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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2017

Frank L. Schmidt

Meta-regression is widely used and misused today in meta-analyses in psychology, organizational behavior, marketing, management, and other social sciences, as an approach…

Abstract

Purpose

Meta-regression is widely used and misused today in meta-analyses in psychology, organizational behavior, marketing, management, and other social sciences, as an approach to the identification and calibration of moderators, with most users being unaware of serious problems in its use. The purpose of this paper is to describe nine serious methodological problems that plague applications of meta-regression.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is methodological in nature and is based on well-established principles of measurement and statistics. These principles are used to illuminate the potential pitfalls in typical applications of meta-regression.

Findings

The analysis in this paper demonstrates that many of the nine statistical and measurement pitfalls in the use of meta-regression are nearly universal in applications in the literature, leading to the conclusion that few meta-regressions in the literature today are trustworthy. A second conclusion is that in almost all cases, hierarchical subgrouping of studies is superior to meta-regression as a method of identifying and calibrating moderators. Finally, a third conclusion is that, contrary to popular belief among researchers, the process of accurately identifying and calibrating moderators, even with the best available methods, is complex, difficult, and data demanding.

Practical implications

This paper provides useful guidance to meta-analytic researchers that will improve the practice of moderator identification and calibration in social science research literatures.

Social implications

Today, many important decisions are made on the basis of the results of meta-analyses. These include decisions in medicine, pharmacology, applied psychology, management, marketing, social policy, and other social sciences. The guidance provided in this paper will improve the quality of such decisions by improving the accuracy and trustworthiness of meta-analytic results.

Originality/value

This paper is original and valuable in that there is no similar listing and discussion of the pitfalls in the use of meta-regression in the literature, and there is currently a widespread lack of knowledge of these problems among meta-analytic researchers in all disciplines.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 August 2019

Ángel Martínez-Sánchez, Maria-Jose Vela-Jimenez, Silvia Abella-Garces and Sophie Gorgemans

The purpose of this paper is to analyze simultaneously two moderator effects on a model of relationships between external human resource (HR) flexibility and innovation in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze simultaneously two moderator effects on a model of relationships between external human resource (HR) flexibility and innovation in a large sample of manufacturing firms.

Design/methodology/approach

The study sample consisted of 1,864 Spanish industrial firms in 2012 compiled from a large set of statements from the Survey of Business Strategies questionnaire. Logit and linear regressions tested the moderator effects of inter-organizational technology cooperation and environmental (market) dynamism in the relationship between external HR flexibility and innovation performance. To control for multicollinearity the Lance’s residual centering technique was used.

Findings

Process innovations seemed to be dependent on industry while innovative firms have developed a greater flexibility than non-innovative firms. Some moderator effects were found regarding inter-organizational cooperation while the market dynamism was negatively related to the measures of innovation with absence of moderator effects.

Research limitations/implications

Future studies should integrate more moderator effects that may influence the relationship between external HR flexibility and the firm’s innovation performance. The results regarding the influences of external flexibility on innovation have to be differentiated as inter-organizational technological cooperation compensated the influence of external workplace flexibility on innovation.

Practical implications

Managers should use a right mix of external flexibility measures according to the inter-organizational cooperation but regardless the level of environmental dynamism.

Originality/value

This paper is original in the sense that it studies the relationship between external HR flexibility and innovation with the simultaneous moderator effect of inter-organizational technology cooperation and market dynamism. The value of the paper lies in the discussion of interrelated moderator effects in order to propose adequate strategies to develop external HR flexibility.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 48 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2001

Mel Prince and Mark Davies

Traditional focus group methodology involves an individual trained moderator who manages the whole process from writing the focus group guide that directs the topics…

3592

Abstract

Traditional focus group methodology involves an individual trained moderator who manages the whole process from writing the focus group guide that directs the topics pursued, the interaction with participants, to interpretation, reporting and client feedback. Since their training, personality and orientation can vary differentially, this may lead to moderator bias. Proposes a new method that involves a series of complementary moderators that target specific areas of the guide that allows them to specialise in their particular experiences and orientations. These moderators are used sequentially on the same groups that offer the potential to avoid many of the problems associated with single‐moderator discussion groups. Moreover, the chance to moderate the moderator keeps a check on how the sessions of each focus group develops, building in feedback between moderators, and reduces the prospects of misinterpretation and side‐tracking by a single moderator.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 September 2008

Gianfranco Walsh, Heiner Evanschitzky and Maren Wunderlich

Research on the relationship between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty has advanced to a stage that requires a more thorough examination of moderator variables…

16367

Abstract

Purpose

Research on the relationship between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty has advanced to a stage that requires a more thorough examination of moderator variables. Limited research shows how moderators influence the relationship between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in a service context; this article aims to present empirical evidence of the conditions in which the satisfaction‐loyalty relationship becomes stronger or weaker.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a sample of more than 700 customers of DIY retailers and multi‐group structural equation modelling, the authors examine moderating effects of several firm‐related variables, variables that result from firm/employee‐customer interactions and individual‐level variables (i.e. loyalty cards, critical incidents, customer age, gender, income, expertise).

Findings

The empirical results suggest that not all of the moderators considered influence the satisfaction‐loyalty link. Specifically, critical incidents and income are important moderators of the relationship between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty.

Practical implications

Several of the moderator variables considered in this study are manageable variables.

Originality/value

This study should prove valuable to academic researchers as well as service and retailing managers. It systematically analyses the moderating effect of firm‐related and individual‐level variables on the relationship between customer satisfaction and loyalty. It shows the differential effect of different types of moderator variables on the satisfaction‐loyalty link.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 42 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 August 2011

Ho Huy Tuu, Svein Ottar Olsen and Pham Thi Thuy Linh

This study aims to discuss and test the combined role of perceived risk, objective knowledge and certainty as moderators in the satisfaction‐loyalty relationship.

5363

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to discuss and test the combined role of perceived risk, objective knowledge and certainty as moderators in the satisfaction‐loyalty relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use survey data of 387 Vietnamese consumers in a food context. A structural equation modeling (SEM) approach for moderator analysis with latent constructs is used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

Perceived risk is a barrier in the forming of loyalty with a negative moderating effect on the satisfaction‐loyalty relationship. However, the satisfaction‐loyalty relationship is stronger when objective knowledge and certainty increase.

Research limitations/implications

The object and setting are limited to one product category in one market. In addition, other moderators (e.g. situation and ambivalence) can be added. The nature of causality is problematic due to the use of survey design.

Practical implications

Customer management based on satisfaction is not sufficient to keep customers' loyalty, especially in the situations of highly perceived risk and uncertainty. Marketing strategies, which reduce consumers' risks, consolidate their confidence and educate them with relevant knowledge, may be effective strategies to increase their loyalty.

Originality/value

The study fills several gaps in the present literature. First, it overcomes some shortcomings of previous studies of moderators in the satisfaction‐loyalty relationship by testing the combined role of three important moderators. Second, it tests the moderator effect of objective knowledge and adds an extra explanation to previous studies. While some previous studies suggest a negative moderator effect of subjective knowledge, this paper argues for and confirms a positive moderator effect of objective knowledge on this relationship. Finally, it uses SEM for moderator analysis with latent constructs.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 28 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 April 2018

Arpana Rai and Upasna A. Agarwal

During the past 26 years, there has been a phenomenal growth in the literature on workplace bullying. The purpose of this paper is to review and synthesize the extant…

2532

Abstract

Purpose

During the past 26 years, there has been a phenomenal growth in the literature on workplace bullying. The purpose of this paper is to review and synthesize the extant empirical studies on underlying and intervening mechanisms in antecedents–bullying and bullying–outcomes relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 53 studies on mediators and moderators in antecedents–bullying and bullying–outcomes relationships (2001-2016) were selected from academic databases (Google Scholar, Research Gate, Emerald Insight, Science Direct, etc.)

Findings

The review suggests that while a reasonable number of studies examine the role of mediators and moderators in bullying–outcomes relationships, such efforts are meager in antecedents–bullying relationships. The paper concludes by proposing some potential variables that can explain the underlying mechanisms in the bullying phenomenon and alleviate/aggravate the antecedents–bullying–outcomes relationships.

Originality/value

To the best of authors’ knowledge, this is the first review on mediators and moderators of workplace bullying.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 41 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 19 March 2013

Kamna Malik

In an online executive education setting, online discussions are seen as a frequently used pedagogical tool that promotes higher level of learning and critical thinking. A…

Abstract

In an online executive education setting, online discussions are seen as a frequently used pedagogical tool that promotes higher level of learning and critical thinking. A teacher's role is seen more as a moderator or facilitator of learning than as a lecturer or preacher. This shift of roles enhances the online students’ opportunities to critically think and reflect; and encourages co-creation of knowledge by way of peer discussions. It is imperative that students apply their critical thinking as well as soft skills to effectively participate and contribute towards making the discussion forum as self-regulated. However, in reality it needs explicit planning and effort on the part of the teacher to motivate them towards this positional shift. This chapter presents the motivation and techniques for improving student engagement by way of assigning them the role of moderator in a predominantly asynchronous online course for management graduates. A qualitative analysis of the observations made based on the application of three techniques of student moderation on student cohorts is shared and implications are discussed.

Details

Increasing Student Engagement and Retention in e-learning Environments: Web 2.0 and Blended Learning Technologies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-515-9

Book part
Publication date: 18 July 2006

Andreas Rauch and Michael Frese

We argue that entrepreneurship research should use meta-analysis to integrate the findings of the field. A meta-analytical approach has several advantages as compared with…

Abstract

We argue that entrepreneurship research should use meta-analysis to integrate the findings of the field. A meta-analytical approach has several advantages as compared with narrative reviews: First, narrative reviews are likely to bias empirical evidence because they are limited by the information-processing capacities of the reviewers (Tett, Jackson, & Rothstein, 1991). This is often a downward bias leading to the conclusion of little positive knowledge in the field. For example, frequency counts of significant results ignore sampling errors of individual studies, reliability problems of instruments, range restrictions of samples, dichotomization of continuous variables, imperfect construct validity, and extraneous factors (Hunter & Schmidt, 2004). These issues usually result in a higher incidence of Type II errors (i.e., rejecting the hypothesis wrongly). Thus, narrative reviews are more likely to lead to the conclusion that there are no relationships between independent and dependent variables in entrepreneurship when in fact they are (Hunter & Schmidt, 1990; Tett et al., 1991). Second, meta-analysis accumulates studies based on a set of explicit decision rules and, therefore, is less biased by subjective perceptions of the reviewer than narrative reviews. Meta-analyses require judgments as well, e.g., when defining the area of the study or coding moderator variables. However, the decisions are public and open to criticism and replication by other scientists (Johnson & Eagly, 2000). Third, meta-analysis is based on many studies and, thus, avoids the influence of single studies. Fourth, meta-analysis controls for sampling error variance and, thus, controls for power deficits of individual studies (Hunter & Schmidt, 2004). For example, the Brockhaus and Nord (1979) study is frequently cited in the entrepreneurship literature for providing evidence that there is no relationship of personality characteristics with entrepreneurship. However, this study is based on a small sample of 31 business owners and therefore, has serious statistical power problems. Noteworthy, the effect sizes of small samples are less precise in estimating a population value than effect sizes of larger samples. Fifth, meta-analyses can correct many errors of individual studies (Hunter & Schmidt, 2004). Since meta-analyses estimate population correlations between given variables, it is important to correct for errors of studies (e.g., unreliability, range restriction, and sampling error) to achieve unbiased estimates. Sixth, meta-analysis allows an assessment of the magnitude of relationships and, thus, provides more precise and often comparable assessments of the validity of concepts. Thus, meta-analyses support the assessment of the practical significance of findings. Seventh, meta-analysis tests for variations in relationships across studies and, therefore, allows an assessment of the generalizeability of effects. If the size of reported relationships varies considerably between different studies, there will be context conditions that account for these variations. These context conditions are moderators that affect the size of relationships. The moderators may include study characteristics, method moderators, and theoretical moderators. Thus, meta-analyses also help to identify areas for new studies. Finally, meta-analysis techniques allow to test more than one independent and/or moderator variable by using methods based on regression analysis (Lipsey & Wilson, 2001). Using such procedures allows to estimate the independent contribution of variables on results, to control for methodological variables, and to test the interactions between moderator variables.

