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Article

Thomas Reardon and Bart Minten

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the patterns and dynamics of the diffusion of modern food retail in India.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the patterns and dynamics of the diffusion of modern food retail in India.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on detailed sales data from retail chains in India, short case studies of retail chains, and review of literature.

Findings

The article presents three surprises concerning modern food retail diffusion in India. First, modern retail has developed in three “waves”, with the first wave, government retail chains, starting in the 1960s/1970s, cooperative retail chains starting in the 1970s/1980s, and private retail chains in the 1990s/2000s. All three were substantial, and internationally uniquely, all three coexist in the 2000s as segments of modern retail. Second, the rise of modern private retail in India in the past six years has been among the fastest in the world, growing at 49 percent a year on average over that period, and bouncing back to growth after a dip from the recent recession. The great majority of modern private retail has arisen in 2007‐2010. Third, beside the uniqueness of the coexistence of three types of retail noted above, Indian private retail chain development has unique or rare characteristics: driven by domestic capital investment, “early” (in terms of usual international patterns) diversification into small formats, “early” penetration of small cities and even rural towns, of the food markets of the poor and lower‐middle class, and of fresh produce retail. These unique factors have helped to propel it quickly.

Originality/value

For the first time in the literature, the paper presents an analysis of: the three waves in Indian retail; detailed sales data for all leading chains; and its uniqueness.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

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Article

Thomas Assefa, Girum Abebe, Indra Lamoot and Bart Minten

Despite the large interest in urban food markets, there are, however still relatively few good studies that have empirically documented the functioning of retail markets…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the large interest in urban food markets, there are, however still relatively few good studies that have empirically documented the functioning of retail markets in developing countries, especially in Africa. The purpose of this paper is to look in particular at the case of Addis Ababa, a city of more than four million people and the capital of Ethiopia, one of the most populous countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. To better understand urban food retail, the authors rely on a large primary survey.

Design/methodology/approach

To better understand urban food retail, the authors rely on a large primary survey. Based on a stratified sampling scheme representative for the city as a whole, 1,226 urban food retail outlets were interviewed in March and April 2012.

Findings

The authors find increasing differentiation in food retail markets in recent years. Despite the prohibition of foreign direct investment in food retail, a domestic modern private retail sector is quickly emerging. However, its share is still very small and, in contrast to roll-outs of modern retail in other countries, it has not yet entered the cereal sector, which remains in the hands of local flour mills, cereal shops, and cooperative retail outlets. The importance of cooperative retail is growing even more rapidly. It is especially important for those products where supply chains are controlled by the government. On the high-end, domestic private modern retail outlets deliver high-quality products at significantly higher prices, ceteris paribus. At the other side, the authors see cooperative retail that delivers food at significantly lower – and subsidized – prices. However, the latter shops are characterized by typical price control problems, reflected in regular lack of supplies and queuing.

Research limitations/implications

The study is limited to the city of Addis Ababa and it seems useful if similar studies could be conducted in other cities in Africa.

Originality/value

Despite the large interest in urban food markets, there are still relatively few good studies that have empirically documented the functioning of retail markets in developing countries, especially in Africa. The paper therefore contributes to fill this lacuna by studying urban food retail markets using new and unique data for Africa.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

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Article

Felix Adamu Nandonde and John Kuada

The purpose of this paper is to present the findings of an exploratory qualitative study of the evolution of modern food retailing in Tanzania (from both retailers and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the findings of an exploratory qualitative study of the evolution of modern food retailing in Tanzania (from both retailers and suppliers’ perspectives).

Design/methodology/approach

The qualitative case approach was used in this study. Participants were drawn from three sets of actors: retailers, local food suppliers, and government institutions. Data were collected using semi-structured interview format. Thematic qualitative analytical technique was used for the data analysis.

Findings

According to the results of the study, seven major factors that account for the evolution of modern food retail in the country were identified. These are availability of suppliers, acceptance of trade credit, innovation, lifestyle change, institutional support, convenience, and availability of consumers.

