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Article
Publication date: 25 June 2019

Deepak Kumar Naik and Kalipada Maity

This paper aims to work exhibits the temperature distribution over the surface of the workpiece during plasma arc cutting process.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to work exhibits the temperature distribution over the surface of the workpiece during plasma arc cutting process.

Design/methodology/approach

The moving heat source is taken into consideration for calculating the heat created by plasma arc. The heat is generated at the plasma – liquid metal boundary. The heat of fusion is also considered for estimation because of molten layer separates the plasma and solid layer. This causes to hamper the heat transfer towards the melting front. Eliminating the heat resistance may calculation error at high cutting speed. Power required to melt the material depends on the speed of the cut.

Findings

Higher cutting speed increases the power required. The temperature drop over the layer of molten front increases as the speed of cut increases at higher Peclet number. Different thickness of the molten layer was taken for calculation i.e. zero thickness, 10 and 20 per cent.

Originality/value

The estimated results are shown in non-dimensional form. So, the method can be applied for any other types of material.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 January 2008

Ming Fang, Sanjeev Chandra and Chul B. Park

The purpose of this paper is to determine conditions under which good metallurgical bonding was achieved in 3D objects formed by depositing tin droplets layer by layer.

1699

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine conditions under which good metallurgical bonding was achieved in 3D objects formed by depositing tin droplets layer by layer.

Design/methodology/approach

Molten tin droplets (0.18‐0.75 mm diameter) were deposited using a pneumatic droplet generator on an aluminum substrate. The primary parameters varied in experiments were those found to most affect bonding between droplets on different layers: droplet temperature (varied from 250 to 325°C) and substrate temperature (varied from 100 to 190°C). Droplet generation frequency was kept low enough (1‐10 Hz) that each layer of droplets solidified and cooled down before another molten droplet impinged on it.

Findings

In this paper, a one dimensional heat transfer model was used to predict the minimum droplet and substrate temperatures required to remelt a thin layer of the substrate and ensure good bonding of impinging droplets. Cross‐sections through samples confirmed that increasing either the droplet temperature or the substrate temperature to the predicted remelting region produces good bonding between deposition layers.

Originality/value

This paper used a practical model to provide reasonable prediction of conditions for droplet fusion which is essential to droplet‐based manufacturing. The feasibility of fabricating 3D metal objects by deposition of molten metal droplets has been well demonstrated.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 March 2022

Changpeng Chen, Zhongxu Xiao, Gang Xue, Hailong Liao and Haihong Zhu

High temperature gradient induces high residual stress, producing an important effect on the part manufacturing during laser powder bed fusion (LPBF). The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

High temperature gradient induces high residual stress, producing an important effect on the part manufacturing during laser powder bed fusion (LPBF). The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the molten pool mode on the thermal stress of Ti-6Al-4V alloy during different deposition processes.

Design/methodology/approach

A coupled thermal-mechanical finite element model was built. The developed model was validated by comparing the numerical results with the experimental data in the maximum molten pool temperature, the molten pool dimension and the residual stress described in the previous work.

Findings

For the single-track process, the keyhole mode caused an increase in both the maximum stress and the high-stress area compared with the conduction mode. For the multitrack process, a lower tensile stress around the scanning track and a higher compressive stress below the scanning track were found in the keyhole mode. For the multilayer process, the stress along the scanning direction at the middle of the part changed from tensile stress to compressive stress with the increase in the deposition layer number. As the powder layer number increased, the stress along the scanning direction near the top surface of the part decreased while the stress along the deposition direction obviously increased, indicating that the stress along the deposition direction became the dominant stress. The keyhole mode can reduce the residual stress near the top of the part, and the conduction mode was more likely to produce a low residual stress near the bottom of the part.

Originality/value

The results provide a systematic understanding of thermal stress during the LPBF process.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 28 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 August 2011

Evren Yasa, Jan Deckers and Jean‐Pierre Kruth

Selective laser melting (SLM) is a powder metallurgical (PM) additive manufacturing process whereby a three‐dimensional part is built in a layer‐wise manner. During the…

5874

Abstract

Purpose

Selective laser melting (SLM) is a powder metallurgical (PM) additive manufacturing process whereby a three‐dimensional part is built in a layer‐wise manner. During the process, a high intensity laser beam selectively scans a powder bed according to the computer‐aided design data of the part to be produced and the powder metal particles are completely molten. The process is capable of producing near full density (∼98‐99 per cent relative density) and functional metallic parts with a high geometrical freedom. However, insufficient surface quality of produced parts is one of the important limitations of the process. The purpose of this study is to apply laser re‐melting using a continuous wave laser during SLM production of 316L stainless steel and Ti6Al4V parts to overcome this limitation.

Design/methodology/approach

After each layer is fully molten, the same slice data are used to re‐expose the layer for laser re‐melting. In this manner, laser re‐melting does not only improve the surface quality on the top surfaces, but also has the potential to change the microstructure and to improve the obtained density. The influence of laser re‐melting on the surface quality, density and microstructure is studied varying the operating parameters for re‐melting such as scan speed, laser power and scan spacing.

