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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Muhammad Rizky Prima Sakti, Mohamad Ali Tareq, Buerhan Saiti and Tahir Akhtar

This paper aims to critically evaluate theoretical and empirical research into capital structure practices in Islamic banks (IBs) from four perspectives, namely…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to critically evaluate theoretical and empirical research into capital structure practices in Islamic banks (IBs) from four perspectives, namely, theoretical aspect and its nature, determinants of capital structure in IBs, links between capital structure and risk management and nexus between capital structure and performance of IBs.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors will review and examine past studies on IBs’ capital structure from both theoretical and empirical research.

Findings

The paper concludes that most of the literature on IB capital structure is largely theoretical than empirical. The existing studies on IB capital structure have various limitations, which suggest a need for detailed empirical work. Detailed empirical research in the field of capital structure will support bank managers and policymakers in making decisions about improving capital structure.

Originality/value

This research will make several noteworthy contributions to address literature gaps for IB capital structure. Furthermore, this paper will identify areas for future research into capital structure practices and IB financing decisions. Lastly, this paper will equip regulators with guidelines for establishing sound capital requirements for IB.

Details

Qualitative Research in Financial Markets, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4179

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Tahir Akhtar, Mohamad Ali Tareq, Muhammad Rizky Prima Sakti and Adnan Ahmad Khan

This study aims to provide a review of corporate governance and cash holdings because strong corporate governance is necessary for the efficient utilization of firm’s…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to provide a review of corporate governance and cash holdings because strong corporate governance is necessary for the efficient utilization of firm’s liquid resources such as cash, to minimize the agency cost of high cash holdings and to improve the value of cash.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors provide a literature review of corporate governance and cash holdings through a conceptual and theoretical argument rather than empirical research.

Findings

The authors review an empirical and theoretical work surrounding key corporate governance variables and identify avenues for future research. The authors find that corporate governance mechanisms and cash holdings have received much attention during the past two decades. However, the significant role of corporate governance (both country-level and the firm-level) in controlling the entrenched behaviour of the managers is discussed separately in the literature. The combined effect of both country-level and the firm-level governance is lacking in the cash holdings literature. Additionally, this study has found that much attention is paid to the developed markets, while only a few focused on the developing markets regarding cash holding literature, although the agency problems are high in developing markets.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the growing literature on corporate governance and cash holdings and provides a further understanding of the role of governance in minimizing the agency cost to increase value by assuring that firms’ assets are used efficiently and productively in the best interests of investors and other stakeholders. In addition, it provides a new idea to the policymaker and future researchers where they need to do more work.

Details

Qualitative Research in Financial Markets, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4179

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Faried Kurnia Rahman, Mohammad Ali Tareq, Rochania Ayu Yunanda and Akbariah Mahdzir

The halal industry is one of the most growing industries in the world. It refers to the industry in line with Islamic principles and requirements. The emergence of this…

Abstract

Purpose

The halal industry is one of the most growing industries in the world. It refers to the industry in line with Islamic principles and requirements. The emergence of this industry aims to fulfil the requirement of Islamic-compliant products and services. Surprisingly, the industry has been growing in both Muslim and non-Muslim countries. Assessing the performance of the industry will be notable for ensuring that it obtains its objectives. The proper performance measurement should highlight business perspectives and religious aspects. This study aims to explore the current issues and challenges in developing Maqashid Al-Shari’ah-based performance measurement in the halal industry.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a qualitative research using in-depth interviews, and uses content analysis to interpret and explain the interview result. Interviews were conducted with experts in Maqashid Al-Shari’ah and Islamic capital markets.

Findings

The existence of the concept of Maqashid Al-Shari’ah is to create maslahah for all human beings. The development of Maqashid Al-Shari’ah performance measurement for the business is very important. It has only been developed for Islamic financial industry. Unfortunately, it is found that the development of Maqashid Al-Shari’ah performance measurement has not been carried out comprehensively in non-financial industry. The main issue is the absence of the applicable measurements. Therefore, collective decision is required to develop the appropriate measurements.

Practical implications

There is a necessity for regulator to produce standards on Maqashid Al-Shari’ah-based performance measurement. The government policy plays an important role in the development and implementation of Maqashid Al-Shari’ah -based measurement index.

Originality/value

This paper highlights the issue of the development of Maqashid Al-Shari’ah -based performance measurement in halal business and commerce which has not much discussed in prior studies.

Details

Humanomics, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

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Article
Publication date: 9 June 2020

Khairul Anuar Kamarudin, Akmalia Mohamad Ariff and Wan Adibah Wan Ismail

This paper aims to investigate the joint effect of product market competition (PMC) and institutional environment on accrual quality.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the joint effect of product market competition (PMC) and institutional environment on accrual quality.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample covers a large data set of 52,138 firm-year observations from 35 countries over the period of 2011-2015. Using the weighted least square regression, the study estimates PMC and institutional environment on accrual quality. The study measures PMC based on Herfindahl-Hirschman index, anti-director rights index (ADRI) based on the revised and updated La Porta et al.'s (1998) and accrual quality using the modified Dechow and Dichev (2002) model proposed by McNichols (2002). The study also uses a series of specification tests using alternative measures for each variable.

