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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2020

Yasushi Suzuki and Mohammad Dulal Miah

This paper aims to propose two benchmarks “Shari’ah-compliant” benchmark and “Shari’ah-based” “raf’ al-haraj” (the removal of hardship) benchmark. The former benchmark can…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose two benchmarks “Shari’ah-compliant” benchmark and “Shari’ah-based” “raf’ al-haraj” (the removal of hardship) benchmark. The former benchmark can be applied to ensure that a transaction brings “profits on sales” and not “profits on loan”, and the latter benchmark should be addressed to ensure that a transaction does not exploit the customers of Islamic banks.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors draw upon the theory of institutional economics, in particular, instrumental and procedural rationality, to argue that the believers can pay their best effort as an exercise of ijtihad to understand and incarnate the logic and rationales implicit in the Qur’anic text.

Findings

Currently, there is no benchmark that determines the profit ceiling on murabaha. The authors suggest two types of “gray-zones” – the “Shari’ah-compliant but less contributing to the removal of hardship” and the “controversial on compliance but contributing to the removal of hardship in borrowers” to use as a benchmark in endorsing less shariah-compliant Islamic products.

Practical implications

There is no benchmark or a clear-cut demarcation that can be used to endorse less Shari’ah-compliant Islamic finance. Thus, Shari’ah-compliant’ benchmark and “Shari’ah-based” “raf’ al- haraj” benchmarks can be used to guide whether a financial transaction is acceptable or not. This guideline can be of huge practical relevance for Islamic finance.

Originality/value

There is no sensible study that offers such guidelines that can be used to demarcate whether a particular financial transaction, which has no clear-cut fatwa, is acceptable or not. Hence, the current research is novel and contributes to the existing literature of Islamic finance.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 4 August 2021

Mohammad Dulal Miah, Yasushi Suzuki and S. M. Sohrab Uddin

This paper aims to assess the probable impact of COVID-19 on the Islamic banking system in Bangladesh. More specifically, it attempts to test the hypothesis that Islamic…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to assess the probable impact of COVID-19 on the Islamic banking system in Bangladesh. More specifically, it attempts to test the hypothesis that Islamic banks are exposed to increased risk because of their role as a provider of “merchant capital” including financing for trade, commerce and working capital, which are believed to be severely disrupted by the COVID-19.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws upon the Marxian tradition on the identification of the circuit of “merchant capital” separated from the circuit of “interest-bearing capital.” Moreover, the research adopts the balance sheet approach to trace the sectoral distribution of investment as well as sources of income of Islamic banks.

Findings

The research supports the hypothesis that the investment pattern of Islamic banks is skewed toward the trade and merchant’s financing. More than two-third of Islamic banks’ investment, and income thereof, is concentrated on working capital and trade finance. As these sectors are largely vulnerable to the economic shock resulting from COVID-19, Islamic banks in Bangladesh are likely to be affected through this channel.

Research limitations/implications

The research focuses only on Islamic banks in Bangladesh. Further study can assess the impact of COVID-19 on conventional and Islamic banks in other countries to find similarities and differences with the findings of the current research.

Practical implications

The finding of this research will be useful for bank managers, policymakers and users of financial services. In particular, this study provides important information useful for regulators in devising appropriate policies which aim to mitigate the adverse impact of COVID-19.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that attempts to examine the impact of COVID-19 on Islamic banking system in Bangladesh, a country where Islamic banks occupy one-third of the total banking system’s assets.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 12 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 January 2020

Mohammad Dulal Miah and Yasushi Suzuki

This paper aims to explain the “murabaha syndrome” of Islamic banks. It further attempts to offer alternatives for the expansion of profit and loss sharing (PLS)-based financing.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explain the “murabaha syndrome” of Islamic banks. It further attempts to offer alternatives for the expansion of profit and loss sharing (PLS)-based financing.

Design/methodology/approach

Audited financial statements of 18 Islamic banks in the GCC countries are analyzed to assess the financing structures of banks. Moreover, additional data about financing pattern of Islamic banks in other Muslim majority countries are collected from the Islamic finance literature. A comparative analysis is offered to examine the financing structures of Islamic banks.

Findings

The paper confirms murabaha (mark-up financing) concentration of Islamic banks. About 90 per cent of the total financing are concentrated on murabaha, which is the result of existing institutional underpinnings. Islamic banks would logically be involved with PLS-based financing only limitedly unless the current governing institutions are changed. Entrepreneurs’ financing needs based on PLS contracts should be catered by venture capital, whereas micro-finance enterprises can meet the demand for funds of marginal clients.

