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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2019

Mohammed Z. Salem, Samir Baidoun and Grace Walsh

The purpose of this paper is to examine factors that affect Palestinian customers’ use of online banking services.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine factors that affect Palestinian customers’ use of online banking services.

Design/methodology/approach

An empirical study was conducted using a questionnaire in order to test the hypotheses. The questionnaire was distributed to 500 respondents selected by the participating banks. A total of 369 complete questionnaires were returned. The study’s independent variables include technology adoption propensity, customers’ value for online personalization, customers’ privacy concern, e-trust, technological leadership and loyalty. Palestinian customers’ usage of online banking services is the dependent variable.

Findings

The results of the model tested clearly suggest that the use of online banking services is influenced, respectively, by the technological leadership, e-trust, e-loyalty, customers’ value for online personalization, customers’ concern for privacy and propensity of technology adoption. Finally, this paper suggests that policy makers should develop a prioritized hierarchy of actions in developing the effective use of bank’s online services, based on the t- and p-values of the latter mentioned factors.

Research limitations/implications

One limitation of the study is relying on self-reported cross-sectional data collection, rather than longitudinal surveying. Despite such limitation, the study provides the Palestinian banking sector with recommendations to promote online banking services based on the empirically identified factors affecting such service adoption.

Practical implications

Palestinian banks should promote the adoption of online banking services by supporting personalization of services, privacy and trust. Customers should always be informed that their bank is among the first banks to introduce the latest state-of-the-art online services. Technology innovative and diverse online services should be offered by banks to attract customers.

Originality/value

Although numerous research studies have studied the factors affecting customers in using electronic and online banking services, few studies have considered such usage in the developing countries, such as Arab countries in general and Palestine in particular. This is the first study to examine the factors affecting the adoption of online banking services in Palestine. This study provides empirical evidence to fill in the gap by providing a deeper understanding of the factors affecting the usage of online banking services in the country. The findings of this study can help decision makers in the Palestinian banks to develop practical plans that might accelerate and expand the adoption of online banking emphasizing personalized and trusted services offered with high level of security and privacy.

Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Samir D. Baidoun, Mohammed Z. Salem and Omar A. Omran

The purpose of this paper is to assess the level of total quality management (TQM) implementation in Palestinian governmental and non-governmental hospitals using the…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the level of total quality management (TQM) implementation in Palestinian governmental and non-governmental hospitals using the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA) framework.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on collecting data using a survey questionnaire that was designed according to the MBNQA criteria. In total, 363 questionnaires from governmental and non-governmental hospitals operating in Gaza Strip were analyzed to assess the level of TQM implementation level in all hospitals (governmental and non-governmental).

Findings

The main results of this study indicate that Palestinian hospitals operating in Gaza Strip perform at a relatively acceptable level. Comparing results shows that the performance of non-governmental hospitals is better with higher degree of TQM implementation than the governmental hospitals. Detailed analysis identifies improvement opportunities-related specific aspects of the human resources focus and the performance results.

Research limitations/implications

Although this study has collected data from one Palestinian Territory, the Gaza Strip, it still identifies the critical factors and practices for TQM implementation within the Palestinian healthcare organizations to improve performance.

Practical implications

This paper suggests that business excellence models such as the MBNQA criteria can be used to assess the level of implementation of quality practices and identify the strengths and weaknesses to improve the quality of service delivery, processes, and performance of hospitals.

Originality/value

Despite the widespread use of TQM in the developed countries, little attention has been placed to implement and assess the quality initiatives by organizations in the developing countries and even fewer in low-income Arab countries (Aamer et al., 2017; Øvretveit and Al Serouri, 2006). In addition, a very few number of studies in reference to the assessment of TQM implementation in the Palestinian context, in general, and in healthcare organizations, in particular, highlight the need for this study. To move the field in that direction, the goal of this research was to assess the level of TQM implementation in the healthcare organizations (mainly hospitals) in Gaza Strip (one of the least fortunate areas of the Palestinian-occupied territories) where no prior similar research studies could be found. Therefore, this study contributes to filling this gap in the literature by providing empirical assessment of TQM level of implementation in Gaza Strip hospitals.

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 May 2019

Mohammed Z. Salem, Samir Baidoun, Grace Walsh and Netham Sweidan

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of female portrayal in advertisements on Palestinian female consumers’ purchasing decisions. TV and online media were…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of female portrayal in advertisements on Palestinian female consumers’ purchasing decisions. TV and online media were selected as the medium for the study. Specifically, the researchers examine the one-dimensional sexualized female portrayal in advertisements.

