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Case study
Publication date: 29 November 2020

Rajaram Govindarajan and Mohammed Laeequddin

Learning outcomes are as follows: students will discover the importance of process orientation in management; students will determine the root cause of the problem by…

Abstract

Learning outcomes

Learning outcomes are as follows: students will discover the importance of process orientation in management; students will determine the root cause of the problem by applying root cause analysis technique; students will identify the failure modes, analyze their effect, score them on a scale and prioritize the corrective action to prevent the failures; students will analyze the processes and propose error-proof system/s; and students will analyze organizational culture and ethical issues.

Case overview/synopsis

Purpose: This case study is intended as a class-exercise, for students to discover the importance of process-orientation in management, analyze the ethical dilemma in health care and to apply quality management techniques, such as five-why, root cause analysis, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) and error-proofing, in the management of the health-care and service industry. Design/methodology/approach: A voluntary reporting of a case of “radiation overdose” in a hospital’s radio therapy treatment unit, which led to an ethical dilemma. Consequently, a study was conducted to establish the causes of the incident and to develop a fail-proof system, to avoid recurrence. Findings: After careful analysis of the process-flow and the root causes, 25 potential failure modes were detected and the team had assigned a risk priority number (RPN) for each potential incident, selected the top ten RPNs and developed an error-proofing system to prevent recurrence. Subsequently, the improvement process was carried out for all the 25 potential incidents and a new control mechanism was implemented. The question of ethical dilemma remained unresolved. Research limitations/implications: Ishikawa diagram, FMEA and Poka-Yoke techniques require a multi-disciplinary team with process knowledge in identifying the possible root causes for errors, potential risks and also the possible error-proofing method/s. Besides, these techniques need frank discussions and agreement among team members on the efforts for the development of action plan, implementation and control of the new processes. Practical implications: Students can take the case data to identify root cause analysis and the RPN (RPN = possibility of detection × probability of occurrence × severity), to redesign the protocols, through systematic identification of the deficiencies of the existing protocols. Further, they can recommend quality improvement projects. Faculty can navigate the case session orientation, emphasizing quality management or ethical practices, depending on the course for which the case is selected.

Complexity academic level

MBA or PG Diploma in Management – health-care management, hospital administration, operations management, services operations, total quality management (TQM) and ethics.

Supplementary materials

Teaching Notes are available for educators only.

Subject code

CSS 9: Operations and Logistics.

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Case study
Publication date: 14 June 2016

Mohammed Laeequddin and K. Abdul Waheed

Business-to-business (B2B) marketing, microeconomics and strategic management.

Abstract

Subject area

Business-to-business (B2B) marketing, microeconomics and strategic management.

Study level/applicability

Target audience can be MBA students who are taking B2B marketing, microeconomics and strategic management courses.

Case overview

On 1 January 2015, Hamza joined Hisham Packaging, Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE) as the CEO. Hisham Packaging specialises in production of corrugated boxes of various sizes, both in plain and printed forms. Most of Hamza’s experiences have been in the automobile industry, where his focus was on Lean operations rather than marketing. After joining Hisham Packaging, he learnt that in service industry like printing and packaging, the business focus is more customer-oriented than process-orientated. In the packaging industry, each customer’s requirement is unique and customised with variety and small volumes. What was shocking to him was that there is an informal cartel arrangement among major corrugated box suppliers in the country and without the consent of the cartel members, he cannot take any major decision like expanding the business or accepting or dropping a customer. Hamza discussed the scenario with his sales manager Ahmad to see what strategy to adopt for the growth of the company. He was trying to figure out what next? Like any other newly joined CEO, Hamza also had plans to increase the market share and make the operations Lean. He quickly found that it would be difficult for him to make any major impact on the existing business due to the constraints and he needed a different strategic move to grow the company.

Expected learning outcomes

The outcomes include understanding of market dynamics, cartelization of companies based on market structure and strategy building. Students learn that an organization’s performance is just not dependent on how the managers plan, organize and control but it also depends on the competitors and customer’s strategies. Students learn how to apply strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis, Porter’s Five Forces analysis and PESTEL analysis in developing business strategy.

