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Article
Publication date: 3 November 2020

Thomas Pittz, Joshua S. Bendickson, Birton J. Cowden and Phillip E. Davis

Owners of the US-based sport teams are seeing consistent gains on their financial investments, no matter the success of their teams on the playing field or their impact on…

Abstract

Purpose

Owners of the US-based sport teams are seeing consistent gains on their financial investments, no matter the success of their teams on the playing field or their impact on the surrounding community. Sports teams are a part of an ecosystem comprised of primary and secondary stakeholders. The authors explore this phenomenon using a stakeholder perspective to understand how different business models and ownership structures optimize stakeholder value.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors employ an evaluative conceptual approach to examine the dominant model in the US, European ownership structures and public-private partnerships (PPPs). T finalize these comparisons by exploring a fourth business model and ownership structure – a relatively unique option in the US deployed by the Green Bay Packers – which we refer to as the maximized value partnership (MVP). These comparisons are followed by practical advice for owners in regard to these governance mechanisms.

Findings

The MVP ownership model has the potential to level the playing field between public and private actors. This potential is realized by fusing some of the best practices from European football clubs, in particular aspects of the stock market and supporter trust models.

Originality/value

By evaluating the most common ownership structures for sports teams, t provide an alternative model as well as practical advice for owners.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2013

Robert Wilson, Daniel Plumley and Girish Ramchandani

The purpose of this paper is three‐fold. First, to explore the relationship between the financial and sporting performance of clubs competing in the English Premier League…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is three‐fold. First, to explore the relationship between the financial and sporting performance of clubs competing in the English Premier League (EPL). Second, to investigate the effect of different models of EPL club ownership on financial and league performance. Third, to review the finances of EPL clubs in the context of UEFA's Financial Fair Play regulations.

Design/methodology/approach

Financial data from annual reports for the period 2001‐2010 was collected for 20 EPL clubs. Correlation analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between the finances of EPL clubs and their league position. One‐way analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were then used to examine the effect of ownership type on clubs’ financial and league performances. Where the results of ANOVA testing revealed statistically significant differences between groups, these were investigated further using appropriate post hoc procedures.

Findings

The stock market model of ownership returned better financial health relative to privately owned (domestic and foreign) clubs. However, clubs owned privately by foreign investors or on the stock market performed better in the league in comparison with domestically owned clubs. The stock market model was more likely to comply with Financial Fair Play regulations.

Originality/value

The paper confirms empirically that football clubs that float on the stock market are in better financial health and that clubs in pursuit of short‐term sporting excellence are reliant on substantial investment, in this case from foreign investors.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 17 October 2008

Basil Al‐Najjar and Peter Taylor

The study aims to investigate the comparatively under‐researched relationship between ownership structure and capital structure in an emerging market. It is also one of

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to investigate the comparatively under‐researched relationship between ownership structure and capital structure in an emerging market. It is also one of the first studies to apply both single and reduced‐form equation methods using a panel data approach. Design/methodology/approach – The study applies econometrics modelling using both single equation and reduces equation models for panel data.

Findings

The results demonstrate that Jordanian firms follow the same determinants of capital structure as occur in developed markets, namely: profitability, firm size, growth rate, market‐to‐book ratio, asset structure and liquidity. In addition, institutional ownership structure is found to be determined by: assets structure, business risk (BR), growth opportunities and firm size. Finally, the results reveal that assets tangibility, firm size, growth opportunities and BR are considered to be joint determinants of ownership structure and capital structure.

Practical implications

The practical implication of the study is that investors and managers should consider both capital structure and ownership structure when they take their investment decisions.

Originality/value

This is the first study of the interaction between institutional ownership and capital structure in Jordan where there are differences, as regards institutional and financial structures, relative to those in developed markets.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 34 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2021

Francisca Tejedo-Romero and Joaquim Filipe Ferraz Esteves Araujo

The main objective of this paper is to analyse the content and extent of human capital disclosure by Spanish companies. It studies various factors related to the board of

Abstract

Purpose

The main objective of this paper is to analyse the content and extent of human capital disclosure by Spanish companies. It studies various factors related to the board of directors’ composition and functioning. These factors can be seen as mechanisms of corporate governance and the moderating role of managerial ownership, which help predict the behaviour of managers in relation to the human capital disclosure.

