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Article

Anders Pehrsson

Establishment of wholly owned subsidiaries in a foreign market is central to international marketing because sole ownership and high commitment facilitate firm's marketing…

Abstract

Purpose

Establishment of wholly owned subsidiaries in a foreign market is central to international marketing because sole ownership and high commitment facilitate firm's marketing in the local market. Drawing on knowledge-based theory, this study extends the current understanding of firm's sequential establishments of wholly owned subsidiaries in a host country.

Design/methodology/approach

Swedish firms' establishments of wholly owned subsidiaries in Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States were analyzed using a longitudinal approach.

Findings

A firm's broad international experience is associated with an acquisition in any phase, while mode experience and value-adding experience are associated with postinitial acquisitions. There is no association between mode experience and greenfield investments.

Research limitations/implications

Knowledge-based theory explains a firm's choice of establishment mode when establishing in the same host country. Effects of marketing experiences are due to the establishment mode and different experiences explain choices for initial and postinitial establishments.

Practical implications

In choosing between a wholly owned subsidiary in terms of an acquisition or a greenfield investment, for a foreign establishment the firm is advised to consider the impact of marketing experiences and establishment phase.

Originality/value

Research is needed on how experiences affect choices between foreign establishment modes where the firm is the sole owner. This study is the first to focus on the choice between wholly owned subsidiaries in terms of acquisitions and greenfield investments, and the impact of experience and phase of establishment in a particular host country.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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Book part

Hui Xu, Harry A. Taute, Paul Dishman and Jing Guo

The relationship between internationalization efforts of businesses and resulting performance has long been debated in the international marketing literature. Specially…

Abstract

Purpose

The relationship between internationalization efforts of businesses and resulting performance has long been debated in the international marketing literature. Specially, under the environmental uncertainty, perception and experience of managers are important for internationalization performance.

Methodology/approach

This study proposes an integrated research framework and mechanism between perceived international risk and international marketing performance, adopting international experience as moderator variable and entry mode as mediating variable. Survey was conducted on 1,612 managers of 420 Chinese international enterprises by email and received 463 valid questionnaires.

Findings

The results show that there is a significant negative relationship between perceived international risk and international performance. Direct influence and perceived international risk have an indirect influence on international performance through entry mode; the influence on the international performance from perceived international risk is moderated by international experience, the regression coefficient between perceived international risk and international performance is the quadratic function of international experience.

Originality/value

Different from previous literature, this study found the complex relationship between risk and performance.

Details

International Marketing in the Fast Changing World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-233-7

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Article

Jose Pla-Barber, Cristina Villar and Fidel León-Darder

The purpose of this paper is to address foreign market entry mode as a way to enhance firm’s knowledge base, providing new insights into traditional explanations of entry…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address foreign market entry mode as a way to enhance firm’s knowledge base, providing new insights into traditional explanations of entry mode choice for soft services. The authors offer an alternative knowledge-based approach to assess foreign investment decisions by considering the role of resource-augmenting (direct investment) and resource-exploiting strategies (licenses). In addition, the authors untie the type of experiential knowledge, i.e., host country and mode experience, to analyze its interactions with environmental uncertainties such as cultural distance.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a customized database of the Spanish Global Hotel industry covering practically all foreign entries until 2012, the authors use regression analysis to test the proposal.

Findings

The authors demonstrate how in hotel chains (a) cultural distance influences the use of high resource-augmenting modes, due to both the difficulties in transferring the knowledge to third parties but also the imperative need of learning from local markets and (b) how strong brands tend to use resource-augmenting modes in their first steps abroad as a strategy to achieve a minimum level of resource basis to exploit it in a later stage.

Originality/value

The findings question the appropriateness of prior assumptions from traditional internationalization process theories for soft services MNE and provide an alternative approach to assess entry mode choice in this context.

