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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2020

Stephen Gibb and Mohammed Ishaq

What matters most for improving work quality and who can make a difference are perennial topics in employee relations research. The literature on work quality provides…

Abstract

Purpose

What matters most for improving work quality and who can make a difference are perennial topics in employee relations research. The literature on work quality provides answers to these with regard to various constructs on a continuum from “soft” to “hard” variables and stakeholders seeking to influence employers who fall short of reasonable expectations with regard to these. A construct of “decent work” with both soft and hard variables was adopted for research and methods which were collaborative and participative with stakeholders in one national context.

Design/methodology/approach

The “decent work” construct was operationalised from the literature and refined by collaborative and participative research. Exploring the relative importance of the constituent parts of decent work involved research with a range of stakeholders; employees, employers and advocates. The study involved most prominently low-paid workers, with employers and advocates also engaged through interviews.

Findings

Primarily hard “decent work” variables were identified among employees, primarily soft variables among employers and a mix of hard and soft among advocates. There are some common priorities across these stakeholders.

Research limitations/implications

The main implication is that to engage a range of stakeholders requires a combination of soft and hard variables to be included in research and policy development. However, generalisation about what matters most and who makes a difference to work quality is intrinsically limited in context and time. In this research, the extent of employer engagement in the collaboration initiated by advocates and concerned most with the experiences of low-paid workers is a limitation.

Practical implications

What matters most are a set of soft and hard priorities to engage across stakeholders. Pay is an abiding priority among these and the priority most prominent for many advocates seeking to make a difference through influencing low-paying employers to provide a living wage. While the living wage is a significant focus for work quality, it is not in itself sufficient, as other soft and hard variables in the workplace matter as well. Those who can make a difference are the employers falling short of benchmark standards. Influence on these may emerge through decent work knowledge and skills in management and professional development programmes as well as in initiatives advocating wider adoption of the living wage.

Social implications

Problem areas of work quality, and problem employers, can be influenced by strategies shaping “hard” factors, including legislation. This needs to be complemented and integrated with strategies on “soft” factors, including identifying positive role models on themes of well-being, work–life balance and precarious forms of employment, as well as pay.

Originality/value

The identification of what matters and who can make a difference is based on an original, collaborative, research project, in one national context, offering analytical generalisability about “decent work” and an experience of collaborative research.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 42 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 August 2018

Mohammed Ishaq Mohammed and Noralfishah Sulaiman

The year 2020 heralds a landmark in Malaysia’s demographic and economic landscape, as the country is expected to become an ageing country, as well as aspiring of becoming…

Abstract

Purpose

The year 2020 heralds a landmark in Malaysia’s demographic and economic landscape, as the country is expected to become an ageing country, as well as aspiring of becoming a high-income country. The elderly persons are, however, reported to be vulnerable to the risk of financial insecurity in old age, which if not addressed can affect the country’s effort of accomplishing the Vision 2020 goal of becoming a high-income nation. Therefore, this paper aims to explore the factors that are capable of affecting the development of reverse mortgage market in Malaysia from the perspective of the financial service professionals.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is a qualitative design that involves the use of semi-structured questionnaire as data collection strategy. A total number of nine participants were selected for the interview using critical case sample scheme based on purposive sampling strategy.

Findings

The findings reveal that various economic, socio-demographic, behavioural and political/institutional factors would impose varying degrees of influence on reverse mortgage market in Malaysia.

Originality/value

The study is expected to spur discussion among stakeholders on the practicability of using reverse mortgage as alternative source of old-age financing in Malaysia.

Details

Qualitative Research in Financial Markets, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4179

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2014

Mohammed Ishaq and Asifa Maaria Hussain

Focusing on some of the key strands of equality and diversity (E&D), the purpose of this paper is to highlight the progress made by armed forces in implementing the E&D…

Abstract

Purpose

Focusing on some of the key strands of equality and diversity (E&D), the purpose of this paper is to highlight the progress made by armed forces in implementing the E&D agenda, with specific focus on Anglophone countries and their allies. The research also looks at the obstacles encountered by managers and policymakers in attempting to establish effective diversity management in a traditionally highly conservative public sector institution.

