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Book part
Publication date: 12 August 2017

Amy Kroska, James Daniel Lee and Nicole T. Carr

We test the proposition that criminal sentiments, which we define as a negative and potent view of a juvenile delinquent (JD), moderate the effect of a delinquency…

Abstract

Purpose

We test the proposition that criminal sentiments, which we define as a negative and potent view of a juvenile delinquent (JD), moderate the effect of a delinquency adjudication on self-sentiments. We expect criminal sentiments to reduce self-evaluation and increase self-potency among juvenile delinquents but have no effect on self-sentiments among non-delinquents. We also examine the construct validity of our measure of criminal sentiments by assessing its relationship to beliefs that most people devalue, discriminate against, and fear JDs.

Methodology

We test these hypotheses with self-administered survey data from two samples of college students and one sample of youths in an aftercare program for delinquent youths. We use endogenous treatment-regression models to identify and reduce the effects of endogeneity between delinquency status and self-sentiments.

Findings

Our construct validity assessment shows, as expected, that criminal sentiments are positively related to beliefs that most people devalue, discriminate against, and fear JDs. Our focal analyses support our self-evaluation predictions but not our self-potency predictions.

Practical implications

Our findings suggest that the negative effect of a delinquency label on JDs’ self-esteem depends on the youths’ view of the delinquency label.

Originality/value

This study is the first to test a modified labeling theory proposition on juvenile delinquents.

Article
Publication date: 28 October 2019

Dilusha Madushanka Liyanage and Arosha Adikaram

The purpose of this paper is to understand how gay employees, as labeled deviants, cope with heterosexist harassment at work in an Asian culture of hegemonic heterosexual…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand how gay employees, as labeled deviants, cope with heterosexist harassment at work in an Asian culture of hegemonic heterosexual masculinity, using the modified labeling theory.

Design/methodology/approach

Using qualitative research approach, in-depth interviews were carried out with 16 self-identified gay employees.

Findings

Results revealed how the coping strategies of gay employees, in the face of harassment, are entwined with the labeling and stigma leading to diverse and complex coping strategies. Several broader coping strategies were thus identified based on whether the participants accepted the label of deviance and stigma and whether they were open about their sexuality. These broader coping strategies are support seeking, confrontation, inaction, quitting and, stigma and labeling avoidance strategies. Under these broader strategies, there were also sub strategies such as seeking social support, organizational support, legal support the support of the wise, as well as secrecy and social withdrawal.

Originality/value

These findings will advance the knowledge in coping strategies of heterosexist harassments at work as well as knowledge in harassment of gay employees, in hegemonic heterosexual cultures.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 34 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 August 2009

David Coote

One of the aims of this review will be to draw upon Wright and colleagues' (2000) claim that the ‘labelling’ field needs theoretical development. By comparing and…

Abstract

One of the aims of this review will be to draw upon Wright and colleagues' (2000) claim that the ‘labelling’ field needs theoretical development. By comparing and contrasting the two main approaches to understanding diagnostic practices, Modified Labelling Theory (MLT; Scheff, 1999; Wright et al, 2000) and the medical model (Wolff, 1991); we can further hypothesise on the social function of diagnostic practices. The three main areas of conceptual overlap between MLT and the medical model are as follows.1) Psychological processes play a key role.2) Diagnosed individuals are interpersonally (or culturally) diverse and tend to challenge implicit (‘unspoken’) social norms.3) This diversity may increasingly result in the labelled being socially excluded, under the guise of being ‘violent’, ‘odd’ or ‘deviant’.Karpman's (1968) drama cycle offers a social cognitive model that explains the co‐dependant social function of the violent persecutor role. When the roles become unjustifiably (ie. Large et al, 2008; Fazel et al, 2009) pervasive and stymied (as in the case of labelled individuals), labelling becomes understood as functioning as analogous to a caste system. This innovative hypothesis could generate both research impetus, as well as implications for clinical practice.

Details

Ethnicity and Inequalities in Health and Social Care, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0980

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 August 2021

Tara Walker

This study aims to examine how experience with mental illness influences perceptions of stigma and realism in a specific direct-to-consumer advertisement (DTCA) for…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine how experience with mental illness influences perceptions of stigma and realism in a specific direct-to-consumer advertisement (DTCA) for bipolar depression.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey had participants watch a 90 s advertisement for a prescription bipolar depression drug and then answer 24 questions about stigma, mental illness experience and the realism of the portrayals in the advertisement.

Findings

Findings show that people who identify as having experience with mental illness tend to see the ad as more stigmatizing and less realistic. Additionally, people who expressed more stigmatizing beliefs also tended to see more stigma present in the ad. Finally, the study reconfirms conclusions of previous research that people who have experience with mental health conditions possess fewer stigmatizing beliefs overall regarding mental illness.