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Book part

Philippe Very, Louis Hébert and Paul W Beamish

Few studies have explored how multinational firms (MNCs) use their experience when expanding abroad. According to the “knowledge projection” model of the MNC…

Abstract

Few studies have explored how multinational firms (MNCs) use their experience when expanding abroad. According to the “knowledge projection” model of the MNC, appropriately disseminating industry experience, country experience and mode experience can a priori increase the chances of success of new subsidiaries. However, with inconsistent findings, prior research is of limited assistance in understanding this relationship. We argue that this situation can be explained by a focus on firm’s potential for experience accumulation, rather than on the actual transfer of experience. Deploying expatriate managers enable MNCs to apply organizational experience in foreign markets. It should also have an impact on foreign subsidiary’s chances of success and survival. Therefore, this paper examines how the use of expatriates to transfer experience can affect subsidiary survival.

Details

"Theories of the Multinational Enterprise: Diversity, Complexity and Relevance"
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-285-6

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Article

Juergen Gnoth and Xavier Matteucci

This paper aims to discuss a framework in which the behavioural tourism and leisure literature is organised. It seeks to demonstrate the practical use of Gnoth's Tourism…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discuss a framework in which the behavioural tourism and leisure literature is organised. It seeks to demonstrate the practical use of Gnoth's Tourism Experience Model (TEM), and provide future directions in holiday tourism research.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper takes a phenomenological approach to tourists' experiencing as a critical and productive tool for tourism development. The literature reviewed is structured through the four modes of experiencing outlined in the TEM: experience as pure pleasure, as re-discovery, as existentially authentic exploration, and as knowledge seeking.

Findings

The TEM provides a model for all potential experiencing, that is, it models the boundaries of what experiencing could be throughout the tourist journey. The discussion of the literature also shows that, in many occasions, different experiential stages, states and modes of feeling await far more detailed research.

Originality/value

The paper highlights not a particular mode or phase within an experience but better captures the latency of experiencing. The paper argues that the model helps to better distinguish the processes of experiencing and challenges research to identify phases and developments, strategies and heuristics that take the tourist's potential “travel career” or self-developmental trajectories into consideration.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

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Article

Subhasree Mukherjee and Deepak Dhayanithy

By applying upper echelons perspective to the choice of full or shared control entry modes, this study aims to explore the moderating effect of interorganizational network…

Abstract

Purpose

By applying upper echelons perspective to the choice of full or shared control entry modes, this study aims to explore the moderating effect of interorganizational network on the top management team (TMT) characteristics and entry mode choice relationship. Existing studies on TMT’s demographic characters’ influence on entry mode choice remains inconclusive. The implicit assumption in extant literature is that firms share similar network structural advantages. This study integrates the largely ignored, network structural concept with entry mode to show how firm-level decisions are the outcome of interaction between internal and external environment.

Design/methodology/approach

The interorganizational network is modeled using board interlock data. The moderating effect of network is modeled on network size, centrality of the firms and density of ties, considering tenure and international experience of the upper echelons. The hypotheses are tested based on a sample of 83 publicly listed Indian firms from 2012 to 2015.

Findings

The findings indicate that despite a high international experienced TMT’s preference of full control entry mode, the high central position of the firm can influence the decision against full control entry modes. However, the choice of full control entry mode is also enhanced by the density of firm’s network. Similar evidence is also observed with tenure variable as well where the moderating variables showed a trend toward influencing the entry mode choices.

Originality/value

Thus, this study attempted to reconcile the inconsistencies prevalent in the relationship between TMT variables and choice of entry mode by introducing the contextual factor of interorganizational networks.

Details

Journal of Indian Business Research, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4195

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Article

Asad Ul Lah and Jacqui Saradjian

Schema therapy has gone through various adaptations, including the identification of various schema modes. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that there may be a…

Abstract

Purpose

Schema therapy has gone through various adaptations, including the identification of various schema modes. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that there may be a further dissociative mode, the “frozen child” mode, which is active for some patients, particularly those that have experienced extreme childhood trauma.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is participant observer case study which is based on the personal reflections of a forensic patient who completed a treatment programme which includes schema therapy.