Design/methodology/approach

Culture is used as the lens through which the study examines the relationship between independent and dependent variables concerning the topic of this study. The study collected primary data from 395 Palestinian participants through a survey questionnaire.

Findings

The findings of the study revealed that there is a relationship between the independent variable (the sexualized female portrayal in foreign advertisements – advertisements originating in foreign countries) and the dependent variable (Palestinian female consumers’ purchase decision). Additionally, the study found that the cultural differences between Palestine and other foreign countries have a negative impact on the Palestinian female consumers’ perception of the product being advertised.

Practical implications

Although traditional marketing procedures would allow companies to filter and adapt particular adverts to suit various cultural, social and political environments, the advent of the open web and satellite TV channels extend the advertisements reach to audiences beyond their intended demographic.

Originality/value

This is the first study set in the Arab context (including Palestine) to explore the impact of sexualized female portrayal in advertisements on Palestinian female consumers’ purchasing decision.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 April 2018

Mohammed Z. Salem

The purpose of this paper is to examine perfume packaging in Spain and its effects on Basque female consumers’ purchase decision. The study population was made up of…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine perfume packaging in Spain and its effects on Basque female consumers’ purchase decision. The study population was made up of females, as they represent the highest consumer in the perfume market, accounting for 67 percent of the total perfume sales (Trufragance.com). Furthermore, in the past few years the perfume industry has basically targeted females (McIntyre, 2013).

Design/methodology/approach

An empirical study was conducted using a questionnaire to collect primary data in order to test the hypotheses. The questionnaire was distributed to 400 randomly selected respondents, from the general female population.

Findings

The findings show a relationship between the independent variables (i.e. visual packaging design, verbal packaging design, and packaging benefits) and the dependent variable (i.e. consumer purchase decision) based on several reasons discussed thoroughly in this paper. Additionally, age, education level, marital status, monthly income, and employment category of sample subjects influence the effect of perfume packaging on purchase decisions.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation of this study is the use of simple random sampling. The research findings bear important implications for more functional, emotional, environmental, and socially responsible marketing practice where packaging is concerned.

Practical implications

The findings of this study contribute to the understanding of packaging as a strategic marketing tool and how it can significantly influence the female’s purchase decision. Thus, giving managers and marketers a competitive advantage in this increasingly growing market. A new concept and measurement scale is presented that can be used for identifying creative packaging design and its benefits.

Originality/value

This study remains one of few research works focusing on the four dimensions of packaging benefits: functional, social, emotional, and environmental. Furthermore, it attempts to fulfill the identified need for encompassing potential and generally accepted packaging elements, including both the visual and verbal elements. Therefore, the uniqueness of this study arises from its examination of both aspects simultaneously, which has been ignored in previous research.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 56 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 October 2021

Nashwa Mostafa Saleh, Maha Mohammed Elsawy, Hamada Abd El-Wahab, Salem Salah Salem and Nour El-Din Abd El-Sattar

The purpose of this study is to develop a new protective coating formulation for industrial use, using benzodiazepine derivatives as double function additives.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop a new protective coating formulation for industrial use, using benzodiazepine derivatives as double function additives.

Design/methodology/approach

Benzodiazepine’s derivatives of types (3–5) were prepared and confirmed by infrared, Mass, 1H-Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and 13C NMR spectra. The synthesized compound was physically incorporated in the alkyd paint formulation by pebble mill grinding until all particulates are smaller than 20 ums. The prepared coatings were applied by air spray on steel panels. The physical, mechanical characteristics, corrosion resistance and antimicrobial test of the prepared coatings were studied to evaluate the prepared compounds drawbacks.

Findings

The results of the mechanical and physical properties of the paint formulation revealed that the paint formulation incorporating benzodiazepines derivatives 3–5 performed best and improved corrosion-resistance and antibacterial activity tests.

Research limitations/implications

In alkyd paint, heterocyclic compounds are the most used antibacterial additives. Other functionalities of these compounds, such as corrosion inhibitors, might be studied to see if they are suited for these applications.

Practical implications

Because of the activity of various benzodiazepine derivatives, which may be attributable to the presence of some function groups such as sulfonamide aromatic amino NH2 group, and elements such as Sulphur, Nitrogen, Chlorine, in its chemical structure. As a result, paint compositions including these compounds as additives can be used as dual-purpose paint and for a variety of industrial applications.

