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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2019

Ammar I. Alsabery, Habibis Saleh, Mohammad Ghalambaz, Ali J. Chamkha and Ishak Hashim

This paper aims to investigate the fluid structure interaction analysis of conjugate natural convection in a square containing internal solid cylinder and flexible right wall.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the fluid structure interaction analysis of conjugate natural convection in a square containing internal solid cylinder and flexible right wall.

Design/methodology/approach

The right wall of the cavity is flexible, which can be deformed due to the interaction with the natural convection flow in the cavity. The top and bottom walls of the cavity are insulated while the right wall is cold and the left wall is partially heated. The governing equations for heat, flow and elastic wall, as well as the grid deformation are written in Arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian formulation. The governing equations along with their boundary conditions are solved using the finite element method.

Findings

The results of the present study show that the presence of the solid cylinder strongly affects the transient solution at the initial times. The natural convection flow changes the shape of the flexible right wall of the cavity into S shape wall due to the interaction of the flow and the structure. It is found that the increase of the flexibility of the right wall increases the average Nusselt number of the hot wall up to 2 per cent.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors' knowledge, the unsteady natural convection in an enclosure having a flexible wall and inner solid cylinder has never been reported before.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2019

Mohammad Ghalambaz, S.A.M. Mehryan, Muneer A. Ismael, Ali Chamkha and D. Wen

The purpose of the present paper is to model a cavity, which is equally divided vertically by a thin, flexible membrane. The membranes are inevitable components of many…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the present paper is to model a cavity, which is equally divided vertically by a thin, flexible membrane. The membranes are inevitable components of many engineering devices such as distillation systems and fuel cells. In the present study, a cavity which is equally divided vertically by a thin, flexible membrane is model using the fluid–structure interaction (FSI) associated with a moving grid approach.

Design/methodology/approach

The cavity is differentially heated by a sinusoidal time-varying temperature on the left vertical wall, while the right vertical wall is cooled isothermally. There is no thermal diffusion from the upper and lower boundaries. The finite-element Galerkin technique with the aid of an arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian procedure is followed in the numerical procedure. The governing equations are transformed into non-dimensional forms to generalize the solution.

Findings

The effects of four pertinent parameters are investigated, i.e., Rayleigh number (104 = Ra = 107), elasticity modulus (5 × 1012 = ET = 1016), Prandtl number (0.7 = Pr = 200) and temperature oscillation frequency (2p = f = 240p). The outcomes show that the temperature frequency does not induce a notable effect on the mean values of the Nusselt number and the deformation of the flexible membrane. The convective heat transfer and the stretching of the thin, flexible membrane become higher with a fluid of a higher Prandtl number or with a partition of a lower elasticity modulus.

Originality/value

The authors believe that the modeling of natural convection and heat transfer in a cavity with the deformable membrane and oscillating wall heating is a new subject and the results have not been published elsewhere.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 30 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2019

Mohammad Ghalambaz, Mahmoud Sabour, Ioan Pop and Dongsheng Wen

The present study aims to address the flow and heat transfer of MgO-MWCNTs/EG hybrid nanofluid in a complex shape enclosure filled with a porous medium. The enclosure is…

Abstract

Purpose

The present study aims to address the flow and heat transfer of MgO-MWCNTs/EG hybrid nanofluid in a complex shape enclosure filled with a porous medium. The enclosure is subject to a uniform inclined magnetic field and radiation effects. The effect of the presence of a variable magnetic field on the natural convection heat transfer of hybrid nanofluids in a complex shape cavity is studied for the first time. The geometry of the cavity is an annular space with an isothermal wavy outer cold wall. Two types of the porous medium, glass ball and aluminum metal foam, are adopted for the porous space. The governing equations for mass, momentum and heat transfer of the hybrid nanofluid are introduced and transformed into non-dimensional form. The actual available thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity data for the hybrid nanofluid are directly used for thermophysical properties of the hybrid nanofluid.

Design/methodology/approach

The governing equations for mass, momentum and heat transfer of hybrid nanofluid are introduced and transformed into non-dimensional form. The thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity of the nanofluid are directly used from the experimental results available in the literature. The finite element method is used to solve the governing equations. Grid check procedure and validations were performed.

Findings

The effect of Hartmann number, Rayleigh number, Darcy number, the shape of the cavity and the type of porous medium on the thermal performance of the cavity are studied. The outcomes show that using the composite nanoparticles boosts the convective heat transfer. However, the rise of the volume fraction of nanoparticles would reduce the overall enhancement. Considering a convective dominant regime of natural convection flow with Rayleigh number of 107, the maximum enhancement ratio (Nusselt number ratio compared to the pure fluid) for the case of glass ball is about 1.17 and for the case of aluminum metal foam is about 1.15 when the volume fraction of hybrid nanoparticles is minimum as 0.2 per cent.

Originality/value

The effect of the presence of a variable magnetic field on the natural convection heat transfer of a new type of hybrid nanofluids, MgO-MWCNTs/EG, in a complex shape cavity is studied for the first time. The results of this paper are new and original with many practical applications of hybrid nanofluids in the modern industry.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2019

Kasra Ayoubi Ayoubloo, Mohammad Ghalambaz, Taher Armaghani, Aminreza Noghrehabadi and Ali J. Chamkha

This paper aims to theoritically investigate the free convection flow and heat transfer of a non-Newtonian fluid with pseudoplastic behavior in a cylindrical vertical…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to theoritically investigate the free convection flow and heat transfer of a non-Newtonian fluid with pseudoplastic behavior in a cylindrical vertical cavity partially filled with a layer of a porous medium.

Design/methodology/approach

The non-Newtonian behavior of the pseudoplastic liquid is described by using a power-law non-Newtonian model. There is a temperature difference between the internal and external cylinders. The porous layer is attached to the internal cylinder and has a thickness of D. Upper and lower walls of the cavity are well insulated. The governing equations are transformed into a non-dimensional form to generalize the solution. The finite element method is used to solve the governing equations numerically. The results are compared with the literature results in several cases and found in good agreement.

Findings

The influence of the thickness of the porous layer, Rayleigh number and non-Newtonian index on the heat transfer behavior of a non-Newtonian pseudoplastic fluid is addressed. The increase of pseudoplastic behavior and increase of the thickness of the porous layer enhances the heat transfer. By increase of the porous layer from 0.6 to 0.8, the average Nusselt number increased from 0.15 to 0.25. The increase of non-Newtonian effects (decrease of the non-Newtonian power-law index) enhances the heat transfer rate.

Originality/value

The free convection behavior of a pseudoplastic-non-Newtonian fluid in a cylindrical enclosure partially filled by a layer of a porous medium is addressed for the first time.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 28 November 2019

Mohammad Ghalambaz, Kasra Ayoubi Ayoubloo and Ahmad Hajjar

This paper aims to investigate melting heat transfer of a non-Newtonian phase change material (PCM) in a cylindrical enclosure-space between two tubes using a deformed mesh method.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate melting heat transfer of a non-Newtonian phase change material (PCM) in a cylindrical enclosure-space between two tubes using a deformed mesh method.

Design/methodology/approach

Metal foam porous layers support the inner and outer walls of the enclosure. The porous layers and clear space of the enclosure are filled with PCM. The natural convection effects during the phase change are taken into account, and the governing equations for the molten region and solid region of the enclosure are introduced. The governing equations are transformed into non-dimensional form and then solved using finite element method. The results are compared with the literary works and found in good agreement. The non-Newtonian effects on the phase change heat transfer and melting front are studied.

Findings

The results show that the increase of non-Newtonian effects (the decrease of the power-law index) enhances the heat melting process in the cavity at the moderate times of phase change heat transfer. The temperature gradients in porous metal foam over the hot wall are small, and hence, the porous layer notably increases the melting rate. When the melting front reaches the cold porous layer, strong non-linear behaviors of the melting front can be observed.

Originality/value

The phase change heat transfer of non-Newtonian fluid in a cylindrical enclosure partially filled with metal foams is addressed for the first time.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 30 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 10 December 2019

Mohammad Ghalambaz, Natalia C. Roşca, Alin V. Roşca and Ioan Pop

This study aims to study the mixed convection flow and heat transfer of Al2O3-Cu/water hybrid nanofluid over a vertical plate. Governing equations for conservation of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to study the mixed convection flow and heat transfer of Al2O3-Cu/water hybrid nanofluid over a vertical plate. Governing equations for conservation of mass, momentum and energy for the hybrid nanofluid over a vertical flat plate are introduced.

Design/methodology/approach

The similarity transformation approach is used to transform the set of partial differential equations into a set of non-dimensional ordinary differential equations. Finite-deference with collocation method is used to integrate the governing equations for the velocity and temperature profiles.

