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Case study
Publication date: 1 May 2007

Monica Godsey and Terrence C. Sebora

Bright Lights is a small non-profit organization in Lincoln, NE offering a summer enrichment program to school aged children. Post 9/11, the organization faces challenges…

Abstract

Bright Lights is a small non-profit organization in Lincoln, NE offering a summer enrichment program to school aged children. Post 9/11, the organization faces challenges in its efforts to sustain financial resources. With enrollment and course offerings on the rise, funding is more important than ever. At the second to the last meeting of the year at which budgets are established, the Bright Lights' Board of Directors asked the Executive Director, Kathy Hanrath, and the Co-Owner/Director of Education Services, Barb Hoppe, to come up with some alternatives for fundraising top present at the final yearly meeting. Kathy has recently attended some sessions on franchising at a local entrepreneurship conference and would like to explore franchising as an option for Bright Lights growth. Kathy feels that franchising might have the potential to both increase performance and funding. This case focuses on issues associated with the exploration of franchising as a method of distribution and capital acquisition for a social organization. It calls attention to the appropriate situations for franchising, the importance of organizational assessment for franchise readiness, and other legal, economical, and organizational considerations.

Details

The CASE Journal, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 1544-9106

Article
Publication date: 6 November 2009

Rick Ruddell and Matthew O. Thomas

This paper aims to examine the political, social, and legal factors that shape the deployment of the police in a cross‐national sample of nations.

1005

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the political, social, and legal factors that shape the deployment of the police in a cross‐national sample of nations.

Design/methodology/approach

Ordinary least squares regression models are used to investigate police strength in 70 developing and developed nations.

Findings

Controlling for indicators of crime, development, and population‐geography, it is found that political factors such as durability of the political regime, corruption, the presence of a black market, and state formation are significantly associated with police strength. Inconsistent with expectations, however, it is found that there is not a significant relationship between indicators of criminal justice system priorities, such as incarceration rates or use of the death penalty, and police strength.

Research limitations/implications

A lack of indicators of property or violent crime for large samples of nations makes it difficult to discount the role of crime in the deployment of the police. Further, cross‐national studies are hampered by a lack of data about the use of private security to bolster the formal activities of the police, or the role of the military in regulating social order.

Practical implications

This study builds on the theoretical knowledge of how the police are deployed. A better understanding of police strength can contribute to discussions about a global policing community. Implications for theories of policing and criminal justice system operations are also outlined.

Originality/value

Very few cross‐national studies of criminal justice system operations have been conducted, and this study increases knowledge of global patterns of policing.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 June 2018

Nancy Hudspeth and Gerard Wellman

Public transit is an essential service for people without access to an automobile, particularly those who are low income, elderly, or with disabilities. Previous research…

Abstract

Purpose

Public transit is an essential service for people without access to an automobile, particularly those who are low income, elderly, or with disabilities. Previous research has found that large urban transit agencies receive less state funding per ride provided than suburban agencies. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

Using data from the National Transit Database for 37 of the largest US transit agencies, the authors create a panel data set of services provided and sources of operating funds for the period 1991-2009. The authors develop an equity index that represents the difference between the share of state funding that an agency receives and the share of the total transit rides in the state that it provides. The authors use fixed-effects regression modeling to examine the determinants of fiscal balance and the equity index.

Findings

The authors find that the share of an agency’s operating funds that come from dedicated taxes is a significant predictor of fiscal health as measured by its fiscal balance; reliance on passenger fares and provision of bus service are significant predictors of operating deficits. The equity index finds that large agencies receive less than their fair share of state transit funding based on ridership.

Practical implications

Dedicated tax revenues are a key ingredient to transit agencies’ fiscal stability. Transit agencies’ fiscal condition in states and localities that do not have a dedicated tax could benefit from such a tax.

Social implications

Transit is an essential service for people who are unable to drive or own an automobile; funding inequities maintain old patterns of segregation and isolation for “transit dependents.”

Originality/value

This study supports earlier research finding that large agencies receive less than their fair share of state funding based on ridership. It contributes to the literature on transportation equity and transit finance.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

Keywords

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