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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Aboozar Golgoon, Mahmood Aliofkhazraei, Mansoor Toorani, Mohammad Hossein Moradi, Alireza Sabour Rouhaghdam and Masoud Asgari

The low resistance against penetration of water, oxygen and the other corrosive ions through the paths of coating is one the most important problems. So, protective…

Abstract

Purpose

The low resistance against penetration of water, oxygen and the other corrosive ions through the paths of coating is one the most important problems. So, protective properties of coating such as polyester must be promoted. Recently, the use of nanoparticles in the matrix of polymer coating to increase their protection and mechanical properties has been prospering greatly. The purpose of this study is to improve the corrosion resistance of the polyester powder coating with ZnO nanoparticles. The ZnO nanoparticles have been synthesized by hydrothermal method in a microwave. Using polyester – ZnO nanocomposite coating as powder – combining them by ball milling process and coating them by electrostatic process are innovative ideas and have not been used before it.

Design/methodology/approach

Polyester powder as the matrix and ZnO nanoparticles as reinforcing were combined in three different weight percentage (0.5, 1, 2 Wt.%), and they formed polymer nanocomposite by ball milling process. Then, the fabricated nanocomposite powder was applied to the surface of carbon steel using an electrostatic device, and then the coatings were cured in the furnace. The morphology of synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles was investigated by transmission electron microscope. Also, the morphology of polyester powder and fabricated coatings was studied by scanning electron microscope. The effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on the corrosion resistance of coated samples were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) test at various times (1-90 days) of immersion in 3.5 per cent NaCl electrolyte.

Findings

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results reveal that there are no obvious crack and defects in the nanocomposite coatings. In contrast, the pure polyester coatings having many cracks and pores in their structure. According to the EIS results, the corrosion resistance of nanocomposite coating compared to pure coating is higher. The value obtained from EIS test show that corrosion resistance for coating that contains 1 Wt.% nanoparticle was 32,150,000 (Ωcm2), which was six times bigger than that of pure coating. In addition to providing a barrier against diffusion of electrolyte, ZnO nanoparticles act as a corrosion inhibitor and, thus, increases the corrosion resistance. The corrosion resistance of coating containing 0.5 Wt.% nanoparticles was lower as compared to that of 1 Wt.% nanoparticles. The low content of nanoparticles caused partial covering of the porosity of coating which in turn leads to provide weaker barrier properties. The increase in quantity of nanoparticles from 1 to 2 Wt.% also caused a decrease in corrosion resistance which is attributed to the agglomeration of nanoparticles.

Originality/value

The results of this study indicated the significant effect of ZnO nanoparticles on the protective performance and corrosion resistance of the polyester powder coating. Evaluation of coating surface and interface with SEM technique revealed that nanocomposite coating compared with pure polyester coating provided a coating with lower number of pores and with higher quality. The EIS measurements represented that polymeric coating that contains nanoparticles compared to pure coating provides a better corrosion resistance. In addition to providing a barrier against diffusion of electrolyte, ZnO nanoparticles act as a corrosion inhibitor and thus increase the corrosion resistance. The corrosion resistance of coating containing 0.5 Wt.% nanoparticles was lower as compared to that containing 1Wt.% nanoparticles. The low content of nanoparticles caused partial covering of the porosity of coating which in turn leads to provide weaker barrier properties. The increase in quantity of nanoparticles from 1 to 2 Wt.% also caused a decrease in corrosion resistance which is attributed to the agglomeration of nanoparticles.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 64 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2019

Bakhtiar Piroozi, Amjad Mohamadi-Bolbanabad, Hossein Safari, Mohammad Amerzadeh, Ghobad Moradi, Dalir Usefi, Arian Azadnia and Serajaddin Gray

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the prevalence of medication errors (MEs) and the factors affecting them among nurses of hospitals affiliated to Kurdistan…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the prevalence of medication errors (MEs) and the factors affecting them among nurses of hospitals affiliated to Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences (KUMS) in 2016.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a cross-sectional and descriptive-analytic study. In total, 503 nurses were selected using census method from six hospitals affiliated to KUMS. A self-constructed questionnaire was employed to collect information on nurses’ socio-demographic characteristics (6 items), the prevalence and type of MEs (21 items) and their perceptions about the main causes of MEs (40 items). Data were collected from August 15 to October 15, 2016. In addition, nonparametric and linear regression tests were used to describe the descriptive statistics and analyze the data.

Findings

The response rate was 73 percent and the monthly reported MEs per nurse was 6.27±11.95. Giving medication at non-scheduled time (28.4 percent), giving multiple oral medications together (22.4 percent) and giving painkillers after operation without physician’s prescription (15.3 percent) were three types of repetitive MEs, respectively. Gender, work experience, and having a second job affected the total number of MEs. “Long and unconventional nursing shifts,” “changing the dosage of medications for patients under observation due to multiple consultations and different doctors’ orders” as well as “failure to give feedback about the causes of errors to nurses by supervisors” were the three prioritized factors for MEs.

Originality/value

There is a need to reduce MEs in order to improve patient safety. It seems that in order to reduce MEs, systemic and managerial reforms such as reducing the working hours and workload of nurses, giving feedback about the causes of MEs to nurses, and using initiatives to reduce the stress in nurses are necessary.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 February 2018

Mahdi Salehi, Mohammad Tahervafaei and Hossein Tarighi

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the relationship between the characteristics of the audit committee and the board and profitability among the companies listed on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the relationship between the characteristics of the audit committee and the board and profitability among the companies listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) in Iran.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the companies listed on the TSE during the period from 2010 to 2015 are investigated. The Linear panel regression method is employed for this purpose. The independent variables of the study are composed of some corporate governance mechanisms including audit committee size, audit committee expertise, board size, board independence, chief executive officer (CEO) duality, and institutional ownership.

Findings

In spite of the fact that there does not exist any significant association between audit committee size and corporate financial performance, the results indicate that there is a positive and significant relationship between audit committee financial expertise and profitability. The authors found that the number of board members cannot affect corporate performance; moreover, duality of CEO role in Iranian companies does not affect company performance. However, the outcomes showed a positive and significant association between the proportion of outside directors on the board (board independence) and profitability at 99 percent confidence level. This implies that the role of non-executive directors in Iran is inconsistent with the stewardship theory. This is due to the fact that independent directors understand the status of business and market better than the board’s executive members. Finally, the results indicated that there is no significant association between institutional owners and Iranian companies’ performance.

Practical implications

The findings of this study will reveal more than ever the role of corporate governance mechanisms for society and users of financial statements because as tools on the CEO actions, they always have to pay attention to the implementation of corporate principles in the economic entity’ operation.

Originality/value

This is one of the most important studies that simultaneously examine the impacts of characteristics of the audit committee and the board on profitability in an emerging market, and the results of the study may give strength to Iranian as well other developing countries.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2019

Bakhtiar Piroozi, Bushra Zarei, Bayazid Ghaderi, Hossein Safari, Ghobad Moradi, Satar Rezaei, Mahfooz Ghaderi, Shina Amirhosseini and Amjad Mohamadi-Bolbanabad

The right to health for all people means that everyone should have access to the needed healthcare services without suffering from severe financial hardship. The purpose…

Abstract

Purpose

The right to health for all people means that everyone should have access to the needed healthcare services without suffering from severe financial hardship. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the prevalence as well as the effective factors on facing catastrophic health expenditures (CHE) among gastrointestinal cancer patients and families in Kurdistan province in west of Iran after the implementation of Health Transformation Plan (HTP).

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional study was carried out on 189 households with gastrointestinal cancer patients in Kurdistan province in 2018. Data were collected using World Health Survey questionnaire. A method developed by World Health Organization with the threshold of 40 percent household’s capacity to pay was used in order to measure the proportion of households facing CHE. Also, logistic regression was applied for identifying the effective factors on household’s exposure to CHE. Data were analyzed using STATA version 13.

