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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2005

Susan Parker, Gary F. Peters and Howard F. Turetsky

When making going concern assessments, Statement on Auditing Standards No. 59 (Auditing Standards Board 1988) directs auditors to consider the nature of management's plans…

Abstract

When making going concern assessments, Statement on Auditing Standards No. 59 (Auditing Standards Board 1988) directs auditors to consider the nature of management's plans and ability to mitigate periods of financial distress successfully. Corporate governance factors reflect attributes of control, oversight, and/or support of management's plans and actions intended to overcome financial distress. Correspondingly, this study investigates the impact of certain corporate governance factors on the likelihood of a going concern modification. Using survival analysis techniques, we examine a sample of 161 financially distressed firms for the time period 1988–1996. We find that auditors are twice as likely to issue a going concern modification when the CEO is replaced. We also find that going concern modifications are inversely associated with blockholder ownership. We also confirm Carcello and Neal's (2000) findings with respect to the association between an independent audit committee and an increased likelihood of modification. In a repeated events setting, we find that insider ownership and board independence are inversely associated with repeated going concern modifications. Our study concludes by proposing implications for the current financial reporting environment (including the Sarbanes‐Oxley Act of 2002) and future research avenues.

Details

Review of Accounting and Finance, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1475-7702

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 29 July 2019

Ren Yang, Qi Song and Pu Chen

The purpose of this paper is to establish and implement a direct topological reanalysis algorithm for general successive structural modifications, based on the updating…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to establish and implement a direct topological reanalysis algorithm for general successive structural modifications, based on the updating matrix triangular factorization (UMTF) method for non-topological modification proposed by Song et al. [Computers and Structures, 143(2014):60-72].

Design/methodology/approach

In this method, topological modifications are viewed as a union of symbolic and numerical change of structural matrices. The numerical part is dealt with UMTF by directly updating the matrix triangular factors. For symbolic change, an integral structure which consists of all potential nodes/elements is introduced to avoid side effects on the efficiency during successive modifications. Necessary pre- and post processing are also developed for memory-economic matrix manipulation.

Findings

The new reanalysis algorithm is applicable to successive general structural modifications for arbitrary modification amplitudes and locations. It explicitly updates the factor matrices of the modified structure and thus guarantees the accuracy as full direct analysis while greatly enhancing the efficiency.

Practical implications

Examples including evolutionary structural optimization and sequential construction analysis show the capability and efficiency of the algorithm.

Originality/value

This innovative paper makes direct topological reanalysis be applicable for successive structural modifications in many different areas.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 36 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Yanzhong Wang, Yang Liu, Wen Tang and Peng Liu

The finite element method has been increasingly applied in stress, thermal and dynamic analysis of gear transmissions. Preparing the models with different design and…

Abstract

Purpose

The finite element method has been increasingly applied in stress, thermal and dynamic analysis of gear transmissions. Preparing the models with different design and modification parameters for the finite element analysis is a time-consuming and highly skilled burden.

Design/methodology/approach

To simplify the preprocessing work of the analysis, a parametric finite element modeling method for spur and helical gears including profile and lead modification is developed. The information about the nodes and elements is obtained and exported into the finite element software to generate the finite element model of the gear automatically.

Findings

By using the three-dimensional finite element tooth contact analysis method, the effects of tooth modifications on the transmission error and contact stress of spur and helical gears are presented.

Originality/value

The results demonstrate that the proposed method is useful for verifying the modification parameters of spur and helical gears in the case of deformations and misalignments.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 34 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 10 January 2020

Chensen Ding

This paper aims to provide designers/engineers, in engineering structural design and analysis, approaches to freely and accurately modify structures (geometric and/or…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide designers/engineers, in engineering structural design and analysis, approaches to freely and accurately modify structures (geometric and/or material), and then quickly provide real-time capability to obtain the numerical solutions of the modified structures (designs).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors propose an isogeometric independent coefficients (IGA-IC) method for a fast reanalysis of structures with geometric and material modifications. Firstly, the authors seamlessly integrate computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided engineering (CAE) by capitalizing upon isogeometric analysis (IGA). Hence, the authors can easily modify the structural geometry only by changing the control point positions without tedious transformations between CAE and CAD models; and modify material characters simply based on knots vectors. Besides, more accurate solutions can be obtained because of the high order degree of the spline functions that are used as interpolation functions. Secondly, the authors advance the proposed independent coefficients method within IGA for fast numerical simulation of the modified designs, thereby significantly reducing the enormous time spent in repeatedly numerical evaluations.