Design/methodology/approach

This study develops and applies a more comprehensive framework for coding information on human capital, integrating the intellectual capital and social responsibility perspectives in order to explain the content and extent of human capital disclosure. The research was based on a content analysis of 210 corporate reports from 2007 to 2016. A system-GMM estimator was used to test the hypotheses in four dynamic linear regression models of balanced panel data in order to address concerns of endogeneity.

Findings

The results show that companies are adapting to new regulations and voluntarily disclosing information on human capital – a trend which signals their commitment to responsible attitudes towards employees and stakeholders. The results also show that board composition and functioning are mechanisms of supervision, control and legitimacy that promote human capital disclosure, with managerial ownership acting as moderator for aligning interests between managers and stakeholders.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature on human capital disclosure by introducing a broader conception of human capital to coding information. It accomplishes this through considering aspects of the intellectual capital and social responsibility approaches, which provide a better understanding of companies’ human capital disclosure. In addition, it seeks to enrich the debate about the effects of corporate governance mechanisms– such as boards of directors and managerial ownership – on human capital disclosure.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

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Article
Publication date: 11 March 2014

Wen-Cheng Lu and Ruo-Ling Jhuang

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of financial constraints on firm growth considering six types of ownership structure. According to the theory of

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of financial constraints on firm growth considering six types of ownership structure. According to the theory of financial management and asymmetric information theory, external funds are costly for small firms. However, some ownership structures may alleviate cash flow-growth sensitivity. The paper considers different types of ownership structure to study cash flow-growth relation and its sensitivity.

Design/methodology/approach

Results are drawn from a dynamic panel data model under the two specific empirical models. Those designs can capture important empirical meanings.

Findings

The sensitivity of growth to cash flow decreases significantly when managers control larger proportions of a firm's stock and when a firm belongs to a conglomerate. The findings also show that small and young firms grow faster. R&D and advertising expenditures also motivate a firm's growth, as do profitability and abundant cash flow.

Originality/value

This paper uses a dynamic panel data model to investigate the effect of cash flow on firms' growth under six types of ownership structure. The sensitivity analysis of growth to cash flow provides new results for traditional literature. In fact, different ownership structures lead to distinct cash flow-growth sensitivity.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2019

John Edwin Anderson

The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that real estate ownership contributes to life satisfaction in transition countries.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that real estate ownership contributes to life satisfaction in transition countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Life in Transition survey data are used to model reported life satisfaction using ordinary least squares, ordered probit, generalized ordered logit and bivariate probit models. The hypothesis tested is whether real estate ownership is associated with greater reported life satisfaction.

Findings

Empirical results from the variety of empirical models estimated strongly support the hypothesis that real estate ownership is associated with greater reported life satisfaction in transition countries.

Research limitations/implications

Analysis is limited because life satisfaction is self-reported and specifically for residents of transition countries.

Practical implications

Results confirm that ownership of a home, second home or land parcel is associated with greater life satisfaction.

Social implications

Real estate ownership can be an effective means to improve life satisfaction, especially in societies needing such improvements.

Originality/value

This is the first study of the link between real estate ownership and life satisfaction specifically in transition countries, and using a robust set of empirical models to address issues of ordinal dependent variables, varying coefficient estimates across dependent variable response categories, endogeneity and causality.

Details

Journal of European Real Estate Research , vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-9269

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2010

Basil Al‐Najjar

This paper aims to be one of the first papers to investigate the relationship between ownership structure and corporate governance, namely the factors that determine

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to be one of the first papers to investigate the relationship between ownership structure and corporate governance, namely the factors that determine institutional investors' investment decisions in emerging markets using Jordanian data.

Design/methodology/approach

A panel data analysis is applied to the dataset that includes non‐financial Jordanian firms.

