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Article
Publication date: 24 January 2022

Mona Yaghoubi and Michael O’Connor Keefe

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of two important financing sources, debt and cash, on a firm’s investment decisions and explores the intertemporal…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of two important financing sources, debt and cash, on a firm’s investment decisions and explores the intertemporal impact of this financing on future investment volatility.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper first reports our results using ordinary least squares (OLS) estimation and then employ an instrumental variable (IV) strategy which addresses potential endogeneity that arises from future investment volatility on current capital structure and cash levels.

Findings

This paper finds firms with low levels of debt or high levels of cash experience higher future investment volatility, and the probability of large future investment increases with high cash levels. This study’s findings are economically important; for example, a one-standard-deviation increase from the mean of debt ratio implies an approximate 7.8% decrease in future investment volatility; and a one-standard-deviation increase from the mean of a firm’s cash level leads to a 47% increase in the probability of a large investment in the next year.

Originality/value

The findings of this study help firms understand the impact of their present financing decisions on the plausibility of their future investments. This paper contributes to the literature by making both novel and confirmatory findings. This paper was structured to include confirmatory findings for two reasons. First, this paper uses different methods to construct investment volatility and the related investment spike. Second, and more importantly, the hypotheses are interrelated and communicate how firms plan for and execute against uncertain future investments. Growth options are ephemeral, and the hypotheses structure provides a guideline for how a firm finances future growth options.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Reza Yaghoubi, Mona Yaghoubi, Stuart Locke and Jenny Gibb

This paper aims to review the relevant literature on mergers and acquisitions in an attempt to provide a comprehensive account of what we know about mergers and which…

3612

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review the relevant literature on mergers and acquisitions in an attempt to provide a comprehensive account of what we know about mergers and which parts of the puzzle are still incomplete.

Design/methodology/approach

This literature review consists of three key sections. The first part of this paper summarises the literature on the cyclical nature of mergers referred to in the literature as merger waves. The second section reviews the causes and consequences of takeovers; it first reviews the causes, or drivers, of acquisitions, while focusing on the fact that acquisitions happen in waves and then reviews the consequences of takeovers, with a predominant focus on the impacts of mergers on the economic performance of acquirers. The third part of the review summarises the theories, as well as previous empirical studies, on determinants of announcement returns and post-acquisition performance of combined firms.

Findings

Merger activity demonstrates a wavy pattern, i.e. mergers are clustered in industries through time. The causes suggested for this fluctuating pattern include industry- and economy-level shocks, mis-valuation and managerial herding. Market reaction to announcement of acquisitions is, on average, slightly negative for acquirer stocks and significantly positive for target stocks. The combined abnormal return is positive. These findings have been consistent over several decades of investigation. Prior research also identifies a number of factors that are related to performance of acquisitions. These factors are categorised and reviewed in five different groups: acquirer characteristics, target characteristics, bid characteristics, industry characteristics and macro-environment characteristics.

Originality/value

This review illustrates a number of issues. Prior research is heavily biased towards gains to acquirers and factors that affect these gains. It is also biased towards finding sources of value creation through mergers despite the fact that several theories suggest that mergers can be value-destroying. In fact, value destruction is often attributed to managers’ self-interest (agency problem) and mistakes (hubris). However, the mechanisms through which mergers destroy value are rarely addressed. Aside from that, the possibility of simultaneous creation and destruction of value in acquisitions is not often considered. Finally, after several decades of investigation, a key question is not completely answered yet: “What are the sources of value in mergers and acquisitions?”

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Reza Yaghoubi, Mona Yaghoubi, Stuart Locke and Jenny Gibb

This paper aims to review the relevant literature on mergers and acquisitions in an attempt to provide a comprehensive account of what we know about mergers and which…

7304

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review the relevant literature on mergers and acquisitions in an attempt to provide a comprehensive account of what we know about mergers and which parts of the puzzle are still incomplete.

Design/methodology/approach

This literature review consists of three key sections. The first part of this paper summarises the literature on the cyclical nature of mergers referred to in the literature as merger waves. The second section reviews the causes and consequences of takeovers; it first reviews the causes, or drivers, of acquisitions, while focusing on the fact that acquisitions happen in waves and then reviews the consequences of takeovers, with a predominant focus on the impacts of mergers on the economic performance of acquirers. The third part of the review summarises the theories as well as previous empirical studies on determinants of announcement returns and post-acquisition performance of combined firms.

Findings

Merger activity demonstrates a wavy pattern, i.e. mergers are clustered in industries through time. The causes suggested for this fluctuating pattern include industry and economy-level shocks, mis-valuation and managerial herding. Market reaction to announcement of acquisitions is, on average, slightly negative for acquirer stocks and significantly positive for target stocks. The combined abnormal return is positive. These findings have been consistent over several decades of investigation. The prior research also identifies a number of factors that are related to performance of acquisitions. These factors are categorised and reviewed in five different groups: acquirer characteristics, target characteristics, bid characteristics, industry characteristics and macro-environment characteristics.

Originality/value

This review illustrates a number of issues. Prior research is heavily biased towards gains to acquirers and factors that affect these gains. It is also biased towards finding sources of value creation through mergers, despite the fact that several theories suggest that mergers can be value-destroying. In fact, value destruction is often attributed to managers’ self-interest (agency problem) and mistakes (hubris). However, the mechanisms through which mergers destroy value are rarely addressed. Aside from that, the possibility of simultaneous creation and destruction of value in acquisitions is not often considered. Finally, after several decades of investigation, a key question is not completely answered yet: “What are the sources of value in mergers and acquisitions?”

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

Keywords

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