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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1982

K. Fässler and H. Spähn

1 Introduction Some interesting new developments have taken place in recent years in the field of ferritic stainless steel (1–16). As a material for chemical apparatus…

Abstract

1 Introduction Some interesting new developments have taken place in recent years in the field of ferritic stainless steel (1–16). As a material for chemical apparatus, the common highly alloyed chromium steels as listed in national standards (e.g. in the German Standard DIN 17440) have only found limited applications. The reasons are sensitivity of several of these chromium alloyed stainless steels to intergranular corrosion (especially after welding), lower corrosion resistance compared to austenitic stainless steels, and difficulties in fabricating (especially welding). It has been shown (1–16) that the intrinsic drawbacks of customary ferritics can be overcome by metallurgical measures, primarily keeping the amount of carbon and nitrogen extremely low. The solubility in the ferrite for these two elements in rather low, both occupying interstitial sites. Stainless steels of the type dealt with in this paper are therefore sometimes termed Extra Low Interstitial (ELI)‐ferritic stainless steels. At sufficiently low concentrations of carbon and nitrogen (and some other elements), the sensitivity of ferritic stainless steels to intergranular corrosion is definitely lowered, and their ductility at ambient temperature is increased, i.e. the transition temperature is lowered. An advantage of these steels is their resistance to stress corrosion cracking. They have, so far, shown no sensitivity against chloride stress corrosion cracking under realistic operating conditions. For this reason, cooling water systems using river water with a high chloride content represent a suitable field of application for these steels. They can be welded up to a wall thickness of 3mm without sensitisation and undue loss of impact strength so that tubes for heat exchangers can be made of these steels. Their development has led to alloys ranging from 18 Cr‐2 Mo‐0 Ni to about 28 Cr‐2 Mo‐4 Ni. The present paper will only deal with the 18 Cr‐2 Mo steel because this material can be compared in price and properties with the standard 18 Cr‐9 Ni‐2 Mo austenitic stainless steel. In addition, the material in question has now become available in the form of pipe and sheet.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 29 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Article
Publication date: 13 December 2022

Tria Mei Dian Sari and Farida Indriani

This study examines how market orientation (MO) affects hotel performance through the value-based marketing innovation intermediate function.

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines how market orientation (MO) affects hotel performance through the value-based marketing innovation intermediate function.

Design/methodology/approach

:Structural equation modeling-partial least squares (SEM-PLS) analyses are performed to assess the proposed research model on a sample of 166 three-to-five-star hotels located in six provinces of Java Island, Indonesia.

Findings

The findings indicate that MO influences value-based marketing innovation and hotel performance. Additionally, it was demonstrated that value-based marketing innovation mediates the indirect link between MO and hotel performance.

Practical implications

This research encourages the managers of hotels to adopt MO as the company's culture and to pay close attention to value-based marketing innovation to recognize the potential benefit of MO in hotel performance enhancement.

Originality/value

This research focuses on unifying MO and resource-based view into a cohesive approach to better understand the link between MO and value-based marketing innovation and how both aspects affect hotel performance.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9792

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 September 2022

Daniel Gajda and Przemysław Zbierowski

Drawing on the social exchange theory, the authors extend the high-reliability literature by examining employees' subjective experience of working in contexts engaging in…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the social exchange theory, the authors extend the high-reliability literature by examining employees' subjective experience of working in contexts engaging in mindful organizing (MO). Ultimately, they ask the question about how MO affects employees' attitudes and behavior toward work and organization, such us organizational commitment (OC), motivation to work and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), in ordinary business settings. The purpose of this paper is to address this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors surveyed 307 employees from various industries, using paper-and-pencil questionnaires. A series of hierarchical regression analyses and structural equation modeling were performed to test our hypotheses.

Findings

The authors found that MO is positively related to employees' affective and normative commitment to an organization, and that affective commitment is positively related to motivation to work and OCB. The study also reveals that the affective commitment has a partially mediating role in the MO – motivation and MO – OCB relations. Although several researchers argue that the effectiveness of MO may be higher in an uncertain environment, the authors’ study indicates that the environment does not moderate the relationship between MO and OC.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is one of the first attempts to explore the effects of MO in a traditional (i.e. nonhigh reliability) business context. Furthermore, their findings prove that MO not only leads to higher reliability and greater safety, as previous studies show, but it also positively affects performance-related attitudes and behavior.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 3 July 2018

Neil A. Morgan and Douglas W. Vorhies

The marketing literature indicates that a firm’s organizational culture plays a critical role in determining its market orientation (MO) and thereby the firm’s ability to…

Abstract

Purpose

The marketing literature indicates that a firm’s organizational culture plays a critical role in determining its market orientation (MO) and thereby the firm’s ability to successfully adapt to its environment to achieve superior business performance. However, our understanding of the organizational culture of market-oriented firms and its relationship with business performance remains limited in a number of important ways. Drawing on the behavioral theory of the firm and the competing values theory perspective on organizational culture, our empirical study addresses important knowledge gaps concerning the relationship between firm MO culture, MO behaviors, innovation, customer satisfaction, and business performance.