Design/methodology/approach

Using an approach known as secondary analysis, there is an in-depth review of a wide range of data sources.

Findings

The analysis reveals that E&D issues in armed forces have been under researched and there is also unbalanced coverage and reporting of E&D across nations. There is also evidence of greater progress on diversity management in the armed forces of some countries but a distinct lack of progress in others. A combination of political, legal, economic and social influences are impinging on the culture of militaries. Whilst in the long-term these pressures are likely to result in armed forces becoming more reflective of developments in wider society, the road to achieving this is still fraught with uncertainty.

Originality/value

To increase the understanding of diversity management in public institutions characterised by an mono culture and traditionally associated with resistance to change, and establish the extent to which the legal, social justice and business cases for promoting E&D are wholly applicable to the armed forces.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 27 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2002

Mohammed Ishaq and Asifa Hussain

The issue of recruiting ethnic minorities into Britain’s public sector institutions has become a highly political one in recent years. One of the institutions that has…

Abstract

The issue of recruiting ethnic minorities into Britain’s public sector institutions has become a highly political one in recent years. One of the institutions that has been at the forefront of the government’s initiatives has been the armed forces. Under the direction of the Ministry of Defence, the forces have made progress in courting ethnic minorities. However, the advances have been limited. In view of this, the forces have been very anxious to gauge the views of minority groups in order to identify and address current gaps in policy. This article reports the results of a survey which was aimed at eliciting the responses of ethnic minorities to issues such as: the desirability of a military career; the extent of a family tradition of military service; the degree of awareness of measures to attract minorities; and suggestions that would help to recruit more ethnic minorities. The responses generated will serve to indicate the extent to which a reassessment of current recruiting strategies is required.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 22 August 2008

Asifa Hussain and Mohammed Ishaq

More than six years have elapsed since the much‐heralded Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000 (hereafter also referred to as the “Act”) came into force. The Act had been…

Abstract

Purpose

More than six years have elapsed since the much‐heralded Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000 (hereafter also referred to as the “Act”) came into force. The Act had been prompted by concern at the lack of progress made in the sphere of racial equality despite the existence of the 1976 Race Relations Act. There were accusations that the 1976 Act was outdated and lacked the political teeth to be effective. The new Act imposed for the first time specific requirements on public sector institutions to be more proactive in promoting race equality. The duties would apply to public bodies that were previously exempt such as the Police and the National Health Service. This paper aims to focus on Scottish local councils and to examine the progress made by these public sector organisations in the field of race equality since the new Act came into force.

Design/methodology/approach

The researchers carried out a postal survey of Scotland's 32 local authorities in order to assess the progress made in the area of race equality. Questions focused on examining the scale of progress in relation to both employment and service delivery.

Findings

The results revealed a mixed picture. On the positive side, most councils had initiated race awareness training programmes. The majority had also incorporated aspects of race equality into their equal opportunities policies and most had instituted measures to engage with ethnic minority communities. However, there are still areas where performance is unsatisfactory, including inadequacies in the ethnic monitoring of staff, failure to reflect the size of the ethnic minority community in the workforce, and the absence of a clear and distinctive policy on racial harassment in the workplace.