Findings

The study finds that highly intensified PMC relates to a lower quality of accruals. The results also show that accrual quality is better in countries with stronger institutional environment, specifically countries with higher ADRI, investor protection, judicial independence, protection of minority shareholders’ interests, protection of property rights, strength of the auditing and reporting standards, efficacy of corporate boards and corporate ethics. The findings suggest that institutional factors weaken the negative impact of PMC intensity on accrual quality, hence suggesting that institutional environment has a significant role to enhance accrual quality among firms in highly intensified industries.

Practical implications

The findings provide additional insights to policymakers and regulators on the importance of strong institutional and industry environment that can provide incentives and extra governance mechanisms besides the conventional firm-level corporate governance.

Originality/value

This study contributes in understanding the impact of intensity of PMC on accrual quality internationally and subsequently highlights the role of institutional environment as significant country-level governance in determining financial reporting quality, particularly accrual quality.

Details

Pacific Accounting Review, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0114-0582

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2021

Fahmi Ali Hudaefi, Rezzy Eko Caraka and Hairunnizam Wahid

Zakat during the COVID-19 outbreak has played a vital role and has been significantly discussed in the virtual environment. Such information about zakat in the virtual…

Abstract

Purpose

Zakat during the COVID-19 outbreak has played a vital role and has been significantly discussed in the virtual environment. Such information about zakat in the virtual world creates unstructured data, which contains important information and knowledge. This paper aims to discover knowledge related to zakat administration during the pandemic from the information in a virtual environment. Furthermore, the discussion is contextualised to the socio-economic debates.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a qualitative study operated via text mining to discover knowledge of zakat administration during the COVID-19 pandemic. The National Board of Zakat Republic of Indonesia (BAZNAS RI) is selected for a single case study. This paper samples BAZNAS RI’s situation report on COVID-19 from its virtual website. The data consists of 40 digital pages containing 19,812 characters, 3,004 words and 3,003 white spaces. The text mining analytical steps are performed via RStudio. The following R packages, networkD3, igraph, ggraph and ggplot2 are used to run the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) for topic modelling.

Findings

The machine learning analysis via RStudio results in the 16 topics associated with the 3 primary topics (i.e. Education, Sadaqah and Health Services). The topic modelling discovers knowledge about BAZNAS RI’s assistance for COVID-19 relief, which may help the readers understand zakat administration in times of the pandemic from BAZNAS RI’s virtual website. This finding may draw the theory of socio-economic zakat, which explains that zakat as a religious obligation plays a critical role in shaping a Muslim community's social and economic processes, notably during the unprecedented times of COVID-19.

Research limitations/implications

This study uses data from a single zakat institution. Thus, the generalisation of the finding is limited to the sampled institution.

Practical implications

This research is both theoretically and practically important for academics and industry professionals. This paper contributes to the novelty in performing text mining via R in gaining knowledge about the recent zakat administration from a virtual website. The finding of this study (i.e. the topic modelling) is practically essential for zakat stakeholders to understand the contribution of zakat in managing the COVID-19 impacts.

Social implications

This work derives a theory of “socio-economic zakat” that explains the importance of a zakat institution in activating zakat for managing socio-economic issues during the pandemic. Thus, paying zakat to an authorised institution may actualise more maslahah (public interest) compared to paying it directly to the asnaf (zakat beneficiaries) without any measurement

Originality/value

This study is among the pioneers in gaining knowledge from Indonesia’s zakat management during the COVID-19 outbreak via text mining. The authors’ way of analysing data from the virtual website using RStudio can advance Islamic economics literature.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

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Article
Publication date: 28 January 2021

Md. Kausar Alam and Muhammad Shahin Miah

The main objective of the study is to ascertain the level of independence and the effectiveness of the Shariah Supervisory Board (SSB) members of Islamic banks in…

Abstract

Purpose

The main objective of the study is to ascertain the level of independence and the effectiveness of the Shariah Supervisory Board (SSB) members of Islamic banks in Bangladesh. This is because only SSB members are empowered to oversee and certify the overall business functions of Islamic banks.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper implements qualitative case research approach to explore the research objective in the context of Bangladesh. We applied purposeful and snowball sampling tactics for selecting respondents. By using a semi-structured questionnaire and face-to-face interviews, we collect data from SSB members, central bank executives and experts in Islamic banking and Shariah governance.