Methodology/approach

We used a survey methodology with Clan Cultural Orientation, Adhocracy Cultural Orientation, Market Cultural Orientation, and Hierarchy Cultural Orientation Clan. Market Orientation Behaviors, Innovation, and Customer Satisfaction and CFROA t (Net Operating Income + Depreciation and AmortizationDisposal of Assets)/Total Assets.

Findings

The overall fit of the first Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) containing the three MO behavior sub-scales, the four organizational culture scales, and the innovation and satisfaction performance measures was good with a χ 2 = 760.89, 524 df, p < 0.001; CFI = 0.916 and RMSEA = 0.055. The overall fit of the second CFA containing the business strategy, bureaucracy, and customer expectations control variables was also good with a χ 2 = 243.26, 156 df, p < 0.001; CFI = 0.937 and RMSEA = 0.061. We also subsequently ran a third CFA in which the MO behavior construct was modeled as a second-order factor comprising the three first-order sub-scales (generation of market intelligence, dissemination of market intelligence, and responsiveness to market intelligence) each of which in turn arose from the relevant survey indicants. This measurement model also fit well with the data with a χ 2 = 84.06, 63 df, p < 0.039; CFI = 0.955 and RMSEA = 0.047. Regressions using seemingly unrelated regressions (SUR) with control variables and with R 2 values ranging from 0.28 to 0.54.

Practical implications

MO culture has an important direct effect on firms’ financial performance as well as an indirect effect via MO behaviors and innovations. Importantly, our findings suggest that MO culture facilitates value-creating behaviors above and beyond those identified in the marketing literature as MO behaviors. In contrast to a series of studies by Deshpandé and colleagues (1993, 1999, 2000, 2004), our empirical results suggest the value of the internally oriented Clan and to a lesser degree Hierarchy cultural orientations as well as the more externally oriented Adhocracy and Market cultural orientations. The benchmark ideal MO culture profile we identify is consistent with organization theory conceptualizations of strong balanced organizational cultures in which each of the four competing values orientations is simultaneously exhibited to a significant degree (e.g., Cameron & Freeman, 1991). Our findings indicate that the organizational culture domain of MO appears to be at least as important (if not more so) in explaining firm performance and suggest that researchers need to re-visit the conceptualization, and perhaps more importantly the operationalization, of MO as a central construct in strategic marketing thought.

Originality/value

In building an MO culture, an important first step is to assess the firm’s existing organizational culture profile (e.g., Goodman, Zammuto, & Gifford, 2001). Organization theory researchers have developed competing values theory-based organizational culture assessment tools that can provide managers with an easily accessible mechanism for accomplishing this (Cameron & Quinn, 1999). The profile of the firm’s existing culture and the profile of the ideal culture for MO from our study can then be plotted on a “spider’s web” graphical representation (e.g., Hooijberg & Petrock, 1993). This aids the comparison of the firm’s existing cultural profile with the ideal MO profile, enabling managers to easily diagnose the areas, direction, and magnitude MO culture profile “gaps” in their firm (Cameron, 1997). Specific gap-closing plans and tactics for gaps on each of the four cultural orientations can then be identified as part of the development of a change management program designed to create an MO culture profile (e.g., Chang & Wiebe, 1996). Cameron and Quinn’s (1999) workbook provides managers with an excellent operational resource for planning and undertaking such gap-closing organizational culture change initiatives.

Details

Innovation and Strategy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-828-2

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 July 2022

Hyojin Kim and Daesik Hur

This study focuses on how a small and medium-sized enterprise's (SME's) main strategic orientation can affect SMEs' approach to innovation. The authors aim to answer the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study focuses on how a small and medium-sized enterprise's (SME's) main strategic orientation can affect SMEs' approach to innovation. The authors aim to answer the following simple yet important questions: how do SMEs with market orientation (MO) and those with entrepreneurial orientation (EO) differ in terms of innovation performance? Do MO and EO have conflicting effects on the process of innovation at SMEs? If so, how does this conflict affect the innovation performance of SMEs?

