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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Mohamed F.A. Ebrahim, N. David Pifer, Saad Ahmed Saad Shalaby, Karim Mohamed Mahmoud El Hakim, Hosam El Dien El Sayed Mubarak and James J. Zhang

The Egyptian Premier League (EPL) holds a prominent place in Egypt’s sporting culture and serves as the stage for some of Africa’s most competitive soccer clubs. However…

Abstract

Purpose

The Egyptian Premier League (EPL) holds a prominent place in Egypt’s sporting culture and serves as the stage for some of Africa’s most competitive soccer clubs. However, the actual competitive balance in this league has come under scrutiny in recent years as the two historically dominant Cairo clubs, Ahly and Zamalek, continue to retain the EPL championship. A major concern is that the competitive imbalance of the EPL may actually be hampering the league’s progress and the progress of soccer in Egypt. In order to more closely assess this situation, the purpose of this paper is to use historical EPL performance data to conduct a series of competitive balance analyses on league results from 1948 to 2014. The findings revealed that competition in the league is almost nonexistent as Ahly and Zamalek continue to enjoy a number of direct and indirect financial benefits that are unrealized by their competitors. The dominance of these clubs has compromised the elements of match uncertainty and drama that are traditionally viewed as being important to the prestige and financial achievements of leagues and teams. Discussion is therefore offered for how the EPL could go about resolving some of its organizational and competitive balance issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopted four basic measures of competitive balance to conduct descriptive analyses on EPL data that were collected from egyptianfootball.net and the Rec Sport Soccer Statistics Foundation. These analyses began with the EPL’s inaugural season (1948-1949) and extended to the conclusion of the 2014-2015 season. During this timeframe, seven seasons were canceled due to global and political tensions and four more went unfinished. Because these seasons were excluded, the total sample size consisted of 56 seasons, each of which contained between 10 and 24 EPL teams. The data were analyzed using variations of the following competitive balance measures: the range and standard deviation of winning percentages, the ratio of the standard deviation/Noll-Scully approach, the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index, and five-club concentration ratio.

Findings

The results confirmed that the league is largely imbalanced, leading the authors to recommend systemic and structural changes that could help promote competitive balance in the league. The call for competitive balance in the EPL was bolstered by a literature review of studies that advocated for parity in professional sports leagues. In the end, the researchers recommend the EPL to improve its organizational policies and consider a revised revenue-sharing system that would allow the small-market teams to survive and thrive.

Originality/value

The EPL holds a prominent place in Egypt’s sporting culture and serves as the stage for some of Africa’s most competitive soccer clubs. The primary purpose of this study was to perform a series of competitive balance analyses on EPL results from 1948 to 2015 in an effort to better understand the various degrees of competitiveness in the league during this time.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2003

Mohamed E. Ibrahim and Ahmed Al Amiri

This paper examined engineers’ satisfaction with services of a building permission unit at a local municipality using a focus group, a questionnaire and follow‐up…

Abstract

This paper examined engineers’ satisfaction with services of a building permission unit at a local municipality using a focus group, a questionnaire and follow‐up interviews. Obtained satisfaction indexes are reported. Differences in satisfaction levels were tested using parametric t‐tests and Kruskal‐Wallis non‐parametric tests according to engineer’s specialization, size of office and number of building projects submitted to the building permission unit. The results indicate no significant statistical differences in satisfaction levels based on specialization (civil engineers versus architectural engineers), size of the consulting office, or the number of projects submitted. However, satisfaction indexes were not high. They were about 60 per cent.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 June 2006

Mawdudur Rahman

In this paper we provide evidence of successful online learning experience with UAE students at Zayed University in the UAE. First we describe the processes and…

Abstract

In this paper we provide evidence of successful online learning experience with UAE students at Zayed University in the UAE. First we describe the processes and technologies used in delivering the online course "Virtual Business Challenges". Based on survey results we discuss students’ evaluations and experience and the technologies used. Overall, students had a positive learning experience in the course.

Details

Learning and Teaching in Higher Education: Gulf Perspectives, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2077-5504

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Article
Publication date: 3 September 2020

Ahmed Atef Oussii and Mohamed Faker Klibi

De facto use of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) is a particular form of voluntary compliance with International Accounting Standards (IAS). It is…

Abstract

Purpose

De facto use of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) is a particular form of voluntary compliance with International Accounting Standards (IAS). It is practiced when an enterprise uses a number (and not all) of international standards as a complement to overcome the unachieved nature of local generally accepted accounting principles. The purpose of this paper is to analyze, at first, whether the financial expertise of Tunisian audit committee’s members is associated with de facto use of IFRS. Second, it explores to what extent and in what direction this association evolves when the factor auditor’s size is introduced as a moderator variable.

