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Article
Publication date: 9 July 2021

Mohd Mohid Rahmat, Siti Hajar Asmah Ali and Norman Mohd Saleh

This study aims to examine the effect of the auditor-client relationship (ACR) on related party transaction (RPT) types of disclosure, either RPT-efficient or RPT-conflict. This…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the effect of the auditor-client relationship (ACR) on related party transaction (RPT) types of disclosure, either RPT-efficient or RPT-conflict. This study also examines whether family controlling shareholders (FCS) negatively affect the ACR in RPT types of disclosure.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses multivariate regression on 2,203 year-observations of companies listed in Malaysia during the period 2014–2017.

Findings

This study finds weak evidence that auditors can mitigate companies’ RPT type (RPT-efficient and RPT-conflict) disclosure while maintaining a close ACR. However, an interaction between FCS and ACR reduces the RPT-conflict disclosure. Additionally, the Big 4 auditors slightly increase the RPT-conflict disclosure, however, the relationships are inversed if the close ACR involves the FCS. The Big 4 auditors also increase RPT-efficient disclosure although in a close ACR with FCS. Meanwhile, an interaction between non-Big 4 auditors and FCS in close ACR reduces both types of RPT disclosures.

Research limitations/implications

The findings suggest that a close relationship between auditors and clients in firms with significant family control could compromise auditor’s skepticism. The FCS can easily influence the auditors to agree with the ways they treat the RPT disclosure. Therefore, policymakers may have to revisit auditors’ rotation policies in Malaysia, especially those involving FCS.

Originality/value

Trust, familiarity and future fee dependency are significant threats to auditor independence in a close ACR. This study contributes to the literature by examining the effect of a close ACR on RPT types of disclosure from a network theory perspective.

Article
Publication date: 3 July 2023

Nurshahirah Abd Majid, Mohd Mohid Rahmat and Kamran Ahmed

This study aims to examine the ability of independent directors to discipline related-party transactions (RPTs) among listed companies in Malaysia. Firms typically appoint…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the ability of independent directors to discipline related-party transactions (RPTs) among listed companies in Malaysia. Firms typically appoint independent directors individually, not as a group. However, board members are commonly viewed collectively as a group, and evidence of the abilities of individual directors is scarce.

Design/methodology/approach

The attributes of individual independent directors include accounting literacy, length of service, audit committee membership and active participation in board and audit committee meetings. The unit of analysis is the individual independent director. The final sample consists of 1,552 observations in 2017, and RPTs are categorized as either efficient or conflicting.

Findings

The study finds that the tenure of individual independent directors and active participation in board meetings affect the firm’s engagement in RPTs. However, the financial literacy, audit committee membership and attendance of independent directors at audit committee meetings do not affect the firm’s engagement in RPTs, either efficient or conflicting. Overall, this result offers limited support for the upper-echelon theory concerning the attributes of individual independent directors and RPTs.

Research limitations/implications

This study uses cross-sectional observations for 2017, which predates the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, this study ignores the impact of restrictions in community mobility during the pandemic on the independent director’s ability to monitor the corporation. This circumstance may have implications for practice and merit further research.

Practical implications

The findings provide information for board nominating committees, regulators and policymakers that the capability of individual independent directors to fulfill their responsibilities is limited. The firm’s nominating committee must be very selective in nominating and appointing independent directors with appropriate competencies. Investors should choose companies that have reappointed the same independent directors for an extended period, as they may benefit from the experience in protecting investors’ interests.

Originality/value

This paper contributes novel evidence to upper-echelon theory literature on the association between independent directors and RPT types from the perspective of individual independent directors.

Details

Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-2517

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 4 April 2023

Norazian Hussin, Mohd Fairuz Md Salleh, Azlina Ahmad and Mohd Mohid Rahmat

This study aims to examine the relationship between the attributes of audit firms (Big 4, audit fees, busy season, audit firm tenure and audit partner gender) and the impact of…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the relationship between the attributes of audit firms (Big 4, audit fees, busy season, audit firm tenure and audit partner gender) and the impact of these attributes on key audit matters (KAM) readability in Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

The auditor's reports and financial data were analysed from a sample of FTSE 100 Malaysia-listed companies for the fiscal years 2017–2019, consisting of 258 observations. Panel regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the possible associations between audit firm attributes and KAM readability. The Flesch reading ease score and Coleman–Liau index were applied to measure KAM readability.

Findings

The findings show that female audit partners significantly impact KAM readability; further analysis also revealed that companies audited by Big 4 audit firms and higher audit fees tend to report a more readable KAM disclosure in the FTSE 100 in Malaysia.

Originality/value

The regression results provide empirical evidence of the influence of audit firm attributes on KAM readability. This study also examined important corporate governance players, such as external auditors and those charged with governance, who form the audit committee's qualities when analysing the determinants of KAM reporting variations in Malaysia.

Details

Asian Journal of Accounting Research, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2459-9700

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 January 2020

Mohd Mohid Rahmat, Balachandran Muniandy and Kamran Ahmed

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of related party transactions (RPTs) and types of RPTs (complex, simple and loan) on earnings quality in four East Asian…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of related party transactions (RPTs) and types of RPTs (complex, simple and loan) on earnings quality in four East Asian countries: Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand.

