Search results

1 – 10 of over 1000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Min Zhao, Wei Hao, Desen Yang, Shuiyuan Xiao, Lingjiang Li, Yalin Zhang, Weiwen Chen, Li Ping, Kai Deng and Xiaoxiong Deng

One hundred and seventy‐eight heroin addicts in reformatory school were sent to one of two rehabilitation treatments: reform through education and labour and therapeutic

Abstract

One hundred and seventy‐eight heroin addicts in reformatory school were sent to one of two rehabilitation treatments: reform through education and labour and therapeutic community (TC)‐based rehabilitation programme. After six months of being discharged, pre‐ and post‐treatment scores on the Addiction Severity Index were compared, and relapse related factors were investigated. Results indicated improvements in both treatments, with the TC‐based rehabilitation programme showing superior improvement overall. Results support the efficacy of the TC‐based rehabilitation programme proving it to be better than reform through labour and education. It is suggested that psychosocial intervention and relapse prevention should be emphasised in the treatment of drug dependence.

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Jaimie Chloe Northam and Lynne Magor-Blatch

The purpose of this paper is to explore the applicability of the Australasian Therapeutic Communities Association (ATCA) Standard to Australian youth-specific modified

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the applicability of the Australasian Therapeutic Communities Association (ATCA) Standard to Australian youth-specific modified therapeutic communities (MTCs). An Interpretive Guide for Youth MTCs and Residential Rehabilitation (RR) Services was developed and a pilot trial conducted with three Australian youth MTC services.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a mixed-methods design, this study included three components: a consultation process with residential youth MTCs (N=15), which informed the development of the ATCA Standard Interpretive Guide for Youth MTCs and RR Services; a pilot trial of the materials with three Australian youth MTCs (N=53); and an evaluation of the interpretive guide and assessment of applicability of the ATCA standard to youth MTCs through pre- (N=32) and post- (N=19) pilot trial administrations of the Survey of Essential Elements Questionnaires (SEEQ), and post-pilot trial focus groups (N=21).

Findings

Results indicate that the ATCA Standard is applicable to youth MTC settings when applied with the Interpretive Guide, although no significant differences were found between the pre- and post-pilot trial administrations of the SEEQ.

Practical implications

Future research is recommended to explore active mechanisms of youth-specific MTCs, differences between adults and youth MTCs, and the development of TC-specific training.

Originality/value

To date, no standard for youth residential substance use services in Australia has been developed, and this is the first study of its kind internationally to explore the efficacy of standards in a youth MTC.

Details

Therapeutic Communities: The International Journal of Therapeutic Communities, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-1866

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Iain McPhee and Denice Fenton

There is limited research documenting recovery experiences of residential service users. The purpose of this paper is to explore the perceptions service users on methadone…

Abstract

Purpose

There is limited research documenting recovery experiences of residential service users. The purpose of this paper is to explore the perceptions service users on methadone have about recovery. In depth, semi structured 1-1 interviews with seven poly drug using homeless males between the ages of 37 and 46 and analysed using NVivo software. Results are presented thematically. Participants conform to “recovery” norms allowing stigma and shame of illicit drug use to be attributed to former addict identities. Participants on methadone maintenance report inner conflict arising from changing societal and cultural norms that equate recovery with abstinence. Tensions were revealed in true motivations for active rather than passive participation in adopting group work norms.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative design utilises small numbers of participants to gather rich data. In depth, semi structured 1-1 interviews conducted with seven poly drug using homeless males who have completed between ten and 15 weeks of a minimum 26-week residential treatment programme. Participants were aged 37-46. Results were analysed thematically using NVivo software.

Findings

Participants conform to “recovery” norms allowing stigma and shame of illicit drug use to be attributed to a former stigmatised addict identity. Participants on methadone maintenance report inner conflict arising from changing societal and cultural norms regards recovery and abstinence. A significant process of recovery involved adopting the norms of 12-step groups and TC therapy to gain enough trust to leave the therapeutic community (TC) unsupervised. This created tension regards motivation, were these individuals in recovery, or merely “faking it”?

Research limitations/implications

A female perspective may have provided a more balanced discussion and yielded greater depth in results. Only one service was studied and the findings may be specific to that cohort. The duration of stay at the service of ten to 15 weeks is a relatively short time and excluded participants resident for six months or more. Longer term residents may have been more reflective and informative.

