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Book part

Aleksei V. Bogoviz, Tatiana M. Rogulenko, Svetlana V. Ponomareva, Elena N. Lapina and Leonid V. Kolyadov

Purpose: The purpose of the chapter is to study the process of evolution of modern business systems, to distinguish its main stages, and to determine the peculiarities of…

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of the chapter is to study the process of evolution of modern business systems, to distinguish its main stages, and to determine the peculiarities of the modern stage of this process. For compiling a fuller dynamic model of evolution of modern business systems, this research is performed by the example of modern Russia – which is one of the most vivid representatives of countries with transitional (forming) economy and which is thus peculiar for very intensive transformation processes in business as compared to the countries that implement the concept of market economy.

Methodology: The methodology of the research is based on the method of logical analysis (analysis of causal connections) and the method of comparative historical analysis, with the help of which regularities of development of modern business systems are distinguished and stages of their evolution are determined. The method of formalization is used for graphic presentation of genesis of modern business systems.

Conclusions: As a result, four stages of evolution of modern business systems are distinguished: paternalism (1991–1997), commercialization (1998–2007), balancing (2008–2017), and technologization (since 2018). Each of the distinguished stages has its peculiarities, and the following regularities and tendencies of development of modern business systems are observed in the process of their evolution: increase of competition in business environment, increase of regulation of business from the state and society, and growth of size of business systems, which leads to complication of their structure, with increase of flexibility of business culture. Sufficiency of adaptation means with modern business systems is substantiated.

Originality/value: The determined outlines of the current stage of evolution of modern business systems allow compiling two following forecast scenarios of their further development, oriented at the period until 2025: scenario of well-balanced development of modern business systems and scenario of increase of disproportions in development of modern business systems. Implementation of these scenarios is possible in any socioeconomic system. Depending on strategic goals and priorities, each system may select the most optimal scenario and conduct the corresponding management of development of modern business systems.

Details

Specifics of Decision Making in Modern Business Systems
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-692-7

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Article

Mark Stevenson

The purpose of this study is to provide new insight into the modern slavery threat and to enhance its detection in supply chains by understanding and addressing barriers…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to provide new insight into the modern slavery threat and to enhance its detection in supply chains by understanding and addressing barriers to whistleblowing. A broad definition of a whistle-blower is adopted, which includes any witness internal or external to an organisation.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a viewpoint paper that includes using news reports and other secondary data sources on a recent modern slavery scandal in garment factories in Leicester, UK and the lens of the bystander effect from the social psychology literature. The core focus is on whistleblowing by members of the local community in which an operation or supply chain is embedded.

Findings

The phenomenon of modern slavery being an “open secret” within the local community is highlighted. But rather than the case being characterised by widespread whistleblowing, the problem only came into full focus when poor working conditions and forced labour during COVID-19 lockdown restrictions contributed to the spread of the virus. It is argued that overcoming this “bystander effect” can lead to the greater mobilisation of modern slavery whistleblowing.

Research limitations/implications

Two sets of propositions and a conceptual model are provided and seven future research suggestions are outlined, including extending the present study to whistleblowing by victims and other internal members of an organisation or supply chain.

Practical implications

If it can be mobilised, then whistleblowing has the potential to be an important part of detecting modern slavery, either temporarily replacing audits where they are not possible due to social distancing restrictions or directing the use of limited auditing resources to high-risk factories. In this way, combinations of practices can be effectively used to tackle the threat.

Social implications

This contributes to addressing an important societal problem and one of the grandest challenges facing modern-day supply chains. This, it has been argued, is an even bigger problem now than ever before given the economic and market conditions created by the COVID-19 global pandemic.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to focus on operationalising the practice of whistleblowing as a source of greater supply chain intelligence to aid modern slavery detection. Causes of the bystander effect include the perceived low-emergency threat of modern slavery, the high-ambiguity environment, a low bystander responsibility and low assistance/intervention incentive. Countermeasures include elevating the emergency status of modern slavery, creating a shared sense of responsibility for tackling the problem, having clear reporting channels and taking swift and consistent action when instances of modern slavery are detected.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

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Article

Ali Raza Khoso, Aminah Md Yusof, Changsaar Chai and Muhammad Aslam Laghari

The emergence of massive modern technology construction projects is seen to be a real occurrence in Pakistan’s construction industry, which in turn demands a better and…

Abstract

Purpose

The emergence of massive modern technology construction projects is seen to be a real occurrence in Pakistan’s construction industry, which in turn demands a better and systematic way of undertaking the project. Hence, this requires capable contractors to perform the task. A plethora of research studies are carried in the past three decades on the identification of evaluation criteria of contractor’s selection, but the road of modern technology construction projects is still unpaved.

Design/methodology/approach

This study strives for the most essential but exhaustive criteria, especially for modern technology construction projects in Pakistan. A pilot survey followed by an exhaustive questionnaire survey was carried out alongside with one-on-one interactions with professional experts serving in various public organizations under public procurement department. A total of 87 attributes were analyzed, correlated, rotated and weighted using exploratory factor analysis for identification of evaluation criteria.

Findings

The study finds that for modern technology construction projects basic format of contractor’s selection attributes is not extensive. Henceforth, the most robust, comprehensive and precise assessment is required for such modern technology construction projects. Consequently, four inimitable sets of evaluation criteria groups are designed keeping in view the growing demands of public projects around the globe.

Research limitations/implications

The research work added a novel contribution in this research area which is in quest of resolutions from the past three decades. This research opens the novel avenues in the future in terms of designing the evaluation criteria while keeping the project demands and scope in mind.

Social implications

The research is a blueprint for the construction organizations and other authorities especially to those agencies involved in the modern construction technology projects. This eye-opening work will further stimulate the clients to focus on not only the designing phase but also the execution part of such advanced construction projects which turn in the successful project outcome.

Originality/value

The larger number of past studies addressed so for from the last couple of decades is very useful to a certain extend for instance for small to medium-sized traditional construction projects. This research delineates the future to call upon the most alarming future issues and consequences of selecting the traditional contractors for their advanced projects. Being premier research in this realm, the study filled the gap of evaluating the contractors inimitably compared to what was practiced in the past.

Details

Journal of Public Procurement, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1535-0118

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Article

Katherine Leanne Christ and Roger Leonard Burritt

The purpose of this paper is to examine how the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic affects corporate modern slavery accounting, auditing and accountability, and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic affects corporate modern slavery accounting, auditing and accountability, and how a business can take advantage of this situation to ensure a more robust and effective modern slavery response in the long-term.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on recent literature and available statistics about modern slavery in the context of COVID-19 comment is provided on the challenges and opportunities for researchers and business.

Findings

Given the additional invisibility of modern slavery in a COVID-19 environment as victims move into unemployment and back into vulnerable positions where they are exploited the challenge is how accounting, auditing and accountability can help business break this cycle. Capabilities for business to track and trace victims of modern slavery will be reduced because of the pandemic. Opportunities exist for gathering data and building internal awareness about the problem of modern slavery in supply chains and to reassess operational risk and investment in modern slavery reduction. With the pause in external reporting opportunity exists to obtain views of external stakeholders.

Research limitations/implications

Because of the relatively short period of the COVID-19 pandemic to date, numeric data on impacts are largely unavailable.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to consider the challenges and opportunities of COVID-19 on accounting for modern slavery in business. Directions for future research are also considered.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article

Joanne Meehan and Bruce D. Pinnington

The purpose of this paper is to assess whether firms' transparency in supply chain (TISC) statements indicate that substantive action is being taken on modern slavery in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess whether firms' transparency in supply chain (TISC) statements indicate that substantive action is being taken on modern slavery in UK government supply chains.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors analyse 66 of the UK government's strategic suppliers' TISC statements and 20 key documents related to the policy intent of the UK Parliament, 2015 TISC requirements. Qualitative document analysis identifies what suppliers say they are doing and what they are not saying to provide novel insights into how firms employ ambiguity to avoid timely action on modern slavery in their supply chains A set of propositions are developed.

Findings

The authors elaborate the concepts of time and change in socially sustainable supply chains and illustrate how firms use ambiguity in TISC statements as a highly strategic form of action to defend the status quo, reduce accountability and delay action for modern slavery within supply chains. The authors identify three ambiguous techniques: defensive reassurance, transfer responsibility and scope reduction that deviate from the policy intention of collaborative action.

Social implications

The results illustrates how ambiguity is preventing firms from taking collaborative action to tackle modern slavery in their supply chains. The lack of action as a result of ambiguity protects firms, rather than potential victims of modern slavery.

Originality/value

Prior research focuses on technical compliance rather than the content of firms' TISC statements. This qualitative study provides novel insights into the policy-resistant effects of ambiguity and highlights the dynamic and instrumental role of modern slavery reporting. Theoretically, we identify accountability as an essential concept to address the causes of modern slavery in supply chains and for developing collaborative supply chain environments to tackle the issues.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 41 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Book part

Harry F. Dahms

For sociological perspectives on globalization to do justice to its many facets, they must be informed by an understanding of modern societies as simultaneously complex…

Abstract

For sociological perspectives on globalization to do justice to its many facets, they must be informed by an understanding of modern societies as simultaneously complex, contingent, and contradictory – as modern capitalist societies. As is becoming ever more apparent, such an understanding of modern societies is the necessary precondition for identifying the defining features of globalization. Yet, for the most part, the history of the social sciences did not produce research agendas, theories, and methods designed to grasp complexity, contingency, and contradiction as core dimensions of modern social life that continually reinforce each other. The social sciences did not evolve as ongoing efforts to grasp the gravity each dimension exerts on concrete forms of political, economic and cultural life, and how the force of each depends on the constant exchange of energy with the other two. To the extent that scrutinizing the impact of globalization on the future – and possible futures – of human civilization is the primary challenge for social scientists to confront today, the current condition presents a unique, and perhaps most unusual opportunity to conceive anew the promise of each and all the social sciences, as elucidating how the complex, contingent, and contradictory nature of modern societies, in the name of advancing social justice, has engendered a regime of managing “social problems.”

