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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2005

Stacic Beck, Jeffrey B. Miller and Mohsen M. Saad

Why did inflation fall so dramatically after the establishment of a currency board in Bulgaria in 1997? The establishment of the currency board was the response to a very…

Abstract

Why did inflation fall so dramatically after the establishment of a currency board in Bulgaria in 1997? The establishment of the currency board was the response to a very severe financial crisis where inflation reached hyperinflationary levels. After the currency board was introduced, inflation fell even more spectacularly than it had risen with prices rising less than 10% annually during 1998 and 1999. Was this sudden drop in inflation due to a “discipline” effect caused by a reduction in money growth rates or to a “confidence” effect that created lower inflation expectations thus leading to higher money demand? We find strong indirect evidence for a confidence effect but less support for a discipline effect.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1984

Saad Amin Fam and Fawzia F. Abdel‐Mohsen

A petroleum fraction having a boiling range 200–250°C (kerosene), free from aromatic and n‐paraffin hydrocarbons was oxidised by bubbling air at 130–150°C, at normal…

Abstract

A petroleum fraction having a boiling range 200–250°C (kerosene), free from aromatic and n‐paraffin hydrocarbons was oxidised by bubbling air at 130–150°C, at normal pressure, in the presence of cobalt naphthenate as a catalyst. Optimum yield of oxynaphthenic acid was obtained after sixteen hours and thirty minutes oxidation at 140°C. Two layers were formed, the bottom product was a viscous liquid insoluble in petroleum ether and alcohols. Oxyacids, mainly hydroxy naphthenic acids, were obtained after treatment and purification of the viscous liquid.

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Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 13 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2016

Kussai Haj-Yehia and Khalid Arar

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the factors that attract (pull) or discourage (push) Palestinian students from Israel (PSI) to study at a Palestinian university…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the factors that attract (pull) or discourage (push) Palestinian students from Israel (PSI) to study at a Palestinian university, the Arab American University in Jenin (AAUJ), for the first time since the establishment of Israel in 1948.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative research method using in-depth interviews with 15 PSI who study at AAUJ attempts to define the motivations behind PSI preferring AAUJ, on one hand, and constraints, on the other hand.

Findings

The findings of the study show factors that attract PSI to study at the AAUJ and what subjects they choose to study there, the encounter with a similar culture and nationalism in a Palestinian campus in the occupied West Bank; the most significant difficulties and impediments they face there, whether economic or political, are discussed. This paper contributes to an understanding of the new national re-encounter between two Palestinian groups in a university campus, one under Israel’s occupation and the other that has Israeli citizenship.

Originality/value

It is a unique phenomenon in the trends of international students’ mobility in the world.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2010

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Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 21 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2019

Seyed Amin Bagherzadeh, Esmaeil Jalali, Mohammad Mohsen Sarafraz, Omid Ali Akbari, Arash Karimipour, Marjan Goodarzi and Quang-Vu Bach

Water/Al2O3 nanofluid with volume fractions of 0, 0.3 and 0.06 was investigated inside a rectangular microchannel. Jet injection of nanofluid was used to enhance the heat…

Abstract

Purpose

Water/Al2O3 nanofluid with volume fractions of 0, 0.3 and 0.06 was investigated inside a rectangular microchannel. Jet injection of nanofluid was used to enhance the heat transfer under a homogeneous magnetic field with the strengths of Ha = 0, 20 and 40. Both slip velocity and no-slip boundary conditions were used.

Design/methodology/approach

The laminar flow was studied using Reynolds numbers of 1, 10 and 50. The results showed that in creep motion state, the constricted cross section caused by fluid jet is not observable and the rise of axial velocity level is only because of the presence of additional size of the microchannel. By increasing the strength of the magnetic field and because of the rise of the Lorentz force, the motion of fluid layers on each other becomes limited.

Findings

Because of the limitation of sudden changes of fluid in jet injection areas, the magnetic force compresses the fluid to the bottom wall, and this behavior limits the vertical velocity gradients. In the absence of a magnetic field and under the influence of the velocity boundary layer, the fluid motion has more variations. In creeping velocities of fluid, the presence or absence of the magnetic field does not have an essential effect on Nusselt number enhancement.