Design/methodology/approach

This study explores the effects of MO and EO on different types of technological innovation among SMEs using data collected from 124 INNOBIZ-certified manufacturing SMEs in South Korea. Logistic regression analysis and moderated regression analysis were conducted to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The empirical results demonstrate that MO and EO engender different kinds of technological innovations. MO stimulates “new-to-the-firm” product innovation, while EO drives “new-to-the-industry” innovation in processes and products. Furthermore, SMEs' overall innovation performance will suffer from the conflicting interplay between MO and EO.

Originality/value

The findings of this study encourage SMEs to concentrate SMEs' resources and learning efforts on one specific innovation orientation and only then to develop SMEs' ambidextrous managerial capabilities. This study offers academic contributions in that the study overcomes the limitations of past studies on the strategic orientation of SMEs by empirically confirming the dilemmas faced by SMEs and expands the theoretical understanding of the relationship between MO and EO.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 January 2022

Antonio Benedito de Oliveira Junior and Mauro Jose De Oliveira

This study aims to design and empirically test a model where autonomy affects partnership (PT) and entrepreneurial orientation (EO), which in turn improves competitive…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to design and empirically test a model where autonomy affects partnership (PT) and entrepreneurial orientation (EO), which in turn improves competitive aggressiveness (CA), market orientation (MO) and PT; to verify the impact of CA on MO and PT; and to determine to what extent MO mediates the EO–PT relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used a quantitative approach to test 101 Brazilian firms from different sectors, analyzed by structural equation modeling using the partial least squares–structural equation modeling.

Findings

Results show that autonomy improves EO and PT. EO positively affects CA, MO and PT. CA impacts MO positively, and MO mediates the EO–PT relationship, although it reduces the possibility of PT.

Research limitations/implications

Although 101 firms could be a “small sample,” the authors validated it according to Hair et al. (2009) and Chin et al. (2003). Their first contribution is to extend the works relating to EO and PT by showing the positive effects of autonomy on EO and PT. Second, to show the mediating effect of MO on the EO–PT relationship. Finally, they draw attention to how firms with EO improve CA, MO and PT; and CA boost MO. Thus, to generalize EO research internationally, like in the emergent markets.

Originality/value

Although EO has attracted significant attention to entrepreneurship research, it is not clear how autonomy impacts a firm's EO and PT, considering the mediating effect of MO on the EO–PT relationship; if EO influences CA and MO, and the impact of CA on MO and PT.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 January 2022

Martha Lucia Cruz Rincon, Martha Lucia Agredo Diaz and Raquel Puente Castro

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the multiple mediation role of both market orientation (MO) and marketing capabilities (MC) in the relationship between…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the multiple mediation role of both market orientation (MO) and marketing capabilities (MC) in the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation (EO) and performance (OP), given that the results of previous studies are not conclusive. Consequently, this relationship can be more complex than a direct relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Using structural equation models, the proposed conceptual model is tested with data from 154 small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the low-tech manufacturing sector of an emerging Latin American country. Data analysis was performed using structural equations.

Findings

The results confirm that the relationship between EO and OP is not significant. Likewise, the roles of individual and sequential mediation of MO and MC in the relationship between EO and OP are confirmed.

Research limitations/implications

The cross-sectional nature of the study. A longitudinal study could provide additional insights regarding the relationships among these variables and their effect on performance.

Practical implications

Guidelines help businesses in emerging markets to consider the importance of developing entrepreneurs’ MC and MO to optimize the impact of EO on OP.

Social implications

Guidelines help public policymakers in emerging markets to consider the importance of developing entrepreneurs’ MC and MO to optimize the impact of EO on OP.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to understanding the complex relationship between EO and OP, which remains relatively underexplored in SMEs in developing countries (Buli, 2017), by analyzing the key role of OM and MC in a multiple mediation model not considered in previous empirical evidence.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 December 2021

Rayees Farooq and Sandeep Vij

The purpose of this study is to investigate the dimensionality of the market orientation (MO) scale.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the dimensionality of the market orientation (MO) scale.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a firm-level study. A purposive sample of 400 firms (with 2–3 key informants from each firm) has been taken to study the MO of the firms. The psychometric testing of the MO scale was done using exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM).

Findings

The results have shown that the dimensionality of MO exhibits a different pattern across the sample. The four factors delineated dimensions explain more than 62% of the variance in the data set and are found to be the valuable and versatile measure of MO. Overall, the results provide enough evidence of the validity, reliability and generalizability of the MO scale. The results of SEM indicate a satisfactory nomological validity of the scale.

Originality/value

The study develops a valid measure of MO with a major focus on market intelligence. The study proposes MO as a function of customer orientation, competitor orientation, inter-functional coordination and market intelligence which was largely ignored in the marketing literature.

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 10 January 2022

Kