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The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to estimate the water demand elasticities using a parametric linear programming (LP) model to provide an insight into the…
The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to estimate the water demand elasticities using a parametric linear programming (LP) model to provide an insight into the accurate and flexible pricing policy of irrigation water in the Jordan Valley; and second, to highlight key risk aspects, related to water demand, which are likely to impact the community.
A parametric LP model was used in this research. Primary and secondary data were collected.
Results revealed that the demand elasticity is high in Spring and Summer than in Fall and Winter, meaning that during Spring and Summer farmers are willing to forgo larger amounts of water than in other months. This is because of areas planted during Spring seasons are much less than those of Autumn and Winter.
The Jordan Valley suffers from water scarcity risk, and consequently the area to be planted is not fully utilized, leading to lower cropping intensities. Responsible authorities in Jordan need to address these issues and propose proper solutions in order to reduce further escalation of this risk and subsequent impact on local communities. Insight into the value of water demand elasticities is essential to support and mitigate policy decision making under risk conditions, concerning investments in water supply systems; investments in the water distribution and irrigation systems; efficient allocation of water with competing sectors; setting water pricing and tariffs; setting cost recovery mechanisms, and the risks encountered under lack of mitigated policy decision making.
This is one of few studies that addresses in detail using a parametric LP model the issue of water scarcity, related risks and subsequent impact on society in Jordan. It is expected to help policy and decision makers better formulate future estimates and demand which subsequently reduce related risks.
Traditional architecture and urban form is a harmonious and interrelated blend of social relations, cultural beliefs and religious principles forming coherent spatial…
Traditional architecture and urban form is a harmonious and interrelated blend of social relations, cultural beliefs and religious principles forming coherent spatial organisation living in harmony despite diversity of religious beliefs, social class or cultural practices of different communities. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the theoretical background of social cohesion and solidarity in the everyday life of the Mahalla with reference to its religious background in Islam.
The study of Beit Hadawi and Beit Hammadi el-Hassan as distinct evidences of prominent families within the boundaries of Mahallat El Mahdia in Old Hilla offers an empirical investigation on how values of the past informed and, to some extent, governed the very organic organisation of interlocking residential units in Iraq.
It investigates the architecture of home and the spatial organisation of Mahalla’s social activities through highlighting the effect of previous factors in creating a responsive environment that sustained its operational mechanism and fluidity over centuries.
This paper examines how previous values, traditions and rituals are behind the organic tissue of traditional quarters and thus providing an effective criterion to be considered when discussing sustainable development or creating a responsive environment in societies with exceptional privacy.