Practical implications

Encourage active options and increased debate on the variety of treatment options available to long term homeless opiate users who have failed to comply with previous treatments. While this is a small modest study, the rich data yields practical advice for policy makers and service providers.

Social implications

This research study adds to an informed perspective by encouraging debate on methadone as a challenge to definitions of recovery that infer abstinence as a key definition of success.

Originality/value

There is a paucity of research documenting a Scottish TC service user perspective using qualitative methods on experiences of addiction, treatment and recovery.

Details

Therapeutic Communities: The International Journal of Therapeutic Communities, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-1866

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Sixtus Dane Asuncion Ramos

The Philippines’ nationwide campaign on drugs has been under the limelight due to its controversial approaches in dealing with the problem of addiction. Despite the…

Abstract

Purpose

The Philippines’ nationwide campaign on drugs has been under the limelight due to its controversial approaches in dealing with the problem of addiction. Despite the government’s current efforts, substance use disorders continue to persist within the population. The purpose of this paper is to provide recommendations for addressing the issue of substance use disorder treatment through a modification of the therapeutic community (TC) in the Philippine context.

Design/methodology/approach

This conceptual paper reviews the existing facts about the Philippines’ campaign against drugs, the approaches implemented by the government, current state and research developments of TCs, and its resulting impact on contemporary evidence-based treatment for addiction in the country.

Findings

A treatment framework outlining a recovery-oriented therapeutic community (ROTC) is presented. The ROTC aims to address addiction as a chronic, relapsing disease. This alternative approach for addiction treatment in the Philippines is based on the concept of recovery, principles of effective substance use disorder treatment, and recent developments in TC best practices from the international community.

Originality/value

This paper discusses different recommendations for policy development, interventions and research, aimed at improving the odds of securing recovery for people suffering from addiction.

Details

Therapeutic Communities: The International Journal of Therapeutic Communities, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-1866

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Lynne Magor-Blatch, Navjot Bhullar, Bronwyn Thomson and Einar Thorsteinsson

The purpose of this paper is to systematically review quantitative research since 2000 on the effectiveness of residential therapeutic communities (TCs) for the treatment…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to systematically review quantitative research since 2000 on the effectiveness of residential therapeutic communities (TCs) for the treatment of substance-use disorders with reference to substance-use, crime, mental health and social engagement outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic search with broad inclusion criteria resulted in the review of 11 studies. The studies investigated community-based TCs, as well as TCs modified for prisoners, prisoners transitioning to community living and TCs for individuals with co-occurring substance-use and mental health issues.

Findings

Results were analysed by comparing the findings of the studies under investigation, of which three studies investigated within-subjects outcomes, four compared TC treatment with a no-treatment control condition and four compared TC treatment with another treatment condition. Conclusion: consistent with previous systematic reviews of TCs, outcomes varied across studies but indicated TCs are generally effective as a treatment intervention, with reductions in substance-use and criminal activity, and increased improvement in mental health and social engagement evident in a number of studies reviewed.

Research limitations/implications

Variability in outcomes suggests further TC research and research syntheses focusing on a second key research question in the evaluation of complex interventions – how the intervention works – could play an important role in understanding TC effectiveness, and for whom it is effective and in what contexts.

Practical implications

Although there is some variability in treatment populations included in this review, evidence reported in other studies suggests individuals with severe substance-use disorders, mental health issues, forensic involvement and trauma histories, will benefit from TC treatment. This is supported by the literature which has found a general relationship between severity of substance use and treatment intensity (Darke et al., 2012; De Leon et al., 2008) with outcomes further enhanced by self-selection into treatment and appropriate client-treatment matching (see De Leon, 2010; De Leon et al., 2000, 2008). The weight of evidence gleaned from multiple sources of research, including randomised control trials and field outcome studies (De Leon, 2010) suggests TCs are an important and effective treatment for clients in improving at least some aspects of their quality of life, specifically mental health and social engagement, and in reducing harmful behaviours, including substance-use and crime. Variability in treatment setting and populations reflect the real-world setting in which TC treatment is delivered, providing a multifaceted treatment modality to a complex population in variable circumstances.