Findings

The results show that dual solutions exist for the case of opposing flow over the plate. Linear stability analysis was performed to identify a stable solution. The stability analysis shows that the lower branch of the solution is always unstable, while the upper branch of the solution is always stable. The results of boundary layer analysis are reported for the various volume fractions of composite nanoparticles and mixed convection parameter. The outcomes show that the composition of nanoparticles can notably influence the boundary layer flow and heat transfer profiles. It is also found that the trend of the variation of surface skin friction and heat transfer for each of the dual solution branches can be different. The critical values of the mixed convection parameter, λ, where the dual solution branches joint together, are also under the influence of the composition of hybrid nanoparticles. For instance, assuming a total volume fraction of 5 per cent for the mixture of Al2O3 and Cu nanoparticles, the critical value of mixing parameter of λ changes from −3.1940 to −3.2561 by changing the composition of nanofluids from Al2O3 (5 per cent) + Cu (0%) to Al2O3 (2.5%) + Cu (2.5 per cent).

Originality/value

The mixed convection stability analysis and heat transfer study of hybrid nanofluids for a stagnation-point boundary layer flow are addressed for the first time. The introduced hybrid nanofluid model and similarity solution are new and of interest in both mathematical and physical points of view.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 30 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2017

M. Sabour, Mohammad Ghalambaz and Ali Chamkha

The purpose of this study is to theoretically analyze the laminar free convection heat transfer of nanofluids in a square cavity. The sidewalls of the cavity are subject…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to theoretically analyze the laminar free convection heat transfer of nanofluids in a square cavity. The sidewalls of the cavity are subject to temperature difference, whereas the bottom and top are insulated. Based on the available experimental results in the literature, two new non-dimensional parameters, namely, the thermal conductivity parameter (Nc) and dynamic viscosity parameter (Nv) are introduced. These parameters indicate the augmentation of the thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity of the nanofluid by dispersing nanoparticles.

Design/methodology/approach

The governing equations are transformed into non-dimensional form using the thermo-physical properties of the base fluid. The obtained governing equations are solved numerically using the finite element method. The results are reported for the general non-dimensional form of the problem as well as case studies in the form of isotherms, streamlines and the graphs of the average Nusselt number. Using the concept of Nc and Nv, some criteria for convective enhancement of nanofluids are proposed. As practical cases, the effect of the size of nanoparticles, the shape of nanoparticles, the type of nanoparticles, the type of base fluids and working temperature on the enhancement of heat transfer are analyzed.

Findings

The results show that the increase of the magnitude of the Rayleigh number increases of the efficiency of using nanofluids. The type of nanoparticles and the type of the base fluid significantly affects the enhancement of using nanofluids. Some practical cases are found, in which utilizing nanoparticles in the base fluid results in deterioration of the heat transfer. The working temperature of the nanofluid is very crucial issue. The increase of the working temperature of the nanofluid decreases the convective heat transfer, which limits the capability of nanofluids in decreasing the size of the thermal systems.

Originality/value

In the present study, a separation line based on two non-dimensional parameters (i.e. Nc and Nv) are introduced. The separation line demonstrates a boundary between augmentation and deterioration of heat transfer by using nanoparticles. Indeed, by utilizing the separation lines, the convective enhancement of using nanofluid with a specified Nc and Nv can be simply estimated.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 27 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2019

Wei-Mon Yan, Hsu-Yang Teng, Chun-Han Li and Mohammad Ghalambaz

The electromagnetic field and cooling system of a high power switched reluctance motor (SRM) are studied numerically. The geometry of the motor and its main components are…

Abstract

Purpose

The electromagnetic field and cooling system of a high power switched reluctance motor (SRM) are studied numerically. The geometry of the motor and its main components are established using a computer-aided design software in the actual size. This study aims to evaluate the resulting thermal losses using the electromagnetic analysis of the motor.

Design/methodology/approach

In the electromagnetic analysis, the Joule’s loss in the copper wires of the coil windings and the iron losses (the eddy currents loss and the hysteresis loss) are considered. The flow and heat transfer model for the thermal analysis of the motor including the conduction in solid parts and convection in the fluid part is introduced. The magnetic losses are imported into the thermal analysis model in the form of internal heat generation in motor components. Several cooling system approaches were introduced, such as natural convection cooling, natural convection cooling with various types of fins over the motor casing, forced conviction air-cooled cooling system using a mounted fan, casing surface with and without heat sinks, liquid-cooled cooling system using the water in a channel shell and a hybrid air-cooled and liquid-cooled cooling system.