Findings

Almost 73 percent (72.7 percent) of the households (n=117) faced the CHE. Not having supplementary health insurance (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.8; 95% confidence interval: 1.3–10.8 (and having low socio-economic status (AOR: 7.1; 95% CI: 1.8–28.1) were the significant factors affecting the households’ exposure to CHE. In total, 57 and 1 percent of the studied households reported that having a gastrointestinal cancer patient at home had a significant effect on refraining from using health services by other family members.

Originality/value

The proportion of the studied households facing CHE was very high. This may indicate the weakness of health system as well as health insurance or the weakness of HTP in financial protection of fragile population.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 22 October 2019

Ali Sarabi Asiabar, Mohammad Hossein Kafaei Mehr, Jalal Arabloo and Hossein Safari

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors influencing the leadership effectiveness of hospital managers in Iran.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors influencing the leadership effectiveness of hospital managers in Iran.

Design/methodology/approach

Top managers (15), middle managers (10) and operational managers (5) of public, private or social security hospitals in Tehran participated in a qualitative study using semi-structured in-depth interviews. Data were recorded, transcribed and then analyzed via MAXQDA 10 software.

Findings

The findings were categorized into two main themes of internal and external factors with eight sub-themes. The most important internal factors that had an influence on the leadership of the hospital managers were intra-organizational relations, manager’s personality traits, knowledge, attitude and skills of the manager. The most important external factors included extra-organizational relations, macro-level health policies, access to special financial resources, and social, economic and political factors.

Research limitations/implications

The results call for a need to understand and analyze the socioeconomic factors influencing managers’ leadership while adopting appropriate strategies.

Practical implications

The results of the current study can help design training programs for hospital managers, and suggest criteria for appointing hospital managers across the country and this can enhance the effectiveness of their leadership. Health sector policymakers and decision makers should reform the programs that target training and empowerment of hospital managers so that the right people with the right competencies will hold such positions.

Social implications

The results of this study showed that leadership effectiveness is also influenced by social and external factors. On the other hand, the effectiveness of management leadership can play a significant role in the quality of care provided to the community, patient satisfaction and in hospital social performance through the appropriate management of all hospital resources. Such factors should also be considered in training and appointing hospital managers.

Originality/value

Although there are several studies on hospital managers’ leadership worldwide, this study is the first to investigate the leadership effectiveness of hospital managers in Iran.

Details

Leadership in Health Services, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1879

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2012

Mohammad Reza Davarpanah and Hossein Moradi Moghadam

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overall picture of women's participation in Iranian scientific production.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overall picture of women's participation in Iranian scientific production.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 7,846 articles was obtained from the three ISI databases: Science Citation Index (SCI), Social Science Citation Index (SSCI), and Arts and Humanities Citation Index (AHCI) for the study period 2005‐2010. The articles were broken down by gender. Then for the scope of this study, research productivity, collaboration pattern, scientific‐disciplinary, and research impact were investigated.

Findings

A chi‐square test showed that there is a significant difference between the male and female research output in the three databases. Females accounted for 13 percent of the articles indexed in ISI databases during the study period. There is a gap of approximately 87 percent in research productivity between males and females in Iran. Iranian women are more active in the areas of chemistry, clinical medicine and general social sciences.

Originality/value

The paper highlights the role of women in science and the gap of research productivity between men and women; it may help illuminate policy decisions to promote female research in the country.

Details

Library Review, vol. 61 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0024-2535

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 September 2018

Aboozar Ramezani, Seyed Javad Ghazimirsaeed, Fereydoon Azadeh, Mohammad Esmaeilpour Bandboni and Mohammad Hossein YektaKooshali

The purpose of this paper is to assess the quality of Iranian university libraries.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the quality of Iranian university libraries.

Design/methodology/approach

This first systematic review and meta-analysis were based on the PRISMA guidelines by searching in national and international databases from 2003 to January 2017 with standard Persian and English keywords. Data searching, extracting and quality appraising were completed by two researchers, independently. Any unexpected documents were assessed by a third expert researcher. Data were extracted in accordance with the “Strength of the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology” checklist after the final selection of appraised documents. Random effects size based on Cochrane test and I2 were used for combining the obtained results from different studies together by considering the heterogeneity of studies.

