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The purpose of this paper is to examine the growth and characterization of the two different compound semiconductors, namely, n-zinc oxide (ZnO) and p-gallium antimonide…
The purpose of this paper is to examine the growth and characterization of the two different compound semiconductors, namely, n-zinc oxide (ZnO) and p-gallium antimonide (GaSb). In this paper, fabrication and characterization of n-ZnO/p-GaSb heterojunction diode is analyzed.
Thermo vertical direction solidification (TVDS) method was used to synthesize undoped GaSb ingot from high purity Ga (5N) and Sb (4N) host materials. Thermal evaporation technique is used to prepare a film of GaSb on glass substrate from the pre-synthesized bulk material by TVDS method. Undoped ZnO film was grown on GaSb film by sol–gel method by using chemical wet and dry (CWD) technique to fabricate n-ZnO/p-GaSb heterojunction diode.
The formation of crystalline structure and surface morphological analysis of both the GaSb bulk and film have been carried out by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscopy analysis. From the XRD studies, the structural characterization and phase identification of ZnO/GaSb interface. The current–voltage characteristic of the n-ZnO/p-GaSb heterostructure is found to be rectifying in nature.
GaSb film growth on any substrate by thermal evaporation method taking a small piece of the sample from the pre-synthesized GaSb bulk ingot has not been reported yet. Semiconductor device with heterojunction diode by using two different semiconductors such as ZnO/GaSb was used by this group for the first time.
Thirty thousand people, using more than 450 active terminals, perform hundreds of thousands of searches daily on the Colorado Alliance of Research Libraries (CARL) Public…
Thirty thousand people, using more than 450 active terminals, perform hundreds of thousands of searches daily on the Colorado Alliance of Research Libraries (CARL) Public Access Catalog (PAC). The Denver Public Library, the University of Colorado at Boulder, the University of Denver, the University of Northern Colorado, the Colorado School of Mines, and the Auraria Library are the six libraries of CARL; about 2.6 million bibliographic records are contained in the members' databases. An additional 200,000 MARC‐based bibliographic records representing local, regional, state, and federal documents are in a database shared by two or more members.
NOW, WITH THE AID of the European Community, the Equal Pay Commission and who knows who else, an Industrial Tribunal has smashed poor old Euclid right over his head. They have proved to their own satisfaction (if to nobody else's) that things which are unequal to any other thing are quite definitely equal to each other.
This research aims to contrast bid competitiveness with respect to the average bid auction (ABA) and the non-ABA bidding formats used by the Public Works Department (PWD…
This research aims to contrast bid competitiveness with respect to the average bid auction (ABA) and the non-ABA bidding formats used by the Public Works Department (PWD) of Malaysia.
The research uses the ordinary least square regression and the Monte–Carlo simulation to point out significant predictors which affect the bid ratio and fitting probability distributions to bidding data, respectively.
This research shows that the bidding strategy adopted is dependent on the different formats used. In the ABA format, bidders are more likely to submit identical bid prices. In the non-ABA format, they bid according to the first-price auction strategy, which suggests greater variation between bid prices as a winning strategy and the reduction in the bid price to an estimated price ratio when more bidders bid.
Bidders lose more money when the distance between the project location and a firm’s operational office is greater. Best-fit probability density functions follow a gamma distribution for the ABA format and a Weibull distribution for the non-ABA format. The location and number of bidders affect bidders’ strategy to win.
This research presents empirical insights concerning the comparisons of different type of bidding formats practiced by PWD of Malaysia and its implications on the construction companies’ bidding behaviors especially when it comes to its economic consequences. The significant factors that affect the different auction mechanisms used can serve as a basis for improving the present methods employed by PWD and in other countries.
ACCORDING to a survey recently published salaries paid to administrative, professional and executive staff have lagged behind national wage increases when compared on a percentage basis. The actual figures, up to the end of January this year, show an increase of 13.1% against a national wage increase of 16.4%. So, concludes the report, “it is clear that traditional staff differentials are facing further erosion.” At the same time the opinion is expressed that once the current wage demands have been settled with the unions concerned, salaries for these higher grades will be rising at a rate of between 13% and 16%, probably by late summer.
IN a letter to a national newspaper recently, a Mr. Geoffrey Davies of Cardiff (where we would have thought the miseries of unemployment would have been manifest) suggested that in a Utopian society all work would be performed by machines so that there would a workless total of 100 per cent. So, he argued, “instead of bewailing the fact that 2.5 million are now unemployed and supported by the State, should we not be glorying in this figure and look forward to the day when it is 20 million?”
THE wealth of any country is made up from the sum of the goods and services it produces. But as far as Britain is concerned, successive governments seem to have done their best to stifle this. They have, in fact, drained away the whole—or the greater part—of the manufacturing potential. Profit today is much more likely in the speculative field. By legislation manufacturing has become so restricted that it is almost impossible to start a new business or to continue profitably to run an existing one. To do so is fraught with danger. The chance of success is far too small to attract neither capital nor workers.
In this chapter we discuss the essential components of special education for ELLs with learning disabilities. We focus on the importance of culturally responsive teachers…
In this chapter we discuss the essential components of special education for ELLs with learning disabilities. We focus on the importance of culturally responsive teachers implementing culturally and linguistically relevant instruction in all settings. Within this framework we emphasize the need for ELLs with LD to have a supportive classroom environment and essential English language instruction. The general education classroom can be a supportive environment for ELLs with LD by utilizing sheltered instruction techniques, specific accommodations and modifications, and reading comprehension instruction. We also consider how to support ELLs within the framework for common core curriculum standards, and finally we highlight some intensive interventions for ELLs with LD.