Design/methodology/approach

Data spanning a seven-year period (2012–2018) was hand-collected for a sample of 497 firm-year observations. Further, regression analysis was used to test the study’s hypothesis.

Findings

Findings show that the proportion of financial experts who sit on the audit committee is positively associated with the de facto use of IFRS. Besides, the association between audit committee members’ financial expertise and the voluntary use of IFRS is more pronounced when the company is audited by at least one BIG 4 audit firm.

Practical implications

The paper’s findings have implications for regulatory bodies and standards setters who are concerned with the functioning of the audit committee, especially when it comes to enhancing the quality of the financial statements. The results also shed light on the role of financial experts on the audit committee and Big 4 auditors to enforce the de facto use of IFRS.

Originality/value

The findings of this study contain an important message for the drift toward national de jure convergence with IAS.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 20 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Article
Publication date: 12 July 2021

Muhammad Iqmal Hisham Kamaruddin, Sofiah Md Auzair, Mohd Mohid Rahmat and Nurul Aini Muhamed

The purpose of this study is to examine the role of financial governance practices in influencing both financial management and Islamic work ethic practices to affect…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the role of financial governance practices in influencing both financial management and Islamic work ethic practices to affect Islamic social enterprises (ISEs) accountability.

Design/methodology/approach

Questionnaires were administered to financial officers of 102 Malaysian ISEs. Data was analysed using Smart-PLS to examine the relationships between financial management, Islamic work ethic, financial governance and accountability.

Findings

Results of this study indicate direct relationship only exist between Islamic work ethic and accountability. The relationship between financial management and accountability are indirect through financial governance. Hence, the data proves that financial governance has a mediating role on both the relationships between financial management and Islamic work ethic with the accountability of the ISEs.

Research limitations/implications

The study has highlighted the greater role of financial management, Islamic work ethic and financial governance practices over accountability to achieve public trust, especially for Malaysian ISEs.

Practical implications

ISEs need to have good financial governance practices besides financial management and Islamic work ethic practices to achieve good accountability.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the field of management and social accounting by providing empirical evidence on the ISEs practices specifically on financial management, Islamic work ethic, financial governance and accountability. This framework thus presents amongst the first attempts in studying accountability issues in ISEs.

Details

Social Enterprise Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-8614

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Maria L. Granados, Souad Mohamed and Vlatka Hlupic

This paper aims to explore what social enterprises (SEs) in the UK know and how they acquire, convert, apply and protect this knowledge. This will enable them to manage…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore what social enterprises (SEs) in the UK know and how they acquire, convert, apply and protect this knowledge. This will enable them to manage their knowledge effectively and, hence, improve their practices and maximise the creation of social, environmental and economic value.

Design/methodology/approach

This study follows a qualitative approach, comprising 21 interviews with founders and senior members of SEs in the UK.

Findings

The results show that the investigated SEs have knowledge management (KM) practices similar to the already identified in SMEs, associated with informality, reliance on external sources and focus on socialisation activities, but they have unique challenges on managing their knowledge related to their hybrid mission, to include social and economic objectives and their closed relationship with stakeholders.

Research limitations/implications

As there is limited research on KM practices in SEs; they were defined based on previous studies in large, private and public companies. Therefore, not all practices may be included. This research is a starting point in the study of KM in SEs.

Practical implications

This study identifies knowledge activities that enable the creation of social, environmental and economic value in SEs. This allows SEs, small firms and non-profit organisations to review their current practices and develop plans for their further improvement.

Originality/value

This paper is one of the first empirical studies exploring KM practices in SEs, highlighting their informal nature as well as their impact in and on the enterprise.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article
Publication date: 12 January 2021

Mohammed Ali Al-Awlaqi, Ammar Mohamed Aamer, Maged Mohammed Barahma and Mohamed Battour

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the tendency of leaders to select their followers depending on their human capital factors such as age, education level…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the tendency of leaders to select their followers depending on their human capital factors such as age, education level, previous working experience and training.

Design/methodology/approach

The participants were 1,388 employees working in a randomly selected sample of 289 small-sized businesses operating in Yemen. A self-reported questionnaire was used to collect the data. The correspondence analysis method was used to explore the tendency of leaders to select their followers depending on their human capital factors.

Findings

We found significant corresponding relationships between leadership styles and the selection of the followers' human capital factors. The passive avoidant style was found to select middle-age, long-experience and fully-trained followers. Transactional style on the other hand was found to select young, middle-level experience and non-trained followers. The transformational leadership style was found to have no selection preferences towards any of the human capital factors except for working experience.

Originality/value

Although, some previous studies tried to understand the leaders–followers relationships, no one investigated the tendency of leaders to select their followers according to their preferences. This study contributes significantly to the leaders–followers theory by studying the selection process of the leadership style of their followers' human capital factors. Understanding this phenomenon could help explain why some leadership styles are more effective than others, especially in very limited resources contexts such as micro-sized businesses.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 March 2019

Mohamed Mousa, Vesa Puhakka and Hala A. Abdelgaffar

The purpose of this paper is to focus on physicians in the four public hospitals located in the October province of Egypt in an attempt to explore the effect of climate…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on physicians in the four public hospitals located in the October province of Egypt in an attempt to explore the effect of climate change on physicians’ affective, continuance and normative commitment with and without mediating the role of responsible leadership.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 360 physicians were contacted and all of them received a set of questionnaires. After two follow-ups, a total of 240 responses were collected with a response rate of 66.67 percent. Multiple regressions were employed to show how much variation in affective, continuance and normative commitment can be explained by climate change with and without the mediation of responsible leadership.

Findings

The findings show a statistically negative effect for climate change on physicians’ three approaches of organizational commitment (affective, continuance and normative). Furthermore, the statistical analysis proved that having responsible leaders in hospitals has a negligible effect on the relationship between climate change and the affective, continuance and normative commitment.

Originality/value

This paper contributes by filling a gap in environment and organization literature, in which empirical studies on the relationship between climate change and organizational commitment have been limited until now.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2014

Munther T. Momany, Husam-Aldin N. Al-Malkawi and Ebrahim A. Mahdy

– The purpose of this paper is to examine the status of financial reporting on the internet by companies operating in an emerging economy, namely Jordan.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the status of financial reporting on the internet by companies operating in an emerging economy, namely Jordan.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper surveys 127 companies listed in the first market of Amman Stock Exchange (ASE) for the year ended 2008/2009. The primary sources of the data used in this study are the global and the Jordanian electronic web sites. The paper employs descriptive statistics and nonparametric tests to explore the internet financial reporting (IFR) practices among Jordanian companies.

Findings

The results show that 87 Jordanian companies (69 percent) possess web sites with about 51 percent (44 of the 87) include financial reports and 32 out of 44 companies (about 73 percent) disseminate all their financial information on their web sites. The paper also finds that the extent of disclosure of the corporate financial and nonfinancial information on the ASE web site is statistically different form the companies’ web sites. Furthermore, the current paper reveals that some firm-specific characteristics such as firm size; financial leverage, age, and ownership concentration may distinguish those companies who engage in IFR from their counterparts. Finally, the results suggest that the financial sector is more advanced in terms of using the internet to disseminate information when compared to the industrial and services sectors.

Originality/value

In the context of Jordan, there is limited number of studies attempted to address corporate financial reporting on the internet. Therefore, the present study makes significant contribution to the existing body of knowledge by shedding more light on the status of financial disclosure on the internet by companies operating in an emerging economy like Jordan. Also, the current paper explores the extent of corporate information disclosed on both the official web site of ASE and companies’ web sites.

Details

Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-1168

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2019

Gamal Mohamed Shehata and Mohammed A. Montash

The purpose of this paper is to develop and empirically examine a comprehensive model that attempts to identify the factors that explain competitive advantage of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop and empirically examine a comprehensive model that attempts to identify the factors that explain competitive advantage of implementing electronic business (e-business) in an emerging market. It seeks to fulfill an inevitable lack of conducting rigorous and intensive empirical studies on the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region in which the internet use and e-business applications are on the rise.

Design/methodology/approach

This research is descriptive in nature where a quantitative research methodology is deployed. Data are collected using both interviews and e-survey for a sample of 302 Egyptian companies serving in diverse industries. A multivariate partial least squares technique is employed to analyze the collected data.

Findings

This study explores various e-business modes and applications widely employed in the MENA region. It also addresses a set of e-business-driven competitive advantages that are mainly generated from supportive ICT environment, major market forces and strategic opportunities, and at last, from electronically driven customers’ relationship initiatives. A number of e-business barriers are claimed to moderate the relationship between those forces and the resulting competitive advantages.

Research limitations/implications

Although this research main framework incorporates important variables based on theoretical and empirical foundations, integrating other factors may extend understanding of how these factors, independently and/or interactively, explain the adoption of e-business and its merit to create distinctive competitive advantage.

Practical implications

This work helps managers and e-business experts alike to comprehend the ways through which firms target the applications of e-business technologies to realize a competitive edge in MENA region. It also helps practitioners and professionals comprehend the interrelationship between the type of forces drive e-business based competitive position and key barriers that deteriorate such a connection in emerging markets.

Originality/value

A model that enables scholars to better understanding the e-business phenomenon in MENA market is developed and validated. This model rests on e-business experts’ perspectives, reflections and it is evidently substantiated by past works in the areas.

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