Research limitations/implications

The sample population, while diverse in age and somewhat diverse in location, were highly educated, suggesting that they were not representative of the general population. Future studies may want to use more representative samples. A more nuanced approach to understanding experience is needed. While the sample in this study was purposively derived from communities with a higher rate of mental illness, a comprehensive experience scale to measure degrees of experience with mental illness would enhance understanding of this construct. Researchers may also want to look more deeply into the emotional responses of consumers who view these ads. To develop a greater understanding of the trajectory of DTCA, studies of online advertising for psychiatric drugs are needed.

Practical implications

The results of the study suggest that respondents with experience with mental illness may find ads that sell psychiatric medications unrealistic. This study presents the topic of realism in DTCA as an important construct for determining how consumers may perceive portrayals of disorders.

Social implications

The fact that people who have experience with mental illness found the Latuda ad to be generally unrealistic suggests that DTCA may be failing to represent mental illness in a way that demonstrates care for patients. Additionally, this research confirms that people who have had exposure to and experience with mental illness tend to hold less stigmatizing beliefs, (Link and Cullen, 1986; Corrigan et al., 2001; Angermeyer et al., 2004) a finding which supports the continuing project of increasing mental health literacy and awareness in the general population.

Originality/value

This study investigates the reactions of people who identify as having some experience with mental illness to see if they accept the portrayals of mental illness in DTCA or resist them by challenging their realism or identifying stigmatizing elements.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 July 2021

Irina Kuznetsova, Layla Garapshina and Laysan Mukharyamova

This paper aims to fill the gap in social sciences research on parents’ strategies in navigating preschool education in Russia. It focusses on the barriers that children…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to fill the gap in social sciences research on parents’ strategies in navigating preschool education in Russia. It focusses on the barriers that children with developmental disabilities and autism face in preschool education in Russia and highlights the emerging facilitators of inclusive education.

Design/methodology/approach

It uses a modified labelling approach analysing strategies of withdrawal and resistance. The research included semi-structured interviews with parents of children with Down syndrome, Rett syndrome and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in 2013–2014 and 2018–2019 and semi-structured interviews with professionals in Tatarstan, Russia. The data analysis was based on constructivist methods and grounded theory.

Findings

Although Russian law guarantees equal access to education for every child and requires the development of inclusive education, children with developmental disabilities, including autism, are often stigmatised at the preschool stage, both in special needs and mainstream institutions. Parents use various strategies to navigate access to preschool education and try more than one strategy from secrecy and withdrawal to resistance. Parents challenged the mainstream educational structures in Kazan and established groups for children with autism in some mainstream kindergartens and classes in mainstream schools.

Research limitations/implications

There should be informational support for parents with different options for special needs education, providing integrative and inclusive education. It is necessary to increase the number of trained specialists in special needs and mainstream kindergartens in Russia for children with developmental disabilities and ASD. More study is required to overcome stigmatisation and increase tolerance towards persons with developmental disabilities in Russia both on a national and local level.

Practical implications

The research findings can be useful for countries which have recently recognised ASD and do not have inclusive preschool educational practices and where labelling towards children with developmental disabilities is still common. The study recommends that resources are required to provide free or affordable preschool education for children with developmental disabilities. It is also crucial to help parents navigate preschool education and select the best options for each child’s needs.

Social implications

This study’s findings add value to the importance of addressing the stigma towards people with disabilities within professional groups and broader society, which form barriers for preschool education and in some cases result in withdrawal from preschool education. To overcome the stigmatisation of children with developmental disabilities in preschool education, it is necessary to establish modern targeted pedagogical approaches and training for professionals and informational campaigns for the broader audience.

Originality/value

The paper is novel as there was no sociological research into preschool education of children with developmental disabilities in Russia. It argues that the parents’ experiences are much broader than just interactions with special needs or mainstream education. Parents navigate across special needs institutions, specialised groups in mainstream and private kindergartens, mixed groups in mainstream kindergartens and home education with various strategies from secrecy and withdrawal to resistance and challenge. Preschool education for children with developmental disabilities in Russia is hindered by a lack of professional resources and the stigma embedded into professional and societal responses.

Details

Journal of Children's Services, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 12 August 2017

Abstract

Details

Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-192-8

Book part
Publication date: 4 July 2016

Kristen Marcussen and Christian Ritter

This chapter examines the effects of mental health services and stigma on changes in self-concept and well-being for individuals with SPMI.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter examines the effects of mental health services and stigma on changes in self-concept and well-being for individuals with SPMI.

Methodology/approach

Data for this chapter come from structured interviews and service data for 140 individuals with severe and persistent mental illnesses. We use structural equation modeling to examine the relationship between perceived and internalized stigma, as well as the relationships among stigma, self-concept (self-esteem and mastery), and well-being (quality of life and functioning).