Findings

This proposed scheme is efficient and accurate for modifying the structural geometry by simply changing the control point positions, and material characters by knots vectors. The enormous time spent in repeated full numerical simulations for reanalysis is significantly reduced. Hence, enabling quickly modifying structural geometry and material, and analyzing the modified model for practicality in design stages.

Originality/value

The authors herein advance and propose the IGA-IC scheme. Where, it provides designers to fasten and simple designs and modify structures (both geometric and material). It then can quickly in real-time obtain numerical solutions of the modified structures. It is a powerful tool in practical engineering design and analysis process for local modification. While this method is an approximation method designed for local modifications, it generally cannot provide an exact numerical solution and its effectiveness for large modification deserves further study.

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1954

E.G. Broadbent

WE concluded Part II of this series with the remark that a different outlook is needed for problems of control surface flutter than for those of wing flutter. There are…

Abstract

WE concluded Part II of this series with the remark that a different outlook is needed for problems of control surface flutter than for those of wing flutter. There are two reasons for this. Wing flutter must be investigated carefully early on in the design of an aircraft so as to provide a safe aircraft without a severe weight penalty, whereas the weight penalty of avoiding control surface flutter is usually small, although not negligible, and modifications can often be made at short notice, so it is important to make a full investigation as late as possible before flight when all the data are available in a reliable form. The second reason is that with wing flutter, as with aileron reversal and divergence, it is usual to think of safety margins in terms of forward speed or possibly wing torsional stiffness; with control surface flutter, on the other hand, quite different types of safety factor become the rule.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1956

T. Nonweiler

IS there anything magic about the shape of a wing section? Asked to sketch the profile of a wing on the back of an envelope, one would have no difficulty in representing a…

Abstract

IS there anything magic about the shape of a wing section? Asked to sketch the profile of a wing on the back of an envelope, one would have no difficulty in representing a shape which would probably, for most purposes, be adequate. Assuming this generalization to be true—perhaps it is a rather rash one—one might equally well question the need for an article on aerofoil design, or indeed the need for the long and painstaking research which, over the years, has been conducted on this particular subject. But it is this same research which, in the long run, has resulted in the recognition of certain general rules relating to aerofoil geometry, which are now taken so much for granted that they would probably be embodied in one's preconceived notion of what a wing section should look like. Recently, also, rather complicated theoretical techniques have made possible the design of profiles which, if manufactured faithfully and carefully in each detail, can provide a performance which is considerably better than any more arbitrary shaping to general rules would produce. Finally, of course, one must recognize that there are exceptional conditions where the application of conventional ideas is inadvisable, and where theoretical and experimental research is needed to suggest what is more appropriate. This article will be concerned for the most part with amplifying these remarks; but, by and large, it must be admitted at the outset that we cannot point to any revolutionary discontinuities in the progress of aerofoil design such as have characterized advances in the means of aircraft propulsion, or structural design.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 28 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1981

Derek L. Bosworth and Peter J. Dawkins

The post‐war period has been characterised by a persistent and substantial expansion in the employment of women. At the same time, women have become increasingly protected…

Abstract

The post‐war period has been characterised by a persistent and substantial expansion in the employment of women. At the same time, women have become increasingly protected in employment by a legislative framework that includes the Equal Pay Act (1970), the Social Security and Pensions Act (1975) and the Sex Discrimination Act (1975). Nevertheless, a number of vestiges of discrimination under the law still remain, such as the special treatment of women with regard to the length and timing of their paid employment. Despite the attempts to remove discrimination by legislation, there remains a considerable groundswell of opinion that there are still substantial differences in the treatment of women vis‐a‐vis men in employment. One continuing concern is the tendency of the organisation of tasks to polarise into men‐only and women‐only jobs. As a result, it has been argued that the situation approximates to a dual labour market, with women being funnelled into the secondary labour market. Complex, interacting forces are at play that make the estimation of statistical models of the existing distribution of employment by sex (from which evidence of sex discrimination might be sought) extremely difficult. A potentially more rewarding approach is to examine those jobs that employers believe to be of the men‐only or women‐only types. Questions of this type were included in a recent survey of employers across all sectors of employment in British industry. While the formulation of such questions and the interpretation of the results are associated with important problems, nevertheless, the survey provides a useful impression of the size and nature of the barriers faced by women in their search for employment opportunities and the manner in which these barriers may be broken down.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2020

Gülin Feryal Can and Muzaffer Bertan Kıran

The purpose of this paper is to develop an approach to compare occupational health and safety (OHS) performances of countries. Additionally, another aim is to debate the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop an approach to compare occupational health and safety (OHS) performances of countries. Additionally, another aim is to debate the impacts of using recorded data and ratios for OHS performance evaluations.