Findings

It is concluded that laser re‐melting is a promising method to enhance the density and surface quality of SLM parts at a cost of longer production times. Laser re‐melting improves the density to almost 100 per cent whereas 90 per cent enhancement is achieved in the surface quality of SLM parts after laser re‐melting. The microhardness is improved in the laser re‐molten zone if sufficiently high‐energy densities are provided, probably due to a fine‐cell size encountered in the microstructure.

Originality/value

There has been extensive research in the field of laser surface modification techniques, e.g. laser polishing, laser hardening and laser surface melting, applied to bulk materials produced by conventional manufacturing processes. However, those studies only relate to laser enhancement of surface or sub‐surface properties of parts produced using bulk material. They do not aim at enhancement of core material properties, nor surface enhancement of (rough) surfaces produced in a PM way by SLM. This study is carried out to cover the gap and analyze the advantages of laser re‐melting in the field of additive manufacturing.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 August 2022

Mingkai Yue, Meie Li, Ning An, Kun Yang, Jian Wang and Jinxiong Zhou

Selective electron beam melting (SEBM) is one of the popular powder-bed additive manufacturing (AM) technologies. The purpose of this paper is to develop a simulation…

Abstract

Purpose

Selective electron beam melting (SEBM) is one of the popular powder-bed additive manufacturing (AM) technologies. The purpose of this paper is to develop a simulation strategy for SEBM process to get data which are vital for realistic failure prediction and process parameters control for real complex components.

Design/methodology/approach

Focusing on the SEBM process of tantalum, this paper presents a three-dimensional thermo-mechanical modeling strategy based on ABAQUS and its subroutines. The simulation strategy used in this paper is developed for SEBM process of pure tantalum but could be extended to other AM fabrication technologies and other metals without difficulties.

Findings

The simulation of multi-track multi-layer SEBM process of tantalum was carried out to predict the temperature field, the molten pool evolution and the residual stress distribution. The key information such as inter-track molten pool overlapping ratio and inter-layer refusion state can be extracted from the obtained molten pool morphologies, which are vital for realistic failure prediction and process parameters control for real components. The authors finally demonstrate the capability of the strategy used by simulating a 2 mm × 2 mm × 10 mm lattice structure with total 200 layers.

Originality/value

The simulation of multi-track multi-layer SEBM process of tantalum was carried out. The key information such as inter-track molten pool overlapping ratio and inter-layer refusion state can be extracted. The authors finally demonstrate the capability of the strategy used by simulating a lattice structure. Not only temperature distribution but also stress evolution are captured. Our simulation strategy is developed for the SEBM process of pure tantalum, but it could be extended to other AM fabrication technologies and other metals without difficulties.

Article
Publication date: 9 April 2018

Piotr Wolszczak, Krystian Lygas, Mateusz Paszko and Radoslaw A. Wach

The paper aims to investigate the problem of heat distribution in FDM 3D printing. The temperature distribution of the material is important because of the occurrence of…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to investigate the problem of heat distribution in FDM 3D printing. The temperature distribution of the material is important because of the occurrence of shrinkage and crystallization phenomena that affect the dimensional accuracy and strength of the material.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a thermoplastic material (polylactide) and a test stand equipped with a 3D printer adapted to perform thermographic observations. The main source of heat in the study was a molten laminate material and a hot-end head.

Findings

When the material is molten at the temperature of 190°C, the temperature of a previous layer increases above the glass transition point (Tg = 64.8°C) and reaches to about 80°C. In addition, at the boundary of the layers, there occurs a permanent bonding of the consecutive layers because of their partial melting. The paper also reports the results of porosity of PLA samples printed at the temperature ranging between 205 and 255°C. The degree of porosity depends on the temperature of the extruded material.

Practical implications

The results may be helpful for designers of various printed parts and construction engineers of printing heads and 3D printer chambers.

Originality/value

Thermograms of material layers with a height of 0.3 mm are obtained using a thermal imaging camera with a lens for macro magnification (43 pixels/mm).

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 August 2020

Dongqing Yang, Jun Xiong and Rong Li

This paper aims to fabricate inclined thin-walled components using positional wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) and investigate the heat transfer characteristics…

195

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to fabricate inclined thin-walled components using positional wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) and investigate the heat transfer characteristics of inclined thin-walled parts via finite element analysis method.

Design/methodology/approach

An inclined thin-walled part is fabricated in gas metal arc (GMA)-based additive manufacturing using a positional deposition approach in which the torch is set to be inclined with respect to the substrate surface. A three-dimensional finite element model is established to simulate the thermal process of the inclined component based on a general Goldak double ellipsoidal heat source and a combined heat dissipation model. Verification tests are performed based on thermal cycles of locations on the substrate and the molten pool size.

Findings

The simulated results are in agreement with experimental tests. It is shown that the dwell time between two adjacent layers greatly influences the number of the re-melting layers. The temperature distribution on both sides of the substrate is asymmetric, and the temperature peaks and temperature gradients of points in the same distance from the first deposition layer are different. Along the deposition path, the temperature distribution of the previous layer has a significant influence on the heat dissipation condition of the next layer.

