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Article
Publication date: 28 July 2023

Mohammad A. Gharaibeh

This paper aims to compare and evaluate the influence of package designs and characteristics on the mechanical reliability of electronic assemblies when subjected to harmonic…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to compare and evaluate the influence of package designs and characteristics on the mechanical reliability of electronic assemblies when subjected to harmonic vibrations.

Design/methodology/approach

Using finite element analysis (FEA), the effect of package design-related parameters, including the interconnect array configuration, i.e. full vs perimeter, and package size, on solder mechanical stresses are fully addressed.

Findings

The results of FEA simulations revealed that the number of solder rows or columns available in the array, could significantly affect solder stresses. In addition, smaller packages result in lower solder stresses and differing distributions.

Originality/value

In literature, there are no papers that discuss the effect of solder array layout on electronic packages vibration reliability. In addition, general rules for designing electronic assemblies subjected to harmonic vibration loadings are proposed in this paper.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 41 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 May 2023

Mohammad A. Gharaibeh and James M. Pitarresi

Because of growing demand for slim, thin and cheap handheld devices, reduced-volume solder interconnects like land grid array (LGA) are becoming attractive and popular choices…

Abstract

Purpose

Because of growing demand for slim, thin and cheap handheld devices, reduced-volume solder interconnects like land grid array (LGA) are becoming attractive and popular choices over the traditional ball grid array (BGA) packages. This study aims to investigate the mechanical shock and impact reliability of various solder alloys and BGA/LGA interconnect configurations.

Design/methodology/approach

Therefore, this paper uses drop testing experiments and numerical finite element simulations to evaluate and compare the reliability performance of both LGA and BGA components when exposed to drop and impact loadings. Additionally, three common solder alloys, including 63Sn37Pb, SAC305 and Innolot, are discussed.

Findings

The results of this study showed that electronic packages’ drop and impact reliability is strongly driven by the solder configuration and the alloy type. Particularly, the combination of stiff solder alloy and shorter joint, LGA’s assembled with SAC305, results in highly improved drop reliability. Moreover, the BGA packages’ performance can be considerably enhanced by using ductile and compliant solder alloys, that is, 63Sn37Pb. Finally, this paper discussed the failure mode of the various solder configurations and used simulation results to explain the crack and failure situations.

Originality/value

In literature, there is a lack of published work on the drop and impact reliability evaluation and comparison of LGA and BGA solders. This paper provides quantitative analysis on the reliability of lead-based and lead-free solders when assembled with LGA and BGA interconnects.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 August 2023

Mohammad A. Gharaibeh and Faris M. Al-Oqla

There are several lead-free solder alloys available in the industry. Over the years, the most favorable solder composition of tin-silver-copper (Sn-Ag-Cu [SAC]) has been vastly…

Abstract

Purpose

There are several lead-free solder alloys available in the industry. Over the years, the most favorable solder composition of tin-silver-copper (Sn-Ag-Cu [SAC]) has been vastly used and accepted for joining the electronic components. It is strongly believed that the silver (Ag) content has a significant impact on the solder mechanical behavior and thus solder thermal reliability performance. This paper aims to assess the mechanical response, i.e. creep response, of the SAC solder alloys with various Ag contents.

Design/methodology/approach

A three-dimensional nonlinear finite element simulation is used to investigate the thermal cyclic behavior of several SAC solder alloys with various silver percentages, including 1%, 2%, 3% and 4%. The mechanical properties of the unleaded interconnects with various Ag amounts are collected from reliable literature resources and used in the analysis accordingly. Furthermore, the solder creep behavior is examined using the two famous creep laws, namely, Garofalo’s and Anand’s models.

Findings

The nonlinear computational analysis results showed that the silver content has a great influence on the solder behavior as well as on thermal fatigue life expectancy. Specifically, solders with relatively high Ag content are expected to have lower plastic deformations and strains and thus better fatigue performance due to their higher strengths and failure resistance characteristics. However, such solders would have contrary fatigue performance in drop and shock environments and the low-Ag content solders are presumed to perform significantly better because of their higher ductility.