Supplementary materials

Teaching note is attached.

Subject code

CSS 8: Marketing

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2012

Mohammed Laeequddin, B.S. Sahay, Vinita Sahay and Kareem Abdul Waheed

The purpose of this paper is to develop an integrated conceptual trust building model for supply chain partners’ relationships. It is based on the literature on trust…

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2777

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop an integrated conceptual trust building model for supply chain partners’ relationships. It is based on the literature on trust building models from various disciplines.

Design/methodology/approach

Various trust building concepts and models were reviewed and five widely referred trust building models were selected from the literature to analyze and integrate the views to develop an integrated conceptual model from supply chain partners’ relationships point of view.

Findings

The conceptual frame work suggests that trust is a sum of risk‐worthy characteristics, risk‐worthy rationale and risk‐worthy institutional systems of supply chain members. Though the model represents the trust building process at dyadic level, the concept can simply be extended to any number of levels and perspectives.

Research limitations/implications

The model has considered the trust building perspectives from supply chain partners’ relationships point of view. The discussions of the model lead to empirically testable issues.

Practical implications

The study results suggest that the supply chain members should strive to reduce the risk levels to build trust rather than striving to build trust to reduce the risk. As long as members’ risk levels are within their bearable limits trust can be considered as a risk coping mechanism and when the risk levels exceed their bearable limits the subject of trust turns into risk management/security management.

Originality/value

The trust building concepts developed through this model can be used by both practitioners and researchers on the subject of trust. However the model's application is not limited to supply chain management; it can be easily adapted to any discipline of management.

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Article
Publication date: 30 March 2010

Mohammed Laeequddin and G.D. Sardana

The purpose of this paper is to understand what breaks trust in a customer supplier relationship and how to repair it.

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5056

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand what breaks trust in a customer supplier relationship and how to repair it.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach takes a single case study to test the established theories on trust. It captures the circumstances and conditions of everyday situation in business and it is a longitudinal study covering three years' experience of two organisations in business.

Findings

The important findings of this case study are that knowledge, level of risk and level of risk tolerance of customers/suppliers are the main causes of trust break down. Though the research on trust focus on partner's characteristics such as benevolence, honesty, reliability, credibility, integrity, contracts, agreements etc., in the context of B2B relationship these perspectives can only help the partners in evaluating the other partner as trust worthy. Once the partners engage in the relationship the orientation will change towards perspectives of rational risk. If the risk level exceeds their bearable limits, trust will break. Trust repair depends on the convincing power of the trustees, and how and why the trustor should bear the uncertainty or risk involved in the relationship.

Research limitations/implications

With its focus on two business partners this case cannot be generalised to all business settings. However, the in‐depth analysis stimulates further research on how trust may break between partners and how and who (trustor/trustee) should initiate trust repair process.

Practical implications

Practicing managers and research scholars can use this case in trust building process in customer supplier relationship.

Originality/value

The paper presents a case that is original.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 48 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 31 August 2010

Mohammed Laeequddin, B.S. Sahay, Vinita Sahay and K. Abdul Waheed

The purpose of this paper is to develop a context dependent, multi perspective multilevel trust measurement instrument to measure supply chain members' trust.

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3312

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a context dependent, multi perspective multilevel trust measurement instrument to measure supply chain members' trust.

Design/methodology/approach

Since trust is a context dependent phenomenon and the level of trust between partners cannot be measured easily, a conceptual framework is developed to measure supply chain partners' trust from risk perspective (i.e. risk related to characteristics, rational and institutions/security) considering the relationship as “Risky”, “Risk‐worthy” and “Not risky” and translated them in terms of trust perspectives as “No trust”, “Trust worthy” and “Trust”.

Findings

Although the research on trust emphasizes to focus on a member's characteristics such as benevolence, integrity, ability, reliability, credibility, etc, decision to trust require multiple judgments therefore trust should be measured from various context dependent perspectives at multiple levels in relationship from trustor's perceptions and calculations. The key perspectives of trust in supply chain relationship are; characteristics trust, rational trust (cost and benefit, dynamic capabilities, technology) and institutional trust/security system. An important argument of this concept is that trust can only be dyadic.