Findings

We find that case management is negatively related to quality of life and psychiatric services are positively related to functioning. Crisis services and assessment are associated with mastery in opposite directions. Internalized stigma is positively associated with self-esteem and mastery, and negatively associated with functioning. We do not find a relationship between services and stigma.

Research limitations/implications

A limitation to this chapter is the sample size, which prohibits us from examining a full range of services and outcomes. Nonetheless, our findings provide information about how services and stigma impact well-being, and may be used as a starting point for considering strategies for improving services and reducing stigma. Future work should consider pairing outcomes with services to determine their effectiveness.

Originality/value

This chapter builds on previous research that examines the relative effects of services and stigma among individuals in community health care by extending measures of both services and stigma, and by examining the relationship between them, in order to better determine their implications for self-concept and well-being.

Details

50 Years After Deinstitutionalization: Mental Illness in Contemporary Communities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-403-4

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 March 2013

Christian Issmer, Jost Stellmacher and Mario Gollwitzer

This paper aims to examine the impact of perceived negativity against the ingroup on delinquency in disadvantaged social groups. It is based on assumptions from labeling

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the impact of perceived negativity against the ingroup on delinquency in disadvantaged social groups. It is based on assumptions from labeling theory and social identity theory.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors hypothesized that negative metastereotypes towards the outgroup “majority society” (i.e. the perception of the outgroup holding negative stereotypes against the ingroup) would enhance delinquent behavior. Based on recent findings from research on self‐esteem and aggression, the authors further hypothesized that self‐esteem would moderate this effect, namely that delinquency‐enhancement would be strongest for individuals high in self‐esteem. The hypotheses were tested in a sample of incarcerated adolescents (n=225) and a sample of educationally disadvantaged adolescents (n=92), respectively.

Findings

Negative metastereotypes towards the “majority society” are positively related to delinquent behavior. This effect is particularly strong when disadvantaged individuals' positive self‐regard is high.

Research limitations/implications

This research gives important, new insights on the basis of cross‐sectional, correlative data. Future research should aim to corroborate the findings by use of experimental or longitudinal designs.

Originality/value

The paper shows that the perception of negative stereotypes against one's disadvantaged ingroup in society is a risk factor for delinquent behavior. It furthermore highlights how personality differences in self‐esteem influence this relationship. The research builds a bridge between criminological labeling theory and social‐psychological social identity theory.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 June 2014

Trevor G. Gates and Pamela A. Viggiani

Stigmatization of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people at work is an enduring social problem, yet little is known about how those experiences differ. The purpose of…

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Abstract

Purpose

Stigmatization of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people at work is an enduring social problem, yet little is known about how those experiences differ. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the above issue.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a framework of modified labeling, this conceptual paper addresses that gap by reviewing the literature on differences in LGB worker stigmatization by type of sexual orientation identity, outness, sex and gender identity, and education and social class.

Findings

Findings in the literature were that LGB workers are labeled as outsiders, and treated differently in many workplaces. However, there are other distinctions, based upon type of sexual orientation identity (i.e. whether someone is lesbian, gay, or bisexual), sex and gender identity, outness at work, and education and social classes.

Originality/value

Moreover, the paper proposes additional aspects of LGB worker stigmatization needing further empirical study.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 34 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 July 2016

Sarah K. Harkness, Amy Kroska and Bernice A. Pescosolido

We argue that self-stigma places patients on a path of marginalization throughout their life course leading to a negative cycle of opportunity and advancement. Mental…

Abstract

Purpose

We argue that self-stigma places patients on a path of marginalization throughout their life course leading to a negative cycle of opportunity and advancement. Mental health patients with higher levels of self-stigma tend to have much lower self-esteem, efficacy, and personal agency; therefore, they will be more inclined to adopt role-identities at the periphery of major social institutions, like those of work, family, and academia. Similarly, the emotions felt when enacting such roles may be similarly dampened.

Methodology/approach

Utilizing principles from affect control theory (ACT) and the affect control theory of selves (ACTS), we generate predictions related to self-stigmatized patients’ role-identity adoption and emotions. We use the Indianapolis Mental Health Study and Interact, a computerized version of ACT and ACTS, to generate empirically based simulation results for patients with an affective disorder (e.g., major depression and bipolar disorder) with comparably high or low levels of self-stigmatization.

Findings

Self-stigma among affective patients reduces the tendency to adopt major life course identities. Self-stigma also affects patients’ emotional expression by compelling patients to seek out interactions that make them feel anxious or affectively neutral.

Originality/value

This piece has implications for the self-stigma and stigma literatures. It is also one of the first pieces to utilize ACTS, thereby offering a new framework for understanding the self-stigma process. We offer new hypotheses for future research to test with non-simulation-based data and suggest some policy implications.

Details

50 Years After Deinstitutionalization: Mental Illness in Contemporary Communities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-403-4

Keywords

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