Practical implications

PLS investment in the portfolio of Islamic banks would result in higher risk and uncertainty. Ambiguity, or its equivalent uncertainty, is prohibited in Islam. This is a dilemma which the existing literature does not sufficiently explain.

Originality/value

Ideally, Islamic banks should practice PLS-based financing; otherwise, their raison d’être would be difficult to justify. Islamic finance literature does not shed sufficient analytical lights in explaining Islamic banks’ preference of mark-up financing to PLS-based financing. Moreover, strategies to ameliorate this condition have largely remained unexplored.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 11 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 June 2016

Yasushi Suzuki and Mohammad Dulal Miah

This paper argues how Islamic altruism and reciprocity can enhance or drain the supply of Islamic equity finance. The paper also analyzes the feasibility of Islamic equity…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper argues how Islamic altruism and reciprocity can enhance or drain the supply of Islamic equity finance. The paper also analyzes the feasibility of Islamic equity finance through the lens of new institutional economics (NIE) and transaction cost economics (TCE).

Design/methodology/approach

One of the salient contributions by NIE is to support the proposition that effective contracting depends greatly on institutions in terms of “rules that constrain economic behavior”, including informal or intangible institutions, such as religion, culture and customary practices. This paper draws on the theoretical contributions of the NIE and TCE and applies some of these contributions to an analysis of general altruism and reciprocity in Islamic economies.

Findings

It is said that solutions based on the Islamic injunctions (collectively termed as spiritual quotient) could serve to mitigate agency risks. However, in theory, the Muslim principal (particularly fund providers) is exposed to higher agency risk unless appropriate rules of protecting the right of the principal (or of punishing the agent when its opportunistic behavior is revealed) are devised, because the Muslim fund providers have the divine obligation to share risks in enterprise under the profit-loss sharing (PLS) scheme as well as to share a portion of income with the poor or those entrepreneurs who face difficulties in fund-raising.

Originality/value

Many scholars refer to the lack of the “formal” institutions that hinder the sound development of Islamic venture capital (VC). This paper contributes to shedding an analytical light on the unique feature of the Muslims’ “informal” constraints which make them hesitate to invest in Islamic VC. To develop the Islamic VC market, this paper provides a theoretical background to suggest how important it would be for the national financial system to devise some tangible provisions by installing enterprise-friendly regulations as well as adequate incentive and protection mechanisms consistent with Islamic principles.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 February 2005

126

Abstract

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Article
Publication date: 25 July 2019

Syed Asim Ali Bukhari, Fathyah Hashim, Azlan Bin Amran and Kalim Hyder

Currently, one of the most important dilemmas facing mankind is environmental degradation and natural resource shortage. The adoption of Green Banking practices has been…

Abstract

Purpose

Currently, one of the most important dilemmas facing mankind is environmental degradation and natural resource shortage. The adoption of Green Banking practices has been identified as a solution to the growing environmental problems all over the world. However, an important issue being faced by both the conventional and Islamic banking industry is the creation of stakeholder engagement in Green Banking practices. The purpose of this paper is to propose the use of Islamic principles in developing an emotional attachment between Green Banking practices and the Muslim consumer market to facilitate Green Banking adoption.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the theory of self-congruity, the authors have proposed a framework to analyze the congruity between Islamic principles and Green Banking. The argument is built on secondary data by identifying the Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) dimensions of Green Banking and proving its congruence with teachings of the Holy Qur’an and Sunnah.

Findings

It is observed that the doctrine of Islam established for mankind 1,400 years ago consists of the same principles that are now being implemented in the shape of Green Banking. The dimensions of Green Banking are in line with Islamic teachings and, thus, can easily be adopted and marketed by banks, especially Islamic banks, targeting the Muslim consumers. The congruence of Green Banking with Islamic principles can play a major role in fostering the growth of this imperative ideology for the Green Muslim consumers. Islamic banks can market green products and services on the basis of religious congruity to the Muslim consumer market and create greater acceptability and loyalty.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed model has not been empirically tested.

Originality/value

Limited research exists in the area of Green Banking adoption, especially in Muslim countries. Up until now, academic research has not been conducted on the congruity between the principles of Islam and Green Banking dimensions. This paper attempts to add to the unsaturated research area of Green Banking adoption by Islamic banks and how Islamic banks can gain a competitive advantage by building on the congruity between Green Banking and Islam.

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