Originality/value

In lower velocities of fluid, the effect of the jet is not significant, and the thermal boundary layer affects the entire temperature field. In this case, for Hartmann numbers of 40 and 0, changing the Nusselt number on the heated wall is similar.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 20 September 2021

Syed Saad, Wesam Salah Alaloul, Syed Ammad and Abdul Hannan Qureshi

This study assessed the key construction technology trends and tracked the impact of these developments on labor influencing factors in an effort to alleviate the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study assessed the key construction technology trends and tracked the impact of these developments on labor influencing factors in an effort to alleviate the limitations posed by skilled labor scarcity in offsite construction (OSC).

Design/methodology/approach

The study followed systematic literature review to acquisition initial data sets. The data retrieved form identified databases was then subjected to scientometric analysis. In next stage, disruptive factors were identified to produce a conceptual framework followed by its practical application for an OSC firm.

Findings

This study identified seven construction technologies with a potential to disrupt OSC in future. The study also developed a conceptual framework as a benchmark to help establish further frameworks for policy interns in OSC.

Research limitations/implications

The review conducted only takes into account the literature from 2009 to March 2021. Any prior to the date and unpublished studies were not included in study.

Practical implications

A proper utilization of conceptual framework can contribute to technological adoption significantly lowering the need of labor in OSC industry. Moreover, the established discussion on understanding the purpose of deploying latest technology may reduce additional costs, management, time and allocation of labor resources.

Social implications

This study provides a mechanism to intern OSC policymakers to impartially incorporate the latest technology in OSC.

Originality/value

This study fulfilled an identified need to study latest technological trends in OSC by utilizing bibliometric tools with SLR. The disruptive categories and factors highlighted by the study were not identified in a systematic manner in previous studies, which could further enhance the implementation of latest construction technology in OSC.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2019

Punam Prasad, Narayanasamy Sivasankaran, Samit Paul and Manoharan Kannadhasan

The purpose of this study is to introduce working capital efficiency multiplier (WCEM) as a direct profitability measure of working capital management. The existing…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to introduce working capital efficiency multiplier (WCEM) as a direct profitability measure of working capital management. The existing accounting measures in the literature establish an indirect approach to study the relationship between working capital efficiency and profitability of the firms.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the help of a set of companies from CMIE Prowess database, the study introduces WCEM as a direct profitability measure of working capital efficiency.

Findings

In this study, a new direct measure of working capital efficiency is introduced which is multiplicative in nature. WCEM is a product of three components, namely, WACC, ratio of the sum of trade receivables and inventories to trade payables and ratio of net working capital (NWC) to net sales.

Practical implications

The importance of direct measure like WCEM could be enormous in performance evaluation of a firm. It can be used as an indicator for choosing a suitable investment opportunity by an investor. This is due to the fact that the firm that is highly efficient in managing working capital is less exposed to liquidity risk. At the same time, the firm is less dependent on external financing. Therefore, such firms eventually create more value for their shareholders. Another indication that WCEM provides is to gauge the bargaining power of the firm and its competitive position in the market. Lower WCEM indicates higher bargaining power of a firm across the value chain, and its superior position relative to its competitors.

Originality/value

Most of the studies on WCM are of the empirical type and there is a complete dearth on theoretical framework. Researchers hereafter can consider WCEM as one of the financial performance variables in place of the existing measures such as return on asset (ROA), return on invested capital (ROIC), return on equity (ROE), gross operating income (GOI) and net operating income (NOI) and thereby can contribute new empirical insights through their research outcomes.

Details

Journal of Indian Business Research, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4195

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Article
Publication date: 21 June 2013

Haris Doukas, Alexandros Flamos, Vangelis Marinakis and Mohsen Assadi

The paper aims to provide the prospects and challenges of cooperation concerning natural gas (NG) resources between the European Union (EU) and Gulf Cooperation Council…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to provide the prospects and challenges of cooperation concerning natural gas (NG) resources between the European Union (EU) and Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), based on a “critical review” of the current state of the GCC region regarding NG production, consumption, trading movements, policy framework and existing/planned projects and programs for each GCC country individually.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodological four‐steps approach adopted is based on the context of the project “Creation and Operation of an EU‐GCC Clean Energy Network” (www.eugcc‐cleanergy.net). This paper summarizes the dynamic NG supply/demand situation in the GCC countries in a structured way, touching upon some pertinent policy issues and relating specific projects.