Findings

The study finds that majority Islamic banks' SSB's positions are similar to the Board of Directors (BOD) of the banks. Next, this study finds that in recruiting/selecting SSB members, some banks do not follow the guidelines of the central bank. This study finds mixed evidence regarding the independence of the members of the SSB. Most of the respondents opined that SSBs do not have power; in some cases, members of SSB are not independent and seeming powerless as BOD selects and recruits them. In contrast, they are dependent on management in respect of strategy implementation.

Research limitations/implications

The study significantly contributed to the national and global regulatory bodies by identifying an important governance determinant of Islamic banks that is the independence of SSB members, which is highly important for both Shariah functions, and to enhance the trust level of the stakeholders. This study makes a theoretical contribution by documenting the violation of stakeholder theory and agency theory in recruiting SSB members by BOD's choice. The lack of SSB members' independence has an impact on Shariah legitimacy of the Islamic banks which is contradictory with the notion of legitimacy theory. This study recommends the central bank to ensure the independence of the SSB and central bank should take initiatives to develop an environment for the Islamic banking sector.

Originality/value

This study extends the literature of corporate governance relating to Islamic banking and financial institutions. More specifically, this paper explores the necessity of independence of members of the monitoring body (here SSB), an important constituent of governance, to ensure high-quality governance and transparency in reporting to increase diverse stakeholders' trust/confidence. The absence of independence of SSB in performing their functions contradicts with the agency, stakeholder and legitimacy theory, which is inconsistent with global evidence, that demands further investigations.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

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Article
Publication date: 9 July 2020

M. Kabir Hassan, Sirajo Aliyu, Buerhan Saiti and Zairihan Abdul Halim

This paper reviews economic and finance research on Islamic investments. In the course of our review, we focus on the following issues: the performance of Islamic stock…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper reviews economic and finance research on Islamic investments. In the course of our review, we focus on the following issues: the performance of Islamic stock indexes, Islamic finance–growth nexus and Islamic real-estate investment trust market.

Design/methodology/approach

This literature survey consists of two stages such as random and systematic. It begins with a random search of articles with the intention to explore the three different areas of Islamic banking and finance. In order to maintain some level of quality of the literature review, we explored inside citations of articles based on relevant and recent articles from SCOPUS and Web of Science.

Findings

This paper represents an attempt to organise current research on Islamic stock markets, Islamic finance-growth nexus and Islamic real-estate finance: (1) the first prevailing finding is that Islamic stock indices are less volatile than conventional stock indices; (2) most empirical studies regarding Islamic finance–growth nexus focus on the impacts of banking sectors on growth and neglect other segments of the Islamic financial market; (3) based on our review of existing studies, there is no unanimous model for Islamic home financing in Islamic banks.

Practical implications

The mixed findings in this area hinder the understanding of Islamic investment and prevent identifying trends that support decision-making. Our review provides suggestions for prospective research directions. Most empirical studies regarding Islamic finance–growth nexus focus on the impacts of banking sectors on growth and neglect other segments of the Islamic financial market.

Originality/value

There is no literature review on Islamic finance-growth nexus and Islamic real-estate literature. Therefore, we are going to fill this gap to review these three different aspects of Islamic banking and finance.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 May 2019

Dalila Daud

Waqf has the quality of perpetuity so waqf properties cannot be sold, bought or given as a gift to others. Therefore, it is necessary to make sure that the property is…

Abstract

Purpose

Waqf has the quality of perpetuity so waqf properties cannot be sold, bought or given as a gift to others. Therefore, it is necessary to make sure that the property is fully used and properly managed by the Malaysian Islamic councils. To properly manage these properties, it is essential for the councils to have a proper reporting. Unfortunatley, this is not the case in the present situation for waqf. It was found that there is a lack of reporting on waqf matters. The purpose of this paper is to explore how the Islamic governance can contribute to the sufficient and adequate of waqf reporting.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper described what is being practised at present for waqf reporting. A series of Islamic governance literature was proposed in reinforcing waqf reporting.

Findings

This paper fulfils a gap in prior research by discussing several systems in Islamic governance to achieve transparency in waqf reporting. The findings of this paper may provide a significant contribution to any organisation that act as a trustee for waqf.

Practical implications

This paper provides an opportunity for further theoretical approach in defining and describing the role of governance in the reinforcement of waqf reporting. The paper has recommended several strategies towards better governance in Islamic council, and these suggestions can be offered to the councils for improvement.

Social implications

This research will be of interest to policy makers, especially Government and State Government. Given the current debate in Malaysia on the most appropriate forms of regulation for the Islamic sector, this study aims to provide valuable insights into the role of Islamic governance in the system of regulation.

Originality/value

This paper examined several governance system in Islamic governance to be applied in any Islamic organisation. This paper specifically deals governance issue that should be practised by present councils to prevent lack in waqf reporting. This system discusses the ways Islamic councils should perform since the system was originally implemented by a previous, distinguished caliph, Umar Al-Khattab.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

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