Research limitations/implications

Researchers on trust have repeatedly confirmed that trust is a multifaceted and context dependent concept. However the business context may not remain the same in the dynamic business environment, therefore this conceptual framework can be used as generalized trust measurement tool.

Practical implications

This paper has attempted to develop a simple and practical multi level trust measurement tool for the complex multi‐dimensional construct of supply chain partners' relationship trust.

Originality/value

This study may be one of the first to develop a multi level trust measurement concept from risk perspectives.

Details

Measuring Business Excellence, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-3047

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2009

Mohammed Laeequddin, G.D. Sardana, B.S. Sahay, K. Abdul Waheed and Vinita Sahay

This paper seeks to identify the up‐stream supply chain member's (manufacturers, suppliers, supplier's service providers) characteristics, economics, dynamic capabilities…

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5522

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to identify the up‐stream supply chain member's (manufacturers, suppliers, supplier's service providers) characteristics, economics, dynamic capabilities, technology and institutional perspectives of risk in relationship to develop a trust building model through risk evaluation and to address the issue: should a supply chain member strive to build the trust or strive to reduce the risk with its members and from which perspectives?

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual framework was developed considering five key perspectives (characteristics, economics, dynamic capabilities, technology and institutions) to evaluate the member's risk in relationship and derived the hypothesis from the framework. A survey was conducted in UAE packaged food industry upstream supply chain covering senior managers of 102 companies. Data were analysed using multiple regression analyses through SPSS. The selected supply chain members of this industry include packaged food products companies as manufacturers, packaging material converters as suppliers of packaging material to manufacturers and packaging raw material suppliers as supplier's suppliers of manufacturer.

Findings

From the survey results it is found that characteristic and institutional risk perspectives influence significantly to initiate a trustworthy relationship. Economics, dynamic capabilities and technology risk perspectives play a significant role to maintain trust in relationship. No perspective of members is found to be significantly risk‐free.

Research limitations/implications

This study has identified the perspectives of risk that can initiate and build trust between supply chain members in the context of a global business environment with a strong institutional system. Further research is required to identify the supply chain member's risk‐worthy characteristics, threshold levels of risk bearing capacity and the extent to which the institutions can reduce the membership risk to build trust.

Practical implications

The study results suggest that the supply chain members should strive to reduce the membership risk levels to build trust rather than striving to build trust to reduce the risk. As long as a member's risk levels are within their bearable limits trust can be considered as a risk coping mechanism and when the risk levels exceed their bearable limits the subject of trust turns into risk management/security management.

Originality/value

This study may be one of the first to develop a trust building model through a risk evaluation process and also one of the first to study the trust in supply chain member's relationship in UAE. Findings from this research should prove useful to management researchers and practitioners.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 21 November 2011

Kareem Abdul Waheed, Mohammad Jaleel and Mohammed Laeequddin

This paper seeks to empirically identify the major factors that influence physician loyalty behavior in prescribing certain brands of drugs.

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1217

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to empirically identify the major factors that influence physician loyalty behavior in prescribing certain brands of drugs.

Design/methodology/approach

Testable hypotheses were developed with respect to physician loyalty behavior regarding drug prescription practices, and a survey questionnaire was designed to capture the data from 71 physicians, as a convenience sample. The hypotheses were tested by PLS path modeling.

Findings

The major finding is that tangible rewards to physicians by the pharmaceutical companies lead to prescription loyalty. The second major finding is that the professional values of pharmaceutical sales representatives (PSR) impact significantly on physician prescription loyalty. The hypotheses related to the impact of PSR personality, drug quality, corporate reputation and professional influence on prescription loyalty were not supported in the study.

Practical implications

The results should prove useful to pharmaceutical companies in developing physician loyalty to particular brands as well as enhancing the understanding of drug control authorities and governmental health policy makers, in controlling unethical medical practices by physicians.

