books, reports, and articles.

Findings

By analyzing the historical case of “Operation Valkyrie,” this study elaborated and identified risks and limitations of SL and pointed out ways to address these risks. In particular, SL poses risks in the case of a too narrow understanding of the term “service.”

Originality/value

While other leadership styles, e.g. transformational leadership or charismatic leadership, have been extensively studied with regard to ethical risks, in the case of SL possible risks and limitations are still largely unexplored.

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1348

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Article
Publication date: 6 March 2019

Collins Sankay Oboh

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of personal and moral intensity variables on specific processes, namely, ethical recognition, ethical judgment and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of personal and moral intensity variables on specific processes, namely, ethical recognition, ethical judgment and ethical intention, involved in the ethical decision making (EDM) of accounting professionals.

Design/methodology/approach

A structured questionnaire containing four vignettes of ethical dilemmas is used in the paper to obtain data from 329 accounting professionals. The data are analyzed using Pearson correlation matrix, independent sample t-test, one-way analyses of variance and multiple regression estimation techniques.

Findings

The findings of the paper suggest that age, economic status, upbringing, moral idealism and relativism, magnitude of consequence and social consensus are significant determinants of the EDM process of accounting professionals.

Practical implications

The paper provides evidence to guide accounting regulatory bodies on ways to strengthen extant measures that ensure strict compliance with ethics codes among accounting professionals in Nigeria.

Originality/value

The paper provides support for Kohlberg’s cognitive reasoning and moral development theory and Rest’s EDM theoretical model, which will aid the development of a structured curriculum for accounting ethics instruction in Nigeria, as hitherto, there is yet to be a provision for a stand-alone ethics course in the undergraduate accounting programs in Nigeria.

Details

Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-1168

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2005

Balbir S. Sihag

Sages and seers in ancient India specified dharma, artha, kama and moksha as the four ends of a moral and productive life and emphasised the attainment of a proper balance…

Abstract

Sages and seers in ancient India specified dharma, artha, kama and moksha as the four ends of a moral and productive life and emphasised the attainment of a proper balance between the spiritual health and the material health. However, most of their intellectual energy was directed towards the attainment of moksha, the salvation from birth‐death‐rebirth cycle. Kautilya, on the other hand considered poverty as a living death and concentrated on devising economic policies to achieve salvation from poverty but without compromising with ethical values unless survival of the state was threatened. Kautilya's Arthashastra is unique in emphasising the imperative of economic growth and welfare of all. According to him, if there is no dharma, there is no society. He believed that ethical values pave the way to heaven as well as to prosperity on the earth, that is, have an intrinsic value as well as an instrumental value. He referred the reader to the Vedas and Philosophy for learning moral theory, which sheds light on the distinction between good and bad and moral and immoral actions. He extended the conceptual framework to deal with conflict of interest situations arising from the emerging capitalism. He dedicated his work to Om (symbol of spirituality, God) and Brihaspati and Sukra (political thinkers) implying, perhaps, that his goal was to integrate ethics and economics. It is argued that the level of integration between economics and ethics is significantly higher in Kautilya's Arthashastra than that in Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations or for that matter in the writings of Plato and Aristotle.

Details

Humanomics, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1999

Anusorn Singhapakdi, Mohammed Y.A. Rawwas, Janet K. Marta and Mohd Ismail Ahmed

Given the ever‐increasing globalization of economies, growing numbers of marketing firms are expecting more of their profits to be derived from international sales. Global…

11354

Abstract

Given the ever‐increasing globalization of economies, growing numbers of marketing firms are expecting more of their profits to be derived from international sales. Global competition is ferocious; thus, developing long‐term partner relationships often becomes a significant competitive advantage. Corporate ethics are of pivotal importance in global business, though globalization also complicates ethical questions, because an individual’s culture affects his/her ethical decision making. Failures to account for the effects of differences in consumers’ culturally‐based ethical values will hinder a marketer’s efforts to expand internationally. Compares consumers from Malaysia and the USA in terms of their perceptions of marketing ethics situations, their attitudes toward business and salespeople, and their personal moral philosophies. The survey results reveal some significant differences between the consumers from these two countries.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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