Details

Entrepreneurship: Frameworks And Empirical Investigations From Forthcoming Leaders Of European Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-428-7

Article
Publication date: 11 October 2021

S. Mostafa Rasoolimanesh, Mingzhuo Wang, Josip Mikulić and Puvaneswaran Kunasekaran

This article aims to propose guidelines to develop moderation hypotheses, assess moderators using the multigroup analysis and interaction effect approaches and interpret…

1057

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to propose guidelines to develop moderation hypotheses, assess moderators using the multigroup analysis and interaction effect approaches and interpret the results of moderation analysis in tourism and hospitality research.

Design/methodology/approach

Through a review of 600 articles published in top tourism and hospitality journals from the year 2016 to 2020, and reviewing the literature related to moderation analysis, this study identifies key issues in different steps of moderation analysis and proposes robust guidelines to aid future research.

Findings

The results of the systematic review uncovered some key issues in different steps of moderation analysis, such as hypothesis development, moderation assessment and results interpretation. The findings emphasized the typical methodological misconceptions and improper practices for moderation analysis.

Research limitations/implications

Moderation analysis is of great significance to the advancement of theory, and its application has increased significantly in recent years. However, many studies appear to have a limited understanding of moderation analysis and follow questionable practices regarding hypothesis development, moderation assessment and results interpretation, thus leading to suspicious conclusions for theory advancement. By highlighting these methodological issues, this article provides robust guidelines for moderation analysis, which is of great theoretical and methodological significance to the academic research in tourism and hospitality.

Originality/value

As one of the first studies to provide robust guidelines for moderation analysis, based on a critical and systematic review of papers published in top-tier journals in tourism and hospitality and the latest developments on moderation analysis in the wider literature, this article has important theoretical and methodological significance for the academic research in tourism and hospitality as well as general social science disciplines.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 33 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Rosanna Garcia and Destan Kandemir

This paper seeks to explore how moderation can and should be modeled in cross‐national/cultural contexts. A multi‐national study of consumer involvement is utilized to…

2977

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to explore how moderation can and should be modeled in cross‐national/cultural contexts. A multi‐national study of consumer involvement is utilized to demonstrate proper methods for modeling the different types of moderation.

Design/methodology/approach

Using data from a consumer survey regarding wine purchasing preferences conducted in Australia, New Zealand and the USA, the paper demonstrates how to identify moderators of form and of strength. A form moderator is modeled using multiplicative interactions while a strength moderator is modeled using multi‐group analyses in structural equation modeling (SEM). Differences in consumers across the three countries are examined from the results.

Findings

This study suggests that search behavior is positively influenced by involvement in New Zealand and the USA but not in Australia. It also shows that perceived risk of occasion decreases involvement in all three countries, while partial support for the positive effects of importance of tradition on involvement is found. Furthermore, “perceived risk of occasion,” identified as a moderator of form, is found to significantly moderate the relationship between importance of tradition and involvement in the US sample only. Finally, the results demonstrate significant differences across the three samples in relationships among importance of tradition, perceived risk of occasion, involvement, and search behavior, indicating that the country variable has significant moderator effects.

Originality/value

Understanding form vs strength moderation is important when evaluating multi‐national/cultural differences so that proper methodology can be utilized. This paper provides international marketing researchers with guidelines on how to model interactions and multi‐group comparisons using SEM.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 26000