Findings

Based on the meta-analysis conducted in 25 (6.42 percent) included studies, the total sample size was estimated. According to three dimensions of LibQUAL, findings of current information control, affect of service and the library as a place were estimated as 5.37 [CI95%: 5.02, 5.73], 6.91 [CI95%: 5.56, 6.26], and 5.46 percent [CI95%: 5.2, 5.73], respectively. Also, mean of service adequacy and superiority gap are equal to 0.07 [CI95%: −0.22, 0.36] and −2.06 [CI95%: −2.89, −1.23], respectively. There was a significant correlation between three dimensions of service quality and service superiority gap of LibQUAL and geographical regions of Iran (p<0.01). Also, a significant correlation was found between the gaps of services and three aspects of LibQUAL model and published years through a meta-regression test (p<0.01).

Practical implications

The results obtained from the present study showed that users are relatively satisfied with the quality of services provided by Iranian university libraries. An improvement in the quality of library services can promote the scientific level of universities.

Originality/value

The results of the present systematic review and meta-analysis study demonstrate a vital connection between primary research studies and decision-making for policymakers in Iranian university libraries to increase quality services.

Details

Performance Measurement and Metrics, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-8047

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2020

Mohsen Sajadnia, Sajjad Dehghani, Zahra Noraeepoor and Mohammad Hossein Sheikhi

The purpose of this study is to design and optimize copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) thin film solar cells.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to design and optimize copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) thin film solar cells.

Design/methodology/approach

A novel bi-layer CIGS thin film solar cell based on SnS is designed. To improve the performance of the CIGS based thin film solar cell a tin sulfide (SnS) layer is added to the structure, as back surface field and second absorbing layer. Defect recombination centers have a significant effect on the performance of CIGS solar cells by changing recombination rate and charge density. Therefore, performance of the proposed structure is investigated in two stages successively, considering typical and maximum reported trap density for both CIGS and SnS. To achieve valid results, the authors use previously reported experimental parameters in the simulations.

Findings

First by considering the typical reported trap density for both SnS and CIGS, high efficiency of 36%, was obtained. Afterward maximum reported trap densities of 1 × 1019 and 5.6 × 1015 cm−3 were considered for SnS and CIGS, respectively. The efficiency of the optimized cell is 27.17% which is achieved in CIGS and SnS thicknesses of cell are 0.3 and 0.1 µm, respectively. Therefore, even in this case, the obtained efficiency is well greater than previous structures while the absorbing layer thickness is low.

Originality/value

Having results similar to practical CIGS solar cells, the impact of the defects of SnS and CIGS layers was investigated. It was found that affixing SnS between CIGS and Mo layers causes a significant improvement in the efficiency of CIGS thin-film solar cell.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 8 November 2010

Farhang Morady

Since the election of June 2009, the Islamic Republic of Iran has witnessed a huge crisis with the outburst of street protests and demonstrations, challenging its…

Abstract

Since the election of June 2009, the Islamic Republic of Iran has witnessed a huge crisis with the outburst of street protests and demonstrations, challenging its validity. Indeed, it has been so intense that it has shaken the whole Islamic Republic for the first time since the 1979 Iranian revolution. What has happened since the disputed election was an upheaval few had anticipated, an opening of Pandora's box, with millions daring to question the, Velayate Fagih, the most important constituent of the Islamic Republic. This postelection period has created a “revolutionary”’ potential that has so far been met with repressive force and violence on the part of the ruling elites leaving no leverage for compromise. Of course, in the 30 years since the revolution, the Islamic Republic's power structures have faced factionalism. These recent developments demonstrate how deeply rooted run the contradictions and differences between the various groups. This upheaval has thrown all sorts of questions into the air: could Iran remain as a Republic? Or would Iran turn into a God's Kingdom, ever more dictatorial in its approach? Or would the splits within the ruling elites continue to crack the fabric of the regime? Will there be a similar schism to that which took place during the Constitutional Revolution in the early 20th century when a leading member of the clergy, Noori, was finally hanged in July 1909 for being openly against reform? Finally, what is the possibility of change beyond the Islamic Republic in Iran?

Details

The National Question and the Question of Crisis
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-493-2

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