Design/methodology/approach

The number of fatal accidents (NFAs), fatal accident rates (FARs), numbers of lost days (NLDs) and accident severity rates (ASRs) are determined as main criteria and six economic activity areas (EAAs) are considered as sub-criteria. Two different initial decision matrices are used as the initial decision matrix, the first of which consists of recorded data of countries related to NFAs and NLDs, and the second consists of FAR and ASR values as ratios. Importance weights of main and sub-criteria regarding the recorded data and ratios are determined using four different weighting ways. Countries are ranked via utilizing Multi-Attributive Ideal-Real Comparative Analysis considering two different initial decision matrices.

Findings

It can be stated that an evaluation based on ratios for comparison of OHS performance provides more realistic results. Additionally, increasing the effect of the FAR values using the 6,000 equivalent lost days factor is also important in terms of differentiating the data of the countries in question.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, there is no study in literature that discusses the ranking of countries by means of recorded data and ratios considering different criteria. Additionally, this study is a first in terms of the number of countries evaluated and the comparison of these countries according to their respective EAAs.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

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Article
Publication date: 13 January 2020

Ş. Hakan Atapek, Spiros Pantelakis, Şeyda Polat, Apostolos Chamos and Gülşah Aktaş Çelik

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the fatigue behavior of precipitation-strengthened Cu‒2.55Ni‒0.55Si alloy, modified by the addition of 0.25 Cr and 0.25 Zr…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the fatigue behavior of precipitation-strengthened Cu‒2.55Ni‒0.55Si alloy, modified by the addition of 0.25 Cr and 0.25 Zr (wt%), using mechanical and fractographical studies to reveal the effect of microstructural features on the fracture.

Design/methodology/approach

For strengthening, cast and hot forged alloy was subjected to solution annealing at 900°C for 60 min, followed by quenching in water and then aging at 490°C for 180 min. Precipitation-hardened alloy was exposed to fatigue tests at R=−1 and different stress levels. All fracture surfaces were examined within the frame of fractographical analysis.

Findings

Fine Ni-rich silicides responsible for the precipitation strengthening were observed within the matrix and their interactions with the dislocations at lower stress level resulted in localized shearing and fine striations. Although, by the addition of Cr and Zr, the matrix consisted of hard Ni, Zr-rich and Cr-rich silicides, these precipitates adversely affected the fatigue behavior acting as nucleation sites for cracks.

Originality/value

These findings contribute to the present knowledge by revealing the effect of microstructural features on the mechanical behavior of precipitation-hardened Cu‒Ni‒Si alloy modified by Cr and Zr addition.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 11 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Tugba Inan Gunaydin

This paper presents the numerical examination of wind pressure distributions on U-plan shaped buildings having four different depth ratios (DR) as 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 over…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper presents the numerical examination of wind pressure distributions on U-plan shaped buildings having four different depth ratios (DR) as 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 over wind incidence angle (WIA) of 0°. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of irregular building form, DRs, distances from the reentrant corner, wind velocity values on and around wind pressure distributions of the buildings. With this aim, ANSYS Fluent 20.0 Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) program is used for the analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

Four U-shaped buildings having the same height, width and wing length but having different DR in plan were analyzed by the application of CFD package of ANSYS 20. With this purpose, wind pressure distributions on and around U-plan shaped buildings were analyzed for the wind velocity values of 2 and 5 m/s over WIA of 0°. Comprehensive results were obtained from the analyses.

Findings

While the change in the DR values did not create a significant change in positive pressure coefficients on A and E surfaces, negative pressure values increased as the DR decreased. The negative pressure coefficients observed on the A and E surfaces become higher than the positive pressure coefficients with the decrease in the DR. On contrary to that condition, with the decrease in the DR, G surfaces take higher positive pressure coefficients than the negative pressure coefficients. The reason for this is that the DR decreases and negative pressure values on G surface significantly decrease. The effect of the DR on the pressure coefficients is remarkable on B and D surfaces. The negative pressure coefficients on the B and D surfaces tend to increase as the DR decreases.

Research limitations/implications

This study focused on DRs and wind velocity values effect on pressure coefficients to limit variables. Different building wing dimensions did not take into account.

Originality/value

Although there are a number of studies related to wind behavior of irregular plan shaped buildings, irregular building forms have not been extensively investigated parametrically, especially in terms of the effect of DR on wind pressures. This study is therefore designed to fill this gap by analyzing impacts of various parameters like building shape with various DRs, WIA and wind velocity values on wind pressure distributions and velocity distributions on and around the building.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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