Originality/value

The study has expanded the knowledge of the evolution of modern food retail in developing economies by using the relationship marketing theory. Furthermore, the study employed some major actors in the food value chain to understand determinant factors that accelerated the evolution of supermarkets in Tanzania.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 120 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article

Hayiel Hino

The aim of this paper is to address intertype cross-shopping behavior – that is, the behavior that characterizes consumers who divide their grocery shopping between two or…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to address intertype cross-shopping behavior – that is, the behavior that characterizes consumers who divide their grocery shopping between two or more different food formats. In particular, the study attempts to shed light on the cross-shopping phenomenon by employing a new research approach that examines format-selective use. Thus, the study examines how various factors, especially way of life aspects typically associated with food consumption, drive consumers to cross-shop between different food formats.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employs data collected from two surveys involving 637 Israeli Jewish and Arab consumers. The conceptual framework and hypothesis are tested using multiple regression analyses.

Findings

The empirical results support our claim that the research approach applied in this study better explains the cross-shopping phenomenon. Specifically, the analysis provides strong support for the effect of consumers' way of life on cross-shopping behavior.

Practical implications

The paper provides managerial and planning implications to modern retailers and managers of international retail firms that operate in or plan to enter non-Western markets.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the available literature in several ways. In particular, the paper suggests a systematic and comprehensive conceptual framework that identifies the key determinants of cross-shopping decisions and the relations between these and supermarkets' market share growth.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 48 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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Article

Felix Adamu Nandonde and John Kuada

The purpose of this paper is to describe the state of the retail sector in Sub-Saharan Africa, to point out the lack of information on some critical issues and to raise…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the state of the retail sector in Sub-Saharan Africa, to point out the lack of information on some critical issues and to raise some questions about relevant topics for researchers and practitioners in the retail area for the African market.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is comprised of a comprehensive review of the literature and integrates the fragmented body of knowledge on the area of retail internationalisation and food marketing. The gaps in the literature identified here may help to understand the sector better and develop academic research agendas on both the growth of the modern food retail sector and the agribusiness sector in Africa.

Findings

Four major topics were identified in the urban agri-food retail business in the African continent: large global retailers in Africa’s food sector; the internationalisation of African food retailers; the procurement practices of international retailers; and, the food-buying behaviour of Africa’s middle class.

Originality/value

This research paper relied heavily on grey literature such as newspapers and unpublished masters’ dissertations and PhD theses. With this material as a context, this paper provides guidance as to how scholars can advance the study of retail internationalisation in Africa, not only through further empirical and conceptual research but also by developing usable prescriptions for agribusiness value-chain actors on the continent.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 44 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

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Article

Gary Davies

Time is a multidimensional entity and research into how we allocate our time is still at an early stage of development. Food shopping and meal preparation are two related…

Abstract

Time is a multidimensional entity and research into how we allocate our time is still at an early stage of development. Food shopping and meal preparation are two related activities which involve a significant consumption of time. Reports on research into attitudes to time and investigates three different aspects of people’s attitudes towards food shopping and preparation: an enjoyment of cooking; and a traditional orientation and a modern (role‐sharing) attitude to the linked activities. Identifies two clearly defined groups. No differences between the groups existed on demographic factors such as age, gender, whether the respondent had paid work and housing type. No differences existed in their ownership of time‐saving consumer durables. One group clearly saw mealtimes as significant activities and found cooking enjoyable. It did not matter whether the people in this group were time‐pressured or not ‐ they chose to allocate time to these activities and they differed in their attitudes to time. A substantial group in society still do see food shopping and meal preparation as important activities. Contends that while such individuals may be subject to modern‐day pressures they still appear to organize their time to maintain a traditional perspective. Considers the implications for food retailers and other marketers.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 99 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article

Amir Shani, Yaniv Belhassen and Daniel Soskolne

The purpose of this paper is to argue for the incorporation of ethics into the coursework of culinary schools, utilizing the value chain analysis as a theoretical…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to argue for the incorporation of ethics into the coursework of culinary schools, utilizing the value chain analysis as a theoretical framework to explore and confront food ethics concerns.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a review of the pertinent literature, this conceptual paper offers a theoretical framework whereby ethical issues relevant to the food industry can be tackled and then incorporated into the training of culinary professionals.

Findings

To illustrate the usefulness of the suggested framework, the paper provides a systematic analysis of ethical concerns related to the production, distribution and consumption of food.