Originality/value

This paper reports an original empirical study on physician loyalty behavior in the context of drug prescription.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2020

Ratna Achuta Paluri and Aditi Mishal

Trust and commitment (T&C) among the supply chain partners in the context of supply chain management (SCM) are of interest for both researchers and practitioners. This…

Abstract

Purpose

Trust and commitment (T&C) among the supply chain partners in the context of supply chain management (SCM) are of interest for both researchers and practitioners. This paper analyses literature on T&C and identifies gaps for further research.

Design/methodology/approach

The current literature review paper provides a comprehensive perspective on the topic using bibliometric analysis followed by a systematic review of literature. In all, 207 relevant articles were extracted from the Scopus database using the relevant key word searches. For the purpose of the systematic review, another 48 relevant papers were identified through an iterative process. Hence, 255 papers published between the years 1990–2019 were analysed for the sake of this study.

Findings

A total of 15 definitions of trust, nine definitions of commitment, 13 classifications of trust, 40 antecedents of trust, six classifications of commitments, 39 consequences of trust, 11 antecedents of commitment and 15 consequences of commitment were identified and analysed. Future research directions were presented.

Research limitations/implications

The study is limited to identifying the antecedents and consequences of T&C. A detailed framework could be developed in future research. The antecedent and consequences for T&C could be discussed in greater detail.

Practical implications

Important implications for managers emerge from this study for building and implementing T&C, as SCM requires a thorough understanding of relationship-building skills. The discussion on the definitions of T&C, types of trust and the antecedents and consequences provides important insights for practitioners for strategy formulation. Results provide important insights and bring about greater clarity for researchers and practitioners on T&C in SCM.

Originality/value

Through rigorous analysis of the prevailing research, this paper extensively reviews literature on T&C in SCM till 2019. It summarises the current status and proposes future research directions.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2021

Sardar Md Humayun Kabir, Suharni Maulan, Noor Hazilah Abd Manaf and Zaireena Wan Nasir

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of direct-to-physician promotion on physicians’ prescription behaviour. There were very few studies which have…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of direct-to-physician promotion on physicians’ prescription behaviour. There were very few studies which have investigated to what extent the pharmaceutical promotion directed towards physicians influences physicians’ prescription behaviour in the Malaysian context.

Design/methodology/approach

A research framework has been developed based on the buyer behaviour stimulus-response model. A survey method has been used to collect data from 154 medical practitioners from private health-care facilities located at Klang valley in Malaysia. IBM SPSS and SmartPLS statistical programs have been used to analyse the data and validate the model.

Findings

This study found that personal selling is the most significant promotional tool for physicians’ prescription behaviour, whereas advertising is the least significant one. Sales promotion and public relations are the second and third most significant promotional tools. Direct marketing is found to be not significant.

Practical implications

This paper will help the pharmaceutical companies develop more effective plans to gain a competitive advantage for their business by having a guideline for pharmaceutical marketers as an input to the more efficient allocation of their promotional budgets.

Originality/value

This study has introduced a comprehensive understanding of all the factors in the pharmaceutical promotion that influence physicians’ prescription behaviour in Malaysia and how these factors are interrelated, influencing physicians’ prescribing medicines for patients.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2018

Swayam Sampurna Panigrahi, Bikram Bahinipati and Vipul Jain

The business enterprises are increasingly focusing on buying and supplying of products and services in a manner to reduce the adverse impacts on the environment, society…

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17652

Abstract

Purpose

The business enterprises are increasingly focusing on buying and supplying of products and services in a manner to reduce the adverse impacts on the environment, society, and economy. In view of the above, the concept of sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) has received attention of the industry and academia due to its importance on environmental, social and corporate responsibility through economic performance. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The structured literature review attempts to map the various theories in the SSCM literature from the perspectives of economic performance, environmental dimensions, and social values and ethics.

Findings

As supply management is vital for enhancing organizational competitiveness, the present work attempts to investigate the theoretical perspectives in SSCM to develop an understanding of the current research activities and future potentials.

Practical implications

This work aims to gain a number of valid insights for the practitioners and the researchers. It also focuses on the perspectives of governance mechanisms for successful implementation SSCM practices in the business enterprises.

Originality/value

As the theory building initiatives with implications on the conceptualization of SSCM is limited in literature, this work has also been able to identify the trends and relevant research gaps to define the potential areas for future research.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

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