Findings

The results of the electromagnetics analysis show that the low rotational speed of the motor induces higher currents in coil windings, which in turn, it causes higher copper losses in SRM coil windings. For higher rotational speed of SRM, the core loss is higher than the copper loss is in SRM due to the higher frequency. An air-cooled cooling system is used for cooling of SRM. The results reveal when the rotational speed is at 4,000 rpm, the coil loss would be at the maximum value. Therefore, the coil temperature is about 197.9°C, which is higher than the tolerated standard temperature insulation material. Hence, the air-cooled system cannot reduce the temperature to the safe temperature limitation of the motor and guarantee the safe operation of SRM. Thus, a hybrid system of both air-cooled and liquid-cooled cooling system with mounting fins at the outer surface of the casing is proposed. The hybrid system with the liquid flow of Re = 1,500 provides a cooling power capable of safe operation of the motor at 117.2°C, which is adequate for standard insulation material grade E.

Originality/value

The electromagnetic field and cooling system of a high power SRM in the presence of a mounted fan at the rear of the motor are analyzed. The thermal analysis is performed for both of the air-cooled and liquid-cooled cooling systems to meet the cooling demands of the motor for the first time.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 24 February 2021

Stepan Mikhailenko, Mohammad Ghalambaz and Mikhail A. Sheremet

This paper aims to study numerically the simulation of convective–radiative heat transfer under an effect of variable thermally generating source in a rotating square…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study numerically the simulation of convective–radiative heat transfer under an effect of variable thermally generating source in a rotating square chamber. The performed analysis deals with a development of passive cooling system for the electronic devices.

Design/methodology/approach

The domain of interest of size H rotating at a fixed angular velocity has heat-conducting solid walls with a constant cooling temperature for the outer boundaries of the vertical walls and with thermal insulation for the outer borders of the horizontal walls. The chamber has a heater on the bottom wall with a time-dependent volumetric heat generation. The internal surfaces of the walls and the energy element are both grey diffusive emitters and reflectors. The fluid is transparent to radiation. Computational model has been written using non-dimensional parameters and worked out by the finite difference technique. The effect of the angular velocity, volumetric heat generation frequency and surface emissivity has been studied and described in detail.

Findings

The results show that growth of the surface emissivity leads to a diminution of the mean heater temperature, while a weak rotation can improve the energy transport for low volumetric thermal generation frequency.

Originality/value

An efficient computational approach has been used to work out this problem. The originality of this work is to analyze complex (conductive–convective–radiative) energy transport in a rotating system with a local element of time-dependent volumetric heat generation. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, an interaction of major heat transfer mechanisms in a rotating system with a heat-generating element is scrutinized for the first time. The results would benefit scientists and engineers to become familiar with the analysis of complex heat transfer in rotating enclosures with internal heat-generating units, and the way to predict the heat transfer rate in advanced technical systems, in industrial sectors including transportation, power generation, chemical sectors and electronics.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2016

Ioan Pop, Mohammad Ghalambaz and Mikhail Sheremet

The purpose of this paper is to theoretically analysis the steady-state natural convection flow and heat transfer of nanofluids in a square enclosure filled with a porous…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to theoretically analysis the steady-state natural convection flow and heat transfer of nanofluids in a square enclosure filled with a porous medium saturated with a nanofluid considering local thermal non-equilibrium (LTNE) effects. Different local temperatures for the solid phase of the nanoparticles, the solid phase of porous matrix and the liquid phase of the base fluid are taken into account.

Design/methodology/approach

The Buongiorno’s model, incorporating the Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects, is utilized to take into account the migration of nanoparticles. Using appropriate non-dimensional variables, the governing equations are transformed into the non-dimensional form, and the finite element method is utilized to solve the governing equations.

Findings

The results show that the increase of buoyancy ratio parameter (Nr) decreases the magnitude of average Nusselt number. The increase of the nanoparticles-fluid interface heat transfer parameter (Nhp) increases the average Nusselt number for nanoparticles and decreases the average Nusselt number for the base fluid. The nanofluid and porous matrix with large values of modified thermal capacity ratios (γ p and γ s ) are of interest for heat transfer applications.

Originality/value

The three phases of nanoparticles, base fluid and the porous matrix are in the LTNE. The effect of mass transfer of nanoparticles due to the Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects are also taken into account.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 26 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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