Findings

The proposed mode, “frozen child”, is supported by theoretical indicators in the literature. It is proposed that patients develop this mode as a protective strategy and that unless recognised and worked with, can prevent successful completion of therapy.

Research limitations/implications

Based on a single case study, this concept is presented as a hypothesis that requires validation as the use of the case study makes generalisation difficult.

Practical implications

It is suggested that if validated, this may be one of the blocks therapists have previously encountered that has led to the view that people with severe personality disorder are “untreatable”. Suggestions are made as to how patients with this mode, if validated, can be treated with recommendations as to the most appropriate processes to potentiate such therapy.

Originality/value

The suggestion of this potential “new schema mode” is based on service user initiative, arising from a collaborative enterprise between service user and clinician, as recommended in recent government policies.

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Article

Uri Fidelman

It is suggested that nominalism and Platonism are modes of perceiving experience in the Kantian sense. These two modes, like the temporal and the spatial Kantian modes of…

Abstract

It is suggested that nominalism and Platonism are modes of perceiving experience in the Kantian sense. These two modes, like the temporal and the spatial Kantian modes of perceiving experience, are related to the left and right cerebral hemispheres respectively. Learning experiments showing the relation of all these four modes of perceiving experience to the hemispheres are described. It is discussed that the nominalist and Platonic modes of perceiving experience are subjective as well as the Kantian modes, time and space. Some relation of this discussion to the collapse of the wave function in quantum mechanics is considered. A phenomenon of a one‐and‐a‐half hour cycle in hemispheric activity, which may have implications to the designing of examinations, is described.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article

Sita Mishra and Rajendra Nargundkar

Management education is at its peak in India. But pedagogy and modes of delivery are not always innovative compared to top international Business Schools. It is through…

Abstract

Purpose

Management education is at its peak in India. But pedagogy and modes of delivery are not always innovative compared to top international Business Schools. It is through experimentation that the paper may be able to discover what works best in our context. The purpose of this paper is to determine the effectiveness of intensive mode of delivery vs traditional semester-wide teaching of management courses among MBA students of a leading Business School, through one such experiment.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 19 dimensions were used in this study. The questionnaire was tested on two different groups. An independent sample t-test was conducted for each dimension, to find out if the group that was subjected to this experiment had opinions different from the group that did not undergo the accelerated version.

Findings

The results indicated perceptions on most of the dimensions disconcerting, barring increase in commitment, engagement, focus, and concentration with intensive mode. Further, this negative perception augmented towards intensive delivery mode, after experiencing traditional delivery.

Practical implications

The literature does appear to show controversial outcomes related to intensive mode but more studies are in support of intensive modes of delivery format. The issue of whether students learn better in a semester/trimester of traditional length or with a compressed schedule is a key concern to the innovations in higher education scheduling today. Findings of this study pose a serious threat to all those management institutions which are planning to attempt to speed up the delivery of programmes and courses within them in order to reduce cost or other reasons.

Originality/value

In education literature, significant amount of research has been carried out using a time compressed in developed countries. This study is one of the first studies, which focuses on determining the effectiveness of intensive teaching against traditional trimester/semester wide teaching among MBA education in India.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

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Article

Ikechi Ekeledo and K. Sivakumar

This research has two major purposes: developing and testing a resource‐based framework for entry mode choice and ascertaining the extent to which the determinants of…

Abstract

This research has two major purposes: developing and testing a resource‐based framework for entry mode choice and ascertaining the extent to which the determinants of foreign market entry mode choice in the manufacturing sector apply to foreign market entry mode choice in the non‐separable service sector. Using mail survey data collected from top‐level managers of US firms that had been engaged in international business, the article tests a number of research hypotheses concerning foreign market entry mode choice in the manufacturing and service sectors. The managerial and research implications of the findings are delineated and directions for future research are offered.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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