Originality/value

The established finite element model is helpful to simulate and understand the heat transfer process of geometrical thin-walled components in WAAM.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 May 2022

Abid Ullah, Asif Ur Rehman, Metin Uymaz Salamci, Fatih Pıtır and Tingting Liu

This paper aims to reduce part defects and improve ceramic additive manufacturing (AM). Selective laser melting (SLM) experiments were carried out to explore the effect of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to reduce part defects and improve ceramic additive manufacturing (AM). Selective laser melting (SLM) experiments were carried out to explore the effect of laser power and scanning speed on the microstructure, melting behaviour and surface roughness of cuprous oxide (Cu2O) ceramic.

Design/methodology/approach

The experiments were designed based on varying laser power and scanning speed. The laser power was changed between 50 W and 140 W, and the scanning speed was changed between 170 mm/s and 210 mm/s. Other parameters, such as scanning strategy, layer thickness and hatch spacing, remain constant.

Findings

Laser power and scan speed are the two important laser parameters of great significance in the SLM technique that directly affect the molten state of ceramic powders. The findings reveal that Cu2O part defects are widely controlled by gradually increasing the laser power to 110 W and reducing the scanning speed to 170 mm/s. Furthermore, excessive laser power (>120 W) caused surface roughness, cavities and porous microstructure due to the extremely high energy input of the laser beam.

Originality/value

The SLM technique was used to produce Cu2O ceramic specimens. SLM of oxide ceramic became feasible using a slurry-based approach. The causes of several part defects such as spattering effect, crack initiation and propagation, the formation of porous microstructure, surface roughness and asymmetrical grain growth during the SLM of cuprous oxide (Cu2O) are thoroughly investigated.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Haibin Geng, Jinglong Li, Jiangtao Xiong, Xin Lin, Dan Huang and Fusheng Zhang

As known, the wire and arc additive manufacture technique can achieve stable process control, which is represented with periodic surface waviness, when using empirical…

Abstract

Purpose

As known, the wire and arc additive manufacture technique can achieve stable process control, which is represented with periodic surface waviness, when using empirical methods or feedback control system. But it is usually a tedious work to further reduce it using trial and error method. The purpose of this paper is to unveil the formation mechanism of surface waviness and develop a method to diminish it.

Design/methodology/approach

Two forming mechanisms, wetting and spreading and remelting, are unveiled by cross-section observation. A discriminant is established to differentiate which mechanism is valid to dominate the forming process under the given process parameters.

Findings

Finally, a theoretical method is developed to optimize surface waviness, even forming a smooth surface by establishing a matching relation between heat input (line energy) and materials input (the ratio of wire feed speed to travel speed).

Originality/value

Formation mechanisms are revealed by observing cross-section morphology. A discriminant is established to differentiate which mechanism is valid to dominate the forming process under the given process parameters. A mathematical model is developed to optimize surface waviness, even forming a smooth surface through establishing a matching relation between heat input (line energy) and materials input (the ratio of wire feed speed to travel speed).

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 January 2020

Haihua Wu, Junfeng Li, Zhengying Wei and Pei Wei

To fabricate a selective laser melting (SLM)-processed AlSi10Mg part with almost full density and free of any apparent pores, this study aims to investigate the effect of…

Abstract

Purpose

To fabricate a selective laser melting (SLM)-processed AlSi10Mg part with almost full density and free of any apparent pores, this study aims to investigate the effect of ambient argon pressure and laser scanning speed on the particles splash during the AlSi10Mg powder bed laser melting.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the discrete element method (DEM), a 3D model of random distribution of powder particles was established, and the 3D free surface of SLM forming process was dynamically tracked by the volume of fluid, where a Gaussian laser beam acts as the energy source melting the powder bed. Through the numerical simulation and process experimental research, the effect of the applied laser power and scanning speed on the operating laser melting temperature was studied.

Findings

The process stability has a fundamental role in the porosity formation, which is process-dependent. The effect of the processing conditions on the process stability and the resultant forming defects were clarified.

Research limitations/implications

The results shows that the pores were the main defects present in the SLM-processed AlSi10Mg sample, which decreases the densification level of the sample.

Practical implications

The optimal processing parameters (argon pressure of 1,000 Pa, laser power of 180 W, scan speed of 1,000 mm/s, powder layer thickness of 35 µm and hatch spacing of 50 µm ) applied during laser melting can improve the quality of selective laser melting of AlSi10Mg,

Social implications

It can provide a technological support for 3D printing.

Originality/value

Based on the analysis of the pore and balling formation mechanisms, the optimal processing parameters have been obtained, which were argon pressure of 1,000 Pa, laser power of 180 W, scan speed of 1,000 mm/s, powder layer thickness of 35 µm and hatch spacing of 50 µm. Then, a near-fully dense sample free of any apparent pores on the cross-sectional microstructure was produced by SLM, wherein the relative density of the as-built samples is larger than 97.5%.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 5000