Findings

The results show that the Jordanian institutional investors consider firms' capital structure, profitability, business risk, asset structure, asset liquidity, growth rates, and firm size when they take their investment decisions. In addition, institutional investors in Jordan prefer to invest in services firms rather than manufacturing firms. Furthermore, the study cannot find any significant relationship between firms' dividend policy and institutional investors.

Practical implications

The practical implication of the study is that institutional investors should take under consideration the investigated variables in this study when they take their investment decisions.

Originality/value

This study highlights the importance of the institutional investors as the main owners of Jordanian firms, to the legislative authorities to enhance the corporate governance decisions in Jordan.

Details

Corporate Governance: The international journal of business in society, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2002

Doren D. Chadee

This paper investigates the foreign ownership structure of service equity joint ventures (EJVs) in China. In less than 20 years, China has emerged from a closed economy to…

Abstract

This paper investigates the foreign ownership structure of service equity joint ventures (EJVs) in China. In less than 20 years, China has emerged from a closed economy to become the second largest recipient of foreign direct investment (FDI) in the world. Now that China is a member of the World Trade Organisation, liberalisation of FDI is expected to accelerate even further. Despite the fact that an increasing proportion of FDI in China is in the form of equity joint ventures in the service sector, little is known of the ownership structure of service EJVs. Using a database of 6,430 foreign EJVs, in China from 1984 to 1996, this paper shows that foreign equity ownership differs significantly between service and manufacturing EJVs with foreign ownership generally being higher in service EJVs. The overall results also suggest that the gradual liberalisation of FDI in the service sector by Chinese authorities has had a positive effect on foreign equity ownership.

Details

International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-4233

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2011

Sameer Kumar, Qui S. Hong and Linae N. Haggerty

Numerous research articles and industry reports are currently available that deal with global sourcing, however, few articles and reports can be specifically found on…

Abstract

Purpose

Numerous research articles and industry reports are currently available that deal with global sourcing, however, few articles and reports can be specifically found on sourcing packaging materials in the consumer packaged food (CPF) industry. The purpose of this paper is to understand and develop the supplier selection process and overall cost modeling that facilitates the selection of a high‐quality global supplier for low‐cost packaging materials used in large quantities for CPF products.

Design/methodology/approach

To gain information relating to packaging material sourcing, a comprehensive literature search was conducted. Additionally, interviews with packaging material sourcing managers and directors were performed at a major global CPF products manufacturer. Knowledge gained from literature, industry interviews and available business data was used to develop a generic strategic outsourcing model and a closed loop business framework for selection of global suppliers of packaging material. This framework utilizes the proposed total cost of ownership model for global sourcing and weighted qualitative criteria matrix demonstrating how it is used in global supplier selection.

Findings

The results of this study show a standardized supplier selection process and the total cost of ownership model for a CPF manufacturer which incorporates the different logistic costs such as tariffs, duties, inventory carrying levels and cost of quality. These two models are then merged into a selection matrix to determine with which supplier to enter into a long‐term supply relationship.

Originality/value

The paper combines both the relevant closed loop supplier selection modeling framework and the total cost of ownership model in the selection of supplier for low‐cost high‐volume CPF materials. It adds rigor regarding cost of ownership and emphasizes the need for a strategic rationale when entering into long‐term global supply relationships between CPF products manufacturers and packaging material suppliers.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1995

Lisa M. Ellram

Total cost of ownership is a methodology and philosophy which looksbeyond the price of a purchase to include many other purchaserelatedcosts. This approach has become…

Abstract

Total cost of ownership is a methodology and philosophy which looks beyond the price of a purchase to include many other purchaserelated costs. This approach has become increasingly important as organizations look for ways to better understand and manage their costs. Examines case studies of 11 firms which use total cost of ownership concepts in purchasing. Based on the case study data and the literature, barriers and benefits associated with the total cost of ownership approach are discussed. The total cost of ownership models used by the case study firms are classified by type as dollar‐based or value‐based, and an example of each is shown. The total cost of ownership models are then further classified by their primary usage: supplier selection or supplier evaluation. This cross classification reveals a strong relationship between model type and model usage. Concludes with a comparison of the models, recommendations for practitioners and a discussion of future research directions.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 25 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

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