Originality/value

The research demonstrates how a low-cost paint composition based on synthesized benzodiazepine derivatives 3–5 may be used as a dual-function paint for industrial use.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Learning and Teaching in Higher Education: Gulf Perspectives, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2077-5504

Article
Publication date: 14 October 2020

Yaser Hasan Salem Al-Mamary, Mohammed Abdulrab, Mohammed A. Alwaheeb and Naif Ghazi M. Alshammari

This research intends to contribute to the literature of entrepreneurial intentions through determining the factors impacting the entrepreneurial intentions among students…

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Abstract

Purpose

This research intends to contribute to the literature of entrepreneurial intentions through determining the factors impacting the entrepreneurial intentions among students in different academic programs. This is in order to enhance and improve entrepreneurship-related procedures within relevant universities.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was conducted by a structured survey questionnaire on 261 students in the University of Hail. The questionnaire was developed based on previous studies. The proposed hypotheses were tested by the use of the structured equation modeling (SEM) via using Amos software.

Findings

The results of the current study support the theoretical integration of the model as most of the hypotheses have been accepted. The results of the survey also show that attitudes toward behavior, self-efficacy, autonomy, risk-taking, pro-activeness and competitive aggressiveness are expressively related with entrepreneurial intention. Yet, social norms and innovativeness are not considerably connected with entrepreneurial intention.

Research limitations/implications

This study seeks to contribute to the relevant literature by integrating the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and the entrepreneurial orientation model (EO). This is in order to identify the factors impacting the intention of entrepreneurship among Saudi university students. As the case in many studies, this present study has some limitations. The main limitation lies in that it would not be possible to generalize the study's findings. This is due to the fact the research is the outcome of examining and studying one Saudi university. Therefore, it would be better to conduct similar studies in other Saudi universities in order to generalize the findings of the study.

Practical implications

The study's results could be of value to policymakers and university administrators in Saudi Arabia universities by which they could be enabled to allocate resources, develop strategies and provide all requirements for the sake of improving entrepreneurial skills among university students. This comprehensive model can be used as a tool for planning and prioritizing resources in bid for providing the required support as this support would reinforce the entrepreneurial opportunity of university students. As such, students would have better thinking about entrepreneurial work and thus would be assisted in achieving their professional goals and the broader goal of nation building.

Originality/value

Since today's youth are viewed as the potential future entrepreneurs, they should be encouraged to achieve the Saudi Kingdom's goals through creating suitable employment opportunities for them by supporting entrepreneurship. Therefore, pointing out the factors impacting the entrepreneurial intention of students will contribute to developing the field of entrepreneurship among young people in Saudi Arabic in general. In addition, realized outcomes would create an exciting new knowledge with regard to the entrepreneurial intention among the youth at the university level.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 62 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 September 2020

Katharina Raab, Ralf Wagner and Mohammed Salem

This paper aims to quantify the impact of antecedents (frustration, locus of control, spirituality, and religion and attention to social-comparison information) on the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to quantify the impact of antecedents (frustration, locus of control, spirituality, and religion and attention to social-comparison information) on the intensity of emotional outcomes of consumers’ disposal behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

A structural equation model fitted with PLS was used to evaluate data obtained from 323 self-administered questionnaires filled out in a stratified random sample of respondents living in Gaza Strip camps.

Findings

Spirituality and religion, and attention to social-comparison information have the highest impacts on emotional outcomes related to consumer disposal behaviour.

Research limitations/implications

Spirituality and religion are seldom considered in previous consumer research, but they turn out to have high relevance for disposal-related emotions.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study investigating disposal-related emotions. Moreover, it is also the first study combining the impact of frustration, locus of control, perceived self-efficacy, spirituality and religion and attention to social-comparison information on emotional outcomes related to consumers’ disposal behaviour.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 37 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 October 2021

Ali A. Ali, Maha Mohammed Elsawy, Salem S. Salem, Ahmed A. El-Henawy and Hamada Abd El-Wahab

Paper aims to preparation of new acid disperse dyes based on thiadiazol derivatives and evaluation of their use as antimicrobial colorants in digital transfer-printing ink…

Abstract

Purpose

Paper aims to preparation of new acid disperse dyes based on thiadiazol derivatives and evaluation of their use as antimicrobial colorants in digital transfer-printing ink formulations for printing onto polyester fabric substrates.