Findings

The key finding of the paper is the assessment of GCC countries' potential for future collaboration, especially with the EU. The collaboration opportunities, based on a detailed overview of existing and planned practices in the GCC countries, linking the policy to the practical commercial level, as well as the national system context is elaborated.

Originality/value

To the best of their knowledge, a study focused on the EU‐GCC cooperation for NG is not present in the literature. This study highlights how policy measures differ depending on the supply/demand situation of a particular country, bringing a unique perspective on how diverse the GCC region really is. Moreover, based on the specific energy projects presented, the policy level is linked to the practical commercial level. The presented approach and the related outcomes support the policy makers to enable the environment needed for concrete NG cooperation actions of mutual benefit for both regions.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 November 2016

Mohamad K. Naja and Hoda Baytiyeh

Terrorist attacks on schools and colleges have disrupted educational processes and caused fear, deaths and tragedies. Considering the recent increase in terrorist attacks…

Abstract

Purpose

Terrorist attacks on schools and colleges have disrupted educational processes and caused fear, deaths and tragedies. Considering the recent increase in terrorist attacks on educational facilities in different parts of the world, vulnerability and risk assessments have assumed crucial importance in the design and evaluation of mitigation plans to reduce the traumatic impacts of such events. This paper aims to assess the vulnerability and risk of Lebanese high school assets to terrorism.

Design/methodology/approach

Through site visits to various high schools in Lebanon, the authors evaluated specific features common in the majority of Lebanese high schools and identified six categories of schools. Using Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA 428) guidelines, one high school from each category was surveyed and analysed.

Findings

The results reveal a relatively high vulnerability to and risk of the threat of terrorism and a lack of protective plans and mitigation measures to minimise this risk among the majority of the investigated high school facilities.

Originality/value

This paper should alert school administrators, public leaders and government officials regarding the terrorist threats and their subsequent effects on the structural safety of school buildings in Lebanon. The risk assessment of schools to terrorism has rarely been performed or even discussed in the Lebanese-related literature.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 7 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

H.E. Gaffer, S. Shaaban, N.A. Abed and E. Abdel-latif

This paper aimed to synthesise some new selenium-containing pyrazole, thiazole and thiophene dyestuffs and investigate their application in dyeing polyester fabrics.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aimed to synthesise some new selenium-containing pyrazole, thiazole and thiophene dyestuffs and investigate their application in dyeing polyester fabrics.

Design/methodology/approach

4,4′-Diselanediyl-bis-(2-methoxyaniline) was diazotized by acetic acid/sodium nitrite and coupled with active methylene components such as malononitrile, ethyl cyanoacetate and ethyl acetoacetate, and their corresponding hydrazono products were cyclised with hydrazine or phenyl hydrazine to obtain a series of arylazo-pyrazole dyestuffs. Furthermore, diazo-coupling reactions of the diazotized 4,4′-diselanediyl-bis-(2-methoxyaniline) were developed to obtain a new series of 2-amino-5-arylazo-thiazole- and 4-aryazo-3-hydroxy-2-substituted thiophene dyestuffs.

Findings

The structure of the synthesised dyestuffs was established and confirmed based on their elemental analysis and spectral data (infrared, proton nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopies). The synthesised selenium-containing dyestuffs were applied as disperse dyes on polyester fabrics by high temperature-pressure technique. The dyeing characteristics of these dyestuffs were evaluated, and they were found to exhibit good fastness properties.

Originality/value

A series of symmetrical diselenide dyestuffs containing pyrazole, thiazole or thiophene coupler components were synthesised. The authors studied their application for dyeing polyester fabrics; they are superior in terms of preparation, yield, purity and fastness properties.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 45 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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