Design/methodology/approach

RPTs and types of RPTs are measured using two approaches, magnitude and abnormal (magnitude change). Earnings quality is measured using proxies for accrual earnings management and identified as discretionary accruals (DAC) and performance matched discretional accruals (PMDAC).

Findings

The results suggest that firms in these countries experience poor earnings quality when they are engaged in RPT. The effect of RPT-simple on earnings quality is more severe than RPT-complex. However, the presence of higher investor protection and stricter enforcement of regulations in countries like Singapore and Hong Kong reduce the negative impact of RPTs on earnings quality.

Research limitations/implications

The results support the argument that the presence of controlling shareholders in East Asia is likely to lead to engagement with RPTs, which will increase the likelihood of firms’ earnings manipulation via DAC. This study has two limitations. It only focuses on Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand, and the results may not be generalizable to other countries. Second, this study only measures the magnitude and abnormal RPTs based on the disclosures available in annual reports.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the literature by examining the effect of RPTs and types of RPTs on earnings quality in four selected East Asian countries. 

Details

International Journal of Accounting & Information Management, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1834-7649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 July 2023

Tahani Hakami, Omar Sabri, Bassam Al-Shargabi, Mohd Mohid Rahmat and Osama Nashat Attia

This study aims to examine the present condition of blockchain technology (BT) applications in auditing by analyzing journal publications on the topic to acquire a better…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the present condition of blockchain technology (BT) applications in auditing by analyzing journal publications on the topic to acquire a better understanding of the field.

Design/methodology/approach

This study makes use of the Bibliometric Analysis method and gathered 725 papers from the Web of Science and Scopus databases in the management and accounting, business, financial, economic and social science, as well as decision sciences fields from 2017 to 2021 using the R-Package Bibliometrix Analysis “biblioshiny”.

Findings

The findings revealed that blockchain research in terms of auditing has already increased and started to spark a quick rise in popularity, but is still in its initial phases with important quality though less in quantity. Moreover, the Journal of Emerging Technologies in Accounting is the most prolific journal with 2019 as the highest publication year, with the United States and China as the most cited countries in this field. Furthermore, in this field, there are much research topics involving blockchain, audit and smart contracts; and there is less involving data analytics, governance, hyperledger, distributed ledger and financial reporting. Additionally, Sheldon (2019) and Smith and Castonguay (2020) are the most productive authors in the field in terms of the H-index.

Research limitations/implications

This study has certain limitations such as the fact that it only looked at 105 papers in the domains of finance, business, economics, accounting, management as well as multidisciplinary science. Moreover, the research’s data and dates have an impact on the results dependability. As this is an original topic, fresh studies are anticipated to remain to shine a spotlight on and suggest answers to blockchain’s implications on auditing. Additionally, the period of time was limited to only the last five years, from 2017 to 2021. As a result, extensive study into the topic is required since there is currently a research deficit in the blockchain field in the setting of auditing. So, new research is required to offer new frameworks and understandings for describing the blockchain function in auditing, including processes, techniques, security, as well as timeliness. Investigations in unique circumstances and research employing innovative research methodologies for discovering the new issue would be valuable in acquiring a higher grasp of the complexities faced.

Originality/value

This research contributed to the field by assessing the present state of the art of research on the usage and use of BT in finding research gaps, the audit profession and, most importantly, recommending a future direction for researchers in the subject.

Details

EuroMed Journal of Business, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1450-2194

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 July 2021

Muhammad Iqmal Hisham Kamaruddin, Sofiah Md Auzair, Mohd Mohid Rahmat and Nurul Aini Muhamed

The purpose of this study is to examine the role of financial governance practices in influencing both financial management and Islamic work ethic practices to affect Islamic…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the role of financial governance practices in influencing both financial management and Islamic work ethic practices to affect Islamic social enterprises (ISEs) accountability.

Design/methodology/approach

Questionnaires were administered to financial officers of 102 Malaysian ISEs. Data was analysed using Smart-PLS to examine the relationships between financial management, Islamic work ethic, financial governance and accountability.

Findings

Results of this study indicate direct relationship only exist between Islamic work ethic and accountability. The relationship between financial management and accountability are indirect through financial governance. Hence, the data proves that financial governance has a mediating role on both the relationships between financial management and Islamic work ethic with the accountability of the ISEs.

Research limitations/implications

The study has highlighted the greater role of financial management, Islamic work ethic and financial governance practices over accountability to achieve public trust, especially for Malaysian ISEs.

Practical implications

ISEs need to have good financial governance practices besides financial management and Islamic work ethic practices to achieve good accountability.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the field of management and social accounting by providing empirical evidence on the ISEs practices specifically on financial management, Islamic work ethic, financial governance and accountability. This framework thus presents amongst the first attempts in studying accountability issues in ISEs.