Design/methodology/approach

New disperse dyes based on 1,3,4 - thiadiazol derivative (dyes 1–3) were prepared and evaluated by different analysis then formulated as colored materials in the ink formulations. The viscosity, dynamic surface tension and particle size distribution of the prepared inks were measured. The printed polyester fabric substrates were tested using a variety of tests, including light fastness, washing, alkali perspiration and Crock fastness, as well as depth of penetration. Density-functional theory (DFT) calculations were carried out at the Becke3-Lee-Yang-parr (B3LYP) level using the 6–311** basis set, and the biological activity of the prepared disperse dyes was investigated.

Findings

The obtained results of the physical of the prepared ink revealed that thiadiazol disperse ink is a promising ink formulation for polyester printing and agrees with the quality of the printed polyester fabric. The optimization geometry for molecular structures agreed with the analysis of these compounds. The HOMO/LUMO and energy gap of the studied system were discussed. The molecular docking analysis showed strong interaction with DNA Gyrase and demonstrated to us the high ability of these inks to act as antimicrobial agents.

Practical implications

The prepared inks containing the prepared thiadiazol disperse dye were high-performance and suitable for this type of printing technique, according to the results. The prepared inks resist the growth of microorganisms and thus increase the ink's storage stability.

Originality/value

The prepared disperse dyes based on 1,3,4 - thiadiazol derivative (dyes 1–3) can be a promising colorant in different applications, like some types of paint formulations and as a colorant in printing of different fabric substrates.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 October 2019

Mohammed Abdul Imran Abdul Aziz Khan

Women entrepreneurship is the fundamental carter of economic development. This study aims to identify the dynamics that encourage entrepreneurial attitudes among women in…

Abstract

Purpose

Women entrepreneurship is the fundamental carter of economic development. This study aims to identify the dynamics that encourage entrepreneurial attitudes among women in MENA countries. More precisely, it required to scrutinize the role of the government, role models, the entrepreneurial training and women’s demographic characteristics in encouraging women to embrace entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on primary data, where data were gathered from a sample of 300 women from MENA countries through a self-administered questionnaire and were subjected to one-way ANOVA tests. Different statistical tools were used to draw some valued conclusions from the gathered data. The study reveals that women entrepreneurs acknowledge the role played by the government, entrepreneurship training, role models and demographic variables in encouraging them to embrace entrepreneurship.

Findings

The government and the entrepreneurial training were found to be the greatest variables encouraging women to embrace entrepreneurship. Nevertheless, the low overall mean exhibited that most women do not believe that these bodies have played their role satisfactorily. Whereas the ANOVA results reveal that age and work experience were not important dynamics behind encouraging women to embrace entrepreneurship.

Research limitations/implications

Data were collected from a sample of 300 women entrepreneurs with a simple random sampling technique from the following MENA countries: Oman, Qatar, Egypt, Jordan, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. It is too difficult to approach the women respondents and then collect data from them especially in MENA countries; hence the sample is small and limited.

Practical implications

However, such studies are still in the minority, and, with few exceptions, most have been published in the niche. The study finds imperative for policymakers to go beyond measures that aim to address the challenges that individual women entrepreneurs face and to study the institutional framework affecting women entrepreneurship in relationship to motivations and resources. Additional care is desired to compel the environment and context to eliminate barriers to women entrepreneurship at source. The government should play a significant role in encouraging women to embrace entrepreneurship, especially in times of economic slowdown. World-wide, women are under-represented among the population of entrepreneurs, and they tend to have different motivations and intentions. The first, and most obvious, implication highlights governments need to create special funds for unlocking the potential by enhancing their levels of entrepreneurship skills using the traditional instruments such as training. The government should come up with new and specific training programmes, providing support for growth-oriented women entrepreneurs with dedicated business incubator and business accelerator programmes.

Social implications

Entrepreneurs are strongly influenced by role models and social context. It is therefore important to promote women entrepreneurs as role models and ensure that the education system is gender-neutral and does not discourage women from going into different fields. Finally, more targeted actions can be taken to ensure that family policies, social policies and tax policies do not discriminate against entrepreneurship by women.

Originality/value

The author believes that only few entrepreneurship researchers are interested in feminist epistemology, disappointingly the more advanced understanding of feminism witnessed in sociology and the political science literature is not reflected in the field of entrepreneurship. Hence, there is a need for investigate the dynamics like government role, entrepreneurial training, role models and demographic characteristics, to have a fuller understanding of how they affect, to ensure a more accurate assessment of the outcomes for the development of women entrepreneurs in MENA countries. This study is an attempt to investigate the dynamics such as government role, entrepreneurial training, role models and demographic characteristics that encourage women to embrace entrepreneurship in MENA countries.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

Keywords

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