Practical implications

Food ethics education is likely to have a positive impact on the credibility of the culinary arts' profession, at a time when there is a shift toward sustainability and ethical awareness; it is also likely to impact favorably on the opportunity of recruiting culinary professionals as agents of change regarding pressing moral challenges.

Social implications

Including ethics in the curricula of culinary schools has various positive social implications, including the development of future professionals with acknowledged ethical responsibilities toward society.

Originality/value

Despite the upsurge of ethical concerns and the controversies associated with the food industry, hitherto culinary schools have paid little attention to ethics within their curricula. In view of that, the article introduced a value‐chain perspective for integrating food ethics into culinary arts curricula.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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Article

Amy Erbe Healy

This research examines convergence theory in terms of food expenditure patterns within and across a sample of Western European countries, specifically Italy, Ireland…

Abstract

Purpose

This research examines convergence theory in terms of food expenditure patterns within and across a sample of Western European countries, specifically Italy, Ireland, France and the UK.

Design/methodology/approach

Household budget survey data from Italy, the UK, France and Ireland (1985-2005) have been analysed comparing average food budgets and change in coefficient of variations for common food groupings and through cluster analysis for all four countries to determine whether or not countries are becoming more or less alike.

Findings

Unlike the average food budgets in Ireland, the UK and France, Italian food budgets are still made up of a high percentage of foods to prepare and eat at home, similar to food budgets in the other countries for socio-demographic groups that either have chosen to eat traditionally or cannot afford to eat out (food poverty households). Modern households within France, the UK and Ireland are spending a higher percentage on foods away from home with some households, specifically those with a head of household who is young, employed and single, spending, on average, two-thirds of their household food budget dining away from home.

Originality/value

Previous research into convergence theory has generally analysed national summary level data. This research uses household level data, allowing for both an analysis of convergence across countries and within countries, specifically looking at socio-demographic groups that share similar food budgets and food lifestyles.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 116 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article

Matthew Kelly, Sam-ang Seubsman, Cathy Banwell, Jane Dixon and Adrian Sleigh

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the food retail transition underway in Thailand, a transitional middle-income setting, is associated with increased…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the food retail transition underway in Thailand, a transitional middle-income setting, is associated with increased consumption of processed foods high in fat, salt and energy. Such “problem foods” are important risks for avoidable cardio-vascular disease and diabetes burdens.

Design/methodology/approach

The source population were members of the nationwide Thai Cohort Study (TCS) followed since 2005 (n=87,151) for a study of the health-risk transition. For this report we used a multi-region sub-sample (n=1,516) of TCS members responding to an additional questionnaire about food environments, shopping patterns and food consumption. By using a TCS sub-sample we gained access to four years (2005-2009) of longitudinal observations on a wide array of variables related to health and wellbeing from an informative group.

Findings

Overall 85 per cent of the sample now have access to supermarkets; ten years ago the figure was 47 per cent, and when aged ten years, 5 per cent. Now half the participants regularly visit supermarkets and convenience stores, especially urban dwellers with higher incomes. Frequent shopping at supermarkets and convenience stores associated with consumption of six “problem foods” (soft drinks, snack foods, processed meats, western style bakery items, instant foods and deep fried foods). Frequent fresh market shopping was associated with increased vegetable intake. There was no association between food shopping and body mass index , diabetes or hypertension but supermarket shopping was related to hyperlipidaemia.

Research limitations/implications

Modernization of food retailing is changing Thai diets and creating diet-related health risks.

Originality/value

The paper addresses a knowledge gap on links between modernizing food retail in Asia and consumption of unhealthy foods, revealing strong linkage in transitional Thailand.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 116 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article

The times have come down to us as the “Good Old Days”, of Edwardian elegance and grace, peace and plenty, which conceal the poverty, squalor and disease. There seemed less…

Abstract

The times have come down to us as the “Good Old Days”, of Edwardian elegance and grace, peace and plenty, which conceal the poverty, squalor and disease. There seemed less resentment from those who suffered the rigours of the times than from those of today who only know of them by repute. Life was indeed cruel to the submerged tenth of society and the homeless waifs and strays were all too real and true.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 88 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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