Originality/value

This research will be of great value to anyone who is interested in assessing whether the legislative duties imposed by the Act have been satisfied by Scotland's local authorities. It is the first study of its kind in Scotland and is likely to appeal to both practitioners in the public sector and to academics.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 21 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2020

Ameer Alhasan, Lukman Audah, Ishaq Ibrahim, Ammar Al-Sharaa, Ali Saadon Al-Ogaili and Jabiry M. Mohammed

Several countries have been using internet of things (IoT) devices in the healthcare sector to combat COVID-19. Therefore, this study aims to examine the doctors…

Abstract

Purpose

Several countries have been using internet of things (IoT) devices in the healthcare sector to combat COVID-19. Therefore, this study aims to examine the doctors’ intentions to use IoT healthcare devices in Iraq during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Design/methodology/approach

This study proposed a model based on the integration of the innovation diffusion theory (IDT). This included compatibility, trialability and image and a set of exogenous factors such as computer self-efficacy, privacy and cost into the technology acceptance model comprising perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, attitude and behavioral intention to use.

Findings

The findings revealed that compatibility and image of the IDT factors, have a significant impact on the perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness and behavioral intention, but trialability has a significant impact on perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness and insignificant impact on behavioral intention. Additionally, external factors such as privacy and cost significantly impacted doctors’ behavioral intention to use. Moreover, doctors’ computer self-efficacy significantly influenced the perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness and behavioral intention to use. Furthermore, perceived ease of use has a significant impact on perceived usefulness and attitude, perceived usefulness has a significant impact on attitude, which, in turn, significantly impacting doctors' behavior toward an intention to use.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of the present study are the retractions of the number of participants and the lack of qualitative methods.

Originality/value

The finding of this study could benefit researchers, doctors and policymakers in the adaption of IoT technologies in the health sectors, especially in developing counties.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2019

Mohammed Alharbi, Peter John Dowling and M. Ishaq Bhatti

The purpose of this paper is to explore the current strategic planning practices in the MENA region by highlighting the practices in the Saudi telecommunications industry…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the current strategic planning practices in the MENA region by highlighting the practices in the Saudi telecommunications industry (Saudi TI) and the external and internal factors that influence strategic planning in the Saudi TI.

Design/methodology/approach

The data comprised those from a questionnaire-based survey of a random sample of managers of Saudi TI firms, supplemented with data from secondary sources.

Findings

The results revealed that most participating managers recognized the potential benefits of using strategic planning in their firms. Several significant factors that impacted on the decision-making process with regard to strategic planning in Saudi TI firms were identified.

Originality/value

The main contribution of this paper is to fill an existing knowledge gap on strategic planning in a key industry such as the telecommunications industry in a country that is of importance as a business hub in the Middle East.

Details

Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 August 2008

Anjum Siddiqui

The purpose of this paper is to focus on various modes of Islamic finance and examines their risk and other characteristics by conducting a selective literature review.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on various modes of Islamic finance and examines their risk and other characteristics by conducting a selective literature review.

Design/methodology/approach

Due to the Islamic prohibition of interest and in compliance with injunctions on permissible trade contracts, the savings and investment contracts offered by Islamic banks have a different risk profile than those of conventional banks. This gives rise to a number of regulatory issues pertaining to capital adequacy and liquidity requirements. Operational issues also arise as Islamic banks are limited in their choice of risk and liquidity management tools such as derivatives, options and bonds. All these issues are theoretically examined and various performance indicators of two Islamic banks are also examined to compare them with traditional banks that practice mark up pricing.

Findings

The balance sheets and various performance indicators show that there is evidence that Islamic banks in Pakistan tend to engage in little long‐term project financing. However, on the plus side these banks have shown good performance with respect to the returns on their assets and equity and have also demonstrated better risk management and maintained adequate liquidity.

Research limitations/implications

A larger set of banks across various countries needs to be examined before any substantive conclusions can be reached about the relative performance of Islamic versus conventional banks.

Practical implications

These largely pertain to central bank prudential regulations which must ensure that a level playing field is created for Islamic banks to compete with traditional banks.

Originality/value

The paper is a commentary on the risk characteristics of Islamic banks and also analyzes for the first time the performance of the only two purely Islamic banks currently operating in Pakistan.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 34 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 20 August 1996

Abstract

Details

The Peace Dividend
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44482-482-0

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Abstract

Details

The Peace Dividend
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44482-482-0

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