Originality/value

The strength of the current study is that it provided a broad evaluation of TC effectiveness across a range of outcomes (substance-use, criminal activity, mental health and social engagement), and is therefore valuable in updating the current literature and providing context for future research in this area. It aimed to address a key question in evaluating complex interventions: whether they are effective as they are delivered. Findings suggest that TC treatment is generally effective for the populations of concern in reducing substance use and criminal activity and contributing to some improvement in mental health and social engagement outcomes.

Details

Therapeutic Communities: The International Journal of Therapeutic Communities, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-1866

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Jaimie Chloe Northam and Lynne Elizabeth Magor-Blatch

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the adolescent therapeutic community (ATC) literature – drawing on studies primarily from the USA with consideration…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the adolescent therapeutic community (ATC) literature – drawing on studies primarily from the USA with consideration made to the Australian context.

Design/methodology/approach

A review of the efficacy research for ATCs is considered, and the characteristics of Australians accessing ATC treatment are discussed in the context of developmental needs.

Findings

Similarities are found in what precipitates and perpetuates adolescent substance use in the USA and Australia, and therefore, what appears to facilitate effective treatment utilising the therapeutic community model.

Originality/value

The paper provides a valuable perspective for Australian services, and explores the application of the ATC model within the Australian treatment context.

Details

Therapeutic Communities: The International Journal of Therapeutic Communities, vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-1866

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Therapeutic Communities: The International Journal of Therapeutic Communities, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-1866

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Georgina Capone, Louise Braham, Thomas Schroder and Nima Moghaddam

The purpose of this paper is to explore staff and service users’ perceptions of therapeutic principles within a unique male high secure learning disability therapeutic

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore staff and service users’ perceptions of therapeutic principles within a unique male high secure learning disability therapeutic community (LDTC).

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative approach was adopted using deductive content analysis and inductive thematic analysis. In total, 12 participants took part in a semi-structured interview to explore their perceptions of Haigh’s (2013) quintessence principles and any further additional therapeutic features in the environment not captured by the theory.

Findings

All five quintessence principles were identified in the LDTC environment. Some limits to the principle of “agency” were highlighted, with specific reference to difficulties implementing a flattened hierarchy in a forensic setting. Additional therapeutic features were identified including; security and risk, responsivity, and more physical freedom which appear to aid implementation of the quintessence principles.

Research limitations/implications

The study was performed within a single case study design. Therefore, results remain specific to this LDTC. However, the finding of these principles in such a unique setting may indicate Haigh’s (2013) quintessence principles are evident in other TC environments.

Originality/value

This is the first research paper that has attempted to test whether Haigh’s (2013) quintessence principles are evident within a given therapeutic community. The research provides empirical evidence for the quintessence principles in a novel TC setting and suggests recommendations for future research.

Details

Therapeutic Communities: The International Journal of Therapeutic Communities, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-1866

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Therapeutic Communities: The International Journal of Therapeutic Communities, vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-1866

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Carolyn Stubley and Garth Popple

Developing therapeutic community (TC) programs in Australia for individuals on opioid substitution treatment (OST) has been a process spanning 16 years for the We Help…

Abstract

Purpose

Developing therapeutic community (TC) programs in Australia for individuals on opioid substitution treatment (OST) has been a process spanning 16 years for the We Help Ourselves (WHOS) organization. Supported reduction of OST and stabilization services for those remaining on OST are offered to this population and continue to break down barriers of discrimination in offering the same services to all drug using populations. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

A number of research projects have been undertaken with the WHOS Opioid Treatment Program (OTP) TC services profiling clients accessing the services; looking at health benefits whilst in the programs; looking at retention and completion rates and conducting an evaluation post-treatment for one of the two programs currently being offered.

Findings

The excerpts from the research findings are presented identifying the complexity of individuals accessing WHOS services; highlighting the benefits for individuals on OST and assessing the effectiveness of the TC model for the client groups.

Originality/value

Working with multiple complex needs clients on OST in a residential TC environment offers many challenges and opportunity to work with an array of issues that present before during and after the residential stay. Provision of a history and overview of the WHOS OTP TC services and recent enhancements to these programs highlight a continuum of care for the individual on OST.

Details

Therapeutic Communities: The International Journal of Therapeutic Communities, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-1866

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 1000