Originality/value

Generally, this research recommends the use of SAC solder interconnects of high silver contents, e.g. 3% and 4%, for designing electronic assemblies continuously exposed to thermal loadings and solders with relatively low Ag-content, i.e. 1% and 2%, for electronic packages under impact and shock loadings.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 35 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 May 2024

Mohammad A. Gharaibeh and Jürgen Wilde

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the thermomechanical response of four well-known lead-free die attach materials: sintered silver, sintered nano-copper particles…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the thermomechanical response of four well-known lead-free die attach materials: sintered silver, sintered nano-copper particles, gold-tin solders and silver-tin transient liquid phase (TLP) bonds.

Design/methodology/approach

This examination is conducted through finite element analysis. The mechanical properties of all die attach systems, including elastic and Anand creep parameters, are obtained from relevant literature and incorporated into the numerical analysis. Consequently, the bond stress-strain relationships, stored inelastic strain energies and equivalent plastic strains are thoroughly examined.

Findings

The results indicate that silver-tin TLP bonds are prone to exhibiting higher inelastic strain energy densities, while sintered silver and copper interconnects tend to possess higher levels of plastic strains and deformations. This suggests a higher susceptibility to damage in these metallic die attachments. On the other hand, the more expensive gold-based solders exhibit lower inelastic strain energy densities and plastic strains, implying an improved fatigue performance compared to other bonding configurations.

Originality/value

The utilization of different metallic material systems as die attachments in power electronics necessitates a comprehensive understanding of their thermomechanical behavior. Therefore, the results of the present paper can be useful in the die attach material selection in power electronics.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 May 2024

Mohammad A. Gharaibeh and Jürgen Wilde

In power electronics, there are various metallic material systems used as die attachments. The complete understanding of the thermomechanical behavior of such interconnections is…

Abstract

Purpose

In power electronics, there are various metallic material systems used as die attachments. The complete understanding of the thermomechanical behavior of such interconnections is very important. Therefore, this paper aims to examine the thermomechanical response of four famous die attach materials, including sintered silver, sintered nano-copper particles, gold-tin solders and silver-tin transient liquid phase (TLP) bonds, using nonlinear finite element analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

During the study, the mechanical properties of all die attach systems, including elastic and viscoplasticity parameters, are obtained from literature studies and hence incorporated into the numerical analysis. Subsequently, the bond stress–strain relationships, stored inelastic strain energies and equivalent plastic strains are thoroughly examined.

Findings

The results showed that the silver-tin TLP bonds are more likely to develop higher inelastic strain energy densities, while the sintered silver and copper interconnects would possess higher plastic strains and deformations. Suggesting higher damage to such metallic die attachments. The expensive gold-based solders have developed least inelastic strain energy densities and least plastic strains as well. Thus, they are expected to have improved fatigue performance compared to other bonding configurations.

Originality/value

This paper extensively investigates and compares the mechanical and thermal response of various metallic die attachments. In fact, there are no available research studies that discuss the behavior of such important die attachments of power electronics when exposed to mechanical and thermomechanical loads.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 January 2024

Mohammad A Gharaibeh, Markus Feisst and Jürgen Wilde

This paper aims to present two Anand’s model parameter sets for the multilayer silver–tin (AgSn) transient liquid phase (TLP) foils.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present two Anand’s model parameter sets for the multilayer silver–tin (AgSn) transient liquid phase (TLP) foils.

Design/methodology/approach

The AgSn TLP test samples are manufactured using pre-defined optimized TLP bonding process parameters. Consequently, tensile and creep tests are conducted at various loading temperatures to generate stress–strain and creep data to accurately determine the elastic properties and two sets of Anand model creep coefficients. The resultant tensile- and creep-based constitutive models are subsequently used in extensive finite element simulations to precisely survey the mechanical response of the AgSn TLP bonds in power electronics due to different thermal loads.

Findings

The response of both models is thoroughly addressed in terms of stress–strain relationships, inelastic strain energy densities and equivalent plastic strains. The simulation results revealed that the testing conditions and parameters can significantly influence the values of the fitted Anand coefficients and consequently affect the resultant FEA-computed mechanical response of the TLP bonds. Therefore, this paper suggests that extreme care has to be taken when planning experiments for the estimation of creep parameters of the AgSn TLP joints.

Originality/value

In literature, there is no constitutive modeling data on the AgSn TLP bonds.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 December 2020

Mohannad Jreissat and Mohammad A. Gharaibeh

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the strain concentration factor in a central countersunk hole riveted in rectangular plates under uniaxial tension using finite element…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the strain concentration factor in a central countersunk hole riveted in rectangular plates under uniaxial tension using finite element and response surface methods.

Design/methodology/approach

In this work, ANSYS software was elected to create the finite element model of the present structure, execute the analysis and generate strain concentration factor (,) data. Response surface method was implemented to formulate a second order equation to precisely compute (,) based on the geometric and material parameters of the present problem.

Findings

The computations of this formula are accurate and in a great agreement with finite element analysis (FEA) data. This equation was further used for obtaining optimum hole and plate designs.

Originality/value

An optimum design of the countersunk hole and the plate that minimizes the (,) value was achieved and hence validated with FEA findings.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 November 2021

Mohammad A. Gharaibeh

This paper aims to examine the thermal cycling fatigue life performance of two-common solder array configurations, full and peripheral, using three-dimensional nonlinear finite…

106

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the thermal cycling fatigue life performance of two-common solder array configurations, full and peripheral, using three-dimensional nonlinear finite element analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

The finite element simulations were used to identify the location of the critical solder interconnect, and using Darveaux's model, solder thermal fatigue life was computed.

Findings

The results showed that the solder array type does not significantly influence thermal fatigue life of the interconnect. However, smaller size packages result in improved life by almost 45% compared to larger package designs. Additionally, this paper provided an engineered study on the effect of the number of rows available in a perimeter array component on solder thermal fatigue performance.

Originality/value

General design recommendations for reliable electronic assemblies under thermal cycling loaded were offered in this research.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 February 2024

Mohammad A Gharaibeh and Ayman Alkhatatbeh

The continuous increase of energy demands is a critical worldwide matter. Jordan’s household sector accounts for 44% of overall electricity usage annually. This study aims to use…

Abstract

Purpose

The continuous increase of energy demands is a critical worldwide matter. Jordan’s household sector accounts for 44% of overall electricity usage annually. This study aims to use artificial neural networks (ANNs) to assess and forecast electricity usage and demands in Jordan’s residential sector.

Design/methodology/approach

Four parameters are evaluated throughout the analysis, namely, population (P), income level (IL), electricity unit price (E$) and fuel unit price (F$). Data on electricity usage and independent factors are gathered from government and literature sources from 1985 to 2020. Several networks are analyzed and optimized for the ANN in terms of root mean square error, mean absolute percentage error and coefficient of determination (R2).

Findings

The predictions of this model are validated and compared with literature-reported models. The results of this investigation showed that the electricity demand of the Jordanian household sector is mainly driven by the population and the fuel price. Finally, time series analysis approach is incorporated to forecast the electricity demands in Jordan’s residential sector for the next decade.

Originality/value

The paper provides useful recommendations and suggestions for the decision-makers in the country for dynamic planning for future resource policies in the household sector.

Details

Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4620

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 December 2021

Mohammad Gharaibeh

This study aims to discuss the determination of the unknown in-plane mechanical material properties of printed circuit boards (PCBs) by correlating the results from dynamic…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to discuss the determination of the unknown in-plane mechanical material properties of printed circuit boards (PCBs) by correlating the results from dynamic testing and finite element (FE) models using the response surface method (RSM).

Design/methodology/approach

The first 10 resonant frequencies and vibratory mode shapes are measured using modal analysis with hammer testing experiment, and hence, systematically compared with finite element analysis (FEA) results. The RSM is consequently used to minimize the cumulative error between dynamic testing and FEA results by continuously modifying the FE model, to acquire material properties of PCBs.

Findings

Great agreement is shown when comparing FEA to measurements, the optimum in-plane material properties were identified, and hence, verified.

Originality/value

This paper used FEA and RSMs along with modal measurements to obtain in-plane material properties of PCBs. The methodology presented here can be easily generalized and repeated for different board designs and configurations.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 39 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

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