Details

Social Theory as Politics in Knowledge
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-363-1

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Book part

Milan Zafirovski

To reexamine the Weber Thesis pertaining to the relationship between ascetic Protestantism – especially Calvinism – and modern capitalism, as between an economic “spirit”…

Abstract

Purpose

To reexamine the Weber Thesis pertaining to the relationship between ascetic Protestantism – especially Calvinism – and modern capitalism, as between an economic “spirit” and an economic “structure,” in which the first is assumed to be the explanatory factor and the second the dependent variable.

Design/methodology/approach

The chapter provides an attempt to combine theoretical-empirical and comparative-historical approaches to integrate theory with evidence supplied by societal comparisons and historically specific cases.

Findings

The chapter identifies the general sociological core of the Weber Thesis as a classic endeavor in economic sociology (and thus substantive sociological theory) and separates it from its particular historical dimension in the form of an empirical generalization from history. I argue that such a distinction helps to better understand the puzzling double “fate” of the Weber Thesis in social science, its status of a model in economic sociology and substantive sociological theory, on the one hand, and its frequent rejection in history and historical economics, on the other. The sociological core of the Thesis, postulating that religion, ideology, and culture generally deeply impact economy, has proved to be more valid, enduring, and even paradigmatic, as in economic sociology, than its historical component establishing a special causal linkage between Calvinism and other types of ascetic Protestantism and the “spirit” and “structure” of modern capitalism in Western society at a specific point in history.

Research limitations/implications

In addition to the two cases deviating from the Weber Thesis considered here, it is necessary to investigate and identify the validity of the Thesis with regard to concrete historical and empirical instances.

Originality/value

The chapter provides the first effort to systematically analyze and distinguish between the sociological core and the historical components of the Weber Thesis as distinct yet intertwined components.

Details

Social Theories of History and Histories of Social Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-219-6

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Book part

This chapter is about the modern, Western education system as an economic system of production on behalf of the capitalist mode of production (CMP) and globalization…

Abstract

This chapter is about the modern, Western education system as an economic system of production on behalf of the capitalist mode of production (CMP) and globalization towards a single, global social space around market capitalism, liberal democracy and individualism.

The schooling process is above all an economic process, within which educational labour is performed, and through which the education system operates in an integrated fashion with the (external) economic system.

It is mainly through children’s compulsory educational labour that modern schooling plays a part in the production of labour power, supplies productive (paid) employment within the CMP, meets ‘corporate economic imperatives’, supports ‘the expansion of global corporate power’ and facilitates globalization.

What children receive in exchange for their appropriated and consumed labour power within the education system are not payments of the kind enjoyed by adults in the external economy, but instead merely a promise – the promise enshrined in the Western education industry paradigm.

In modern societies, young people, like chattel slaves, are compulsorily prevented from freely exchanging their labour power on the labour market while being compulsorily required to perform educational labour through a process in which their labour power is consumed and reproduced, and only at the end of which as adults they can freely (like freed slaves) enter the labour market to exchange their labour power.

This compulsory dispossession, exploitation and consumption of labour power reflects and reinforces the power distribution between children and adults in modern societies, doing so in a way resembling that between chattel slaves and their owners.

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Book part

Beate Jahn

The attempt to recover the international origins of social and political thought is motivated by the unsatisfactory fragmentation of modern knowledge – by its failure to…

Abstract

The attempt to recover the international origins of social and political thought is motivated by the unsatisfactory fragmentation of modern knowledge – by its failure to account for the intimate connections between theory and history in general and its international dimension in particular – and seeks to overcome these divides. This article provides an analysis of the theory/history divide and its role for the fragmentation of modern knowledge. Theoretically, it shows, this divide is rooted in, and reproduced by, the epistemic foundations of modern knowledge. Historically, the modern episteme arises from a crisis of imperial politics in the 18th century. This analysis suggests that theory, history, and the international are products rather than origins of modern social and political thought. These historical origins thus do not provide the basis for more integrated forms of knowledge. They do, however, reveal how the fragmentation of knowledge itself simultaneously serves and obscures the imperialist dimension of modern politics.

Details

International Origins of Social and Political Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-267-1

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Book part

Harry F. Dahms

Any endeavor to circumscribe, with a certain degree of precision, the nature of the relationship between social science and critical theory would appear to be daunting…

Abstract

Any endeavor to circumscribe, with a certain degree of precision, the nature of the relationship between social science and critical theory would appear to be daunting. Over the course of the past century, and especially since the end of World War II, countless efforts have been made in economics, psychology, political science, and sociology, to illuminate the myriad manifestations of modern social life, from a multiplicity of angles. It is doubtful that it would be possible to do justice to all the different variants of social science, in an assessment of their relationship to critical theory. Moreover, given the proliferation of critical theories since the 1980s, the effort to devise a “map” that would reflect the particular orientations and intricacies of each approach to critical theory also would be exacting, in its own right.1

Details

The Vitality Of Critical Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-798-8

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