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The purpose of this paper is to propose a model which structures and links different types of efficient consumer response (ECR) measures; it does so by considering the use…
The purpose of this paper is to propose a model which structures and links different types of efficient consumer response (ECR) measures; it does so by considering the use of both quantitative or “hard” and qualitative or “soft” measures in ECR, emphasizing the importance and causal role of “soft” measures throughout the ECR process.
This paper reviews the ECR and performance measurement literature and proposes a model that explains linkages from intra‐organizational, inter‐organizational and industry prerequisites through ECR activities to ECR outcomes; and highlights the role of performance, behavioural, attitude and capability measures. Two extant studies from Austria and Denmark are examined in the context of the model to exemplify some of its features.
Similarities regarding issues of inter‐organizational and intra‐organizational prerequisites were found, but the two studies also demonstrated variety in the use of measures in ECR research.
The proposed model is presented for primarily future investigation; thus there is no empirical study in this paper other than a comparison of the two extant studies to support some constructs and variables. However, the model represents a structure that can guide future research on more specific ECR elements.
The model makes a practical contribution by providing a structure from which measurement or scorecard systems can be established.
The model makes a theoretical contribution by providing an overall structure to link different areas of ECR research such as barriers for ECR implementation, and specific ECR concepts, activities, and their outcomes.
This paper aims to review some of the current challenges that international money laundering schemes are posing in the Chinese banking sector. Anti-money laundering (AML…
This paper aims to review some of the current challenges that international money laundering schemes are posing in the Chinese banking sector. Anti-money laundering (AML) systems in China are relatively new, and customer due diligence checks and other AML systems are underdeveloped in some areas.
The paper considers a particular case example of a multi-company organization that has known links to China. This company has been the target of both European and US investigations for suspected embezzlement and money laundering, and yet is still in operation.
The paper considers the complexities of this organization and how a seemly innocent link to a used clothing charity can fund an international organization spanning several countries. The paper offers a list of basic indicators of risk that could be applied to a risk-based system used within the Chinese banking context by using this group as an example.
The paper uses empirical and academic studies from other authors working in this region and supports many of the findings of the need to develop stronger risk-based, as opposed to rules-based, systems for managing AML risk assessment. Previous work by the author and suggestions from other authors are both used to suggest a basic framework for AML risk assessment. The paper concludes by reiterating the fact that China, like all other countries, is now operating in an international banking context, in much the same way that international organized crime is also operating at a global level.