Details

Social Enterprise Journal, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-8614

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2007

Mara Ridhuan Che Abdul Rahman, Tengku Akbar Tengku Abdullah, Arawati Agus and Mohd Mohid Rahmat

Borderless transactions have resulted in changes to the competitive and technological environments. As a result, accounting profession faces challenges in meeting these changes…

Abstract

Borderless transactions have resulted in changes to the competitive and technological environments. As a result, accounting profession faces challenges in meeting these changes. Previous studies have indicated that accounting education had failed to develop students’ competencies critically required by market. This paper mainly focuses on competencies in the workplace in relation to its levels of importance; as well as the level of emphasis of the competencies during university learning. In this study, 1,300 questionnaires were distributed to accountants graduated from seven state‐run universities namely Universiti Malaya, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia, Universiti Teknologi Mara, Universiti Utara Malaysia and Universiti Sains Malaysia. The respondents were asked to rank the level of importance and emphasis of thirteen competencies; namely communication skills, decision‐making skills, leadership development, continuous improvement skills, professionalism, information development and distribution skills, knowledge in planning and budgetary, management control system, interpreting and analyzing financial statements, knowledge in accounting, knowledge in auditing and knowledge in taxation. The study found that there were large gaps between the level of importance of competencies in workplace and the level of emphasis of competencies in workplace. In addition, the study also found positive correlation between the personality traits and the level of competencies. In general, these findings are consistent with the findings from other studies conducted. The findings should provide empirical and relevant input for assessing the content of the existing accounting programs.

Details

Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-2517

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 July 2009

Mohd Mohid Rahmat, Takiah Mohd Iskandar and Norman Mohd Saleh

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether there is any difference in the characteristics of an audit committee between financially distressed and non‐distressed…

4701

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether there is any difference in the characteristics of an audit committee between financially distressed and non‐distressed companies listed on the Bursa Malaysia (formerly known as the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange). Financial distress among big companies is a sign of weak corporate governance, of which the audit committee is one of elements. Four characteristics of the audit committee being examined are size, independence, activity, and accounting knowledge.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample comprises 73 financially distressed and the matched pair of 73 financially non‐distressed listed companies. The financially distressed companies have been suspended from the listing under the provision of the practice note 4 (PN4) of the listing requirements.

Findings

Results show that financial distress of companies has a significant negative association with financial literacy of the audit committee and the quality of external audit.

Research limitations/implications

The finding is limited to PN4 companies and the selected match of the non‐PN4. Results may not be generalized to other companies that are faced with financial difficulties but are not classified as financially distressed under the PN4 provision.

Practical implications

The paper does not examine other qualitative factors such as the culture and dynamics of audit committee meetings which may have effect on the audit committee performance. An examination on the issue requires a different research design. Hence, further research is needed to address the issue.

Originality/value

The evidence suggests that financial literacy of audit committee members is a significant factor which helps the audit committee enhance the financial performance of the company. It also suggests that a quality external audit, in addition to an effective audit committee, enhances company financial performance.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 24 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2004

Mohd Mohid Rahmat and Takiah Mohd Iskandar

This study examines audit fee premiums from brand name, industry specialization, and industry leadership after the merger of two Big 6 audit firms, creating the Big 5 in 1998 in…

Abstract

This study examines audit fee premiums from brand name, industry specialization, and industry leadership after the merger of two Big 6 audit firms, creating the Big 5 in 1998 in the Malaysian audit market. A sample of 679 companies listed at the main and second boards of Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange (KLSE) are investigated for audit fee premiums. Industry specialization is determined on the basis of 20 per cent share of audit market calculated by the number of audited companies in the industry. Audit fee premiums are calculated based on the Simunic (1980) model of audit fees. Results show: that Big 5 audit firms obtain 65.4 per cent audit market share for all KLSE listed companies; that Big 5 audit firms earn higher audit fees than non‐Big 5; and that industry specialization does not generate audit fee premiums. The study finds evidence for audit fee premiums derived from industry market leadership. Results also reflect the competitiveness among Big 5 audit firms in the audit market especially following the merger of Big 6 audit firms.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 April 2007

Norman Mohd Saleh, Takiah Mohd Iskandar and Mohd Mohid Rahmat

Conflicts between managers and outside auditors may exist in choosing alternative accounting procedures. Since auditors are appointed by the firm, they are subject to dismissal if…

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Abstract

Purpose

Conflicts between managers and outside auditors may exist in choosing alternative accounting procedures. Since auditors are appointed by the firm, they are subject to dismissal if divergent opinions cannot be resolved. To a lesser extent, financial reports are often negotiated. In order to produce unbiased financial reports, audit committee members are appointed to act independently in order to resolve conflicts between the managers and outside auditors. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of some audit committee characteristics, i.e. the independence of members, size, frequency of meeting and knowledge of the members, to monitor management behavior with respect to their incentives to manage earnings.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses discretionary accruals obtained from the established model as a signal of the presence of earnings management.

Findings

The evidence shows that the presence of a fully independent audit committee reduces earnings management practices. It was also found that firms which had more knowledgeable audit committee members and held more audit committee meetings recorded fewer earnings management practices compared with other firms.

Originality/value

This paper is different from prior studies, in that it makes a significant contribution towards enhancing one's knowledge in the interacting role of audit committee characteristics.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

Keywords

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