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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2021

Elias Abu Al-Haija, Mohamed Chakib Kolsi and Mohamed Chakib Chakib Kolsi

The purpose of this case study is to explore whether Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank (ADIB) complies with the Global Reporting Initiative Standards in terms of corporate social…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this case study is to explore whether Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank (ADIB) complies with the Global Reporting Initiative Standards in terms of corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure practices for the period 2014–2019.

Design/methodology/approach

By analysing both annual and sustainability reports of the bank using content analysis for each Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) category, 100 universal standards, 200 economic standards, 300 environmental standards, 400 social standards. The authors then compute and discuss the degree of compliance of ADIB disclosures by using annual charts and graphs.

Findings

Results show that, although ADIB issues sustainability reports, numerous GRI standards do not appear in the bank’s reports such as general disclosures GRI 102, economic disclosures items such as anti-competitive behaviour GRI 206 and environmental disclosures such as gas emissions GRI 305 due to the nature of bank’s activities. However, the bank focuses mainly on social standards GRI 400 including community services, training and development. Hence, ADIB partially complies with the GRI standards (2016) especially social disclosures.

Research limitations/implications

The study encompasses some limitations: first, due to the discretionary nature of CSR reporting, many items were ignored or missed for the full period. Second, the disclosure of a sustainability report by the company was only available for the year 2017, which, in turn, makes it difficult for comparison.

Practical implications

The findings of this study have important implications for academics and researchers, and practitioners as they pave the way for further investigation regarding CSR compliance of Islamic financial institutions. The results also have important implications for Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions in developing a CSR reporting standard if Islamic banks are to enhance their image globally and to maintain competitive advantages.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the growing debate on CSR disclosures in the Islamic banking industry by comparing ADIB practices with regard to the GRI standards.

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Mohamed Chakib Kolsi

The purpose of this paper is to identify the factors affecting firm voluntary disclosure policy adopted by a sample of 25 UAE companies listed on the Abu Dhabi Securities…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the factors affecting firm voluntary disclosure policy adopted by a sample of 25 UAE companies listed on the Abu Dhabi Securities Exchange (ADX) for the period 2010-2014.

Design/methodology/approach

The author computes a weighted disclosure index (Botosan, 1997) for three-factor voluntary disclosure items and uses a multivariate regression analysis between disclosure index and a set of explanatory variables identified by previous research. The author also controls for endogeneity problem and uses panel data estimation.

Findings

It has been found that listing history, governmental sector, firm profitability and foreign listing positively affect the level of voluntary disclosure adopted by ADX listed companies. By contrast, the percentage of shares owned by block holders and industrial sector negatively affect the level of voluntary disclosure by ADX listed companies. Finally, the board and firm size, managers’ stock options and the leverage ratio do not have any impact on the level of voluntary disclosure adopted by ADX firms. The results remain unchanged to additional sensitivity checks.

Research limitations/implications

The research presents some limitations: first, the author does not take into account all voluntary disclosure items such as human resources and environmental data disclosed by ADX listed firms. Second, other voluntary disclosure determinants remain unexplored for UAE firms such as culture and tax incentives in the light of the new tax rules including corporate tax and value-added tax.

Practical implications

The study has many implications: first, it can help investors in their decision making and lead to fair allocation of resources. Second, it gives helpful directives to UAE accounting authorities to enhance the quality of financial reporting in the light of the New Commercial Company Law 2015 for mandatory adoption of IFRS by all listed companies. The paper also presents helpful directives for tax authorities planning for both company and value-added taxes. It also sheds light on factors driving corporate social responsibility disclosures as a crucial component of voluntary disclosure policy

Originality/value

The paper explores the new determinants of voluntary disclosure such as foreign listing, governmental status and block holding for an emerging relatively unexplored stock market: ADX.

Details

Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-1168

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Article
Publication date: 26 January 2021

Mohamed Chakib Kolsi, Riham Muqattash and Ahmad Al-Hiyari

This paper aims to highlight the relationship between the attributes of external auditor companies and voluntary corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosures of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to highlight the relationship between the attributes of external auditor companies and voluntary corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosures of audited firms using a sample of Abu Dhabi Securities Exchange (ADX)-listed companies.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a sample of 410 firm-year observations for the period 2010–2016, this study first computes an eight-item CSR disclosure index, then ran a multivariate regression analysis between CSR disclosure scores and external auditor attributes, along with client firm characteristics and additional control variables. Finally, this paper performs various additional robustness checks.

Findings

The results reveal that external auditor attributes have a significant impact on shaping the CSR disclosures of ADX-listed firms. Overall, auditor age, size, industry specialisation and portfolio diversification positively affect the level of customers’ CSR disclosures. By contrast, the magnitude of audit fees and auditor experience in the UAE has no impact on the CSR disclosures of ADX-listed firms. This study controls for client firm size, financial leverage, ownership concentration and the proportion of independent directors on companies’ board of directors. The results remain robust to additional sensitivity checks such as audit company CSR practices, extreme quartiles of CSR disclosures and the panel data estimation method.

Research limitations/implications

The research exhibits some limitations. First, this paper uses a simple index to measure CSR disclosures based on previous empirical studies, especially those related to emergent markets, which are not free from bias due to the lack of voluntary disclosure transparency for some companies listed on ADX. Second, although this study uses a seven-year observation period, the total number of observations remains limited due to ADX size. Third, other context-specific disclosures should be included such as cultural and governance variables (royal families ownership).

Practical implications

The study highlights the role of external attributes that can affect companies’ CSR disclosure policy, rather than firm-specific factors. The study also reshapes the concept of auditor quality beyond the dichotomy (“Big Four”/non-Big Four) used in the current literature.

Originality/value

The research adds to the current literature on CSR by revealing the impact of external auditor attributes on client firm CSR disclosure policy in an emerging market, the ADX.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

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Article
Publication date: 18 April 2017

Mohamed Chakib Kolsi and Rihab Grassa

The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of corporate governance mechanisms on earnings management practice for a sample of Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Islamic…

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Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of corporate governance mechanisms on earnings management practice for a sample of Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Islamic banks (IBs) using a new model of earnings management.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the authors estimate discretionary accruals based on loan loss provisions discretionary loan loss provision (DLLP) using the procedure derived from Jones’ (1991) original model. Second, the authors run a multivariate regression model to check the linkage between corporate governance characteristics and discretionary loan loss provision. Finally, the authors use an additional sensitivity check analysis to assess whether the results are robust to the estimation procedure and to other exogenous factors.

Findings

Using as sample of 26 IBs pertaining to the GCC region with a total of 223 firm-year observations and a nine-year period (2004-2012), the results are conclusive and show that first, IBs with large Shariah Board size manage less DLLP. Secondly, Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions membership positively impacts earnings management through DLLP in IBs. Third, there is a negative relationship between boards of director’s independence the extent to which IBs manage DLLP. Fourth, the existence of block holders positively affects earnings management by IBs. Fifth, there is a negative relationship between audit committee meetings and DLLP. Finally, institutional ownership and bank size have no effect on earnings management through DLLPs.

Research limitations/implications

In this research, the authors do not take into account all governance factors that are supposed to impact earnings management in IBs. Future research should explore the impact of additional IBs governance structures including chief executive officer bonus, experience, gender and the extent to which IBs use real earnings management with Murabaha, Mudaraba and Musharaka transactions.

Practical implications

The paper is a very useful source of information that may provide relevant guidelines in helping the future development of corporate governance of IBs. In addition, the findings could prove to be useful for regulators because they are responsible for the acceptable level of corporate governance standards. Thus, they must consider strengthening governance mechanisms either through new legislation or stronger enforcement where earnings management is of such magnitude to that serious impedes information transparency and financial reporting quality of IBs.

Originality/value

This study associates the corporate governance characteristics with earnings management by IBs. The study contributes to the growing body of literature on earnings management and corporate governance in IBs. It should be useful to researchers, regulators, investors, analysts and creditors as well as other players in the capital markets, as it presents a new and important aspect that needs to be accounted for when assessing the quality of IBs’ accounting information in GCC countries.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2006

Hamadi Matoussi and Mohamed Chakib Kolsi

In response to recent financial corporate scandals, this study aims to provide a helpful understanding for investors and accounting regulators on how firms manage their…

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1100

Abstract

Purpose

In response to recent financial corporate scandals, this study aims to provide a helpful understanding for investors and accounting regulators on how firms manage their reported earnings. This leads to a better firm valuation by financial intermediaries and more useful accounting standards.

Design/methodology/approach

Estimating discretionary accruals and opportunistic special purpose entities and using a simultaneous equation approach, the aim is to check how managers trade off between such tools of earnings management. Based on real earnings manipulation and accruals management of earnings, the goal is to understand if such tools are used simultaneously or as substitute by firms.

Findings

After controlling for each cost determinants of such earnings management tool, firms use discretionary accruals and financial engineering with special purpose entities as substitutes. Additional analyses show that managers use such tools in a sequential process. Indeed, they first use special purpose entities during the course of the year but they manipulate discretionary accruals especially at the end of the year.

Research limitations/implications

Despite sensitivity checks, measurement error in discretionary accruals proxy and opportunistic SPE estimation model remains an alternative explanation for the results. The sample size and the lack of accurate information about the size of special purpose entities may limit the extent of the findings.

Practical implications

It is a very useful tool for regulators when they plan to disclose new accounting standards. For investors, this study can help them in assessing the firm's value more accurately for investing and financing purposes.

Originality/value

Providing a new methodology and new models to detect pervasive earnings management strategies adopted by firms.

Details

Journal of Human Resource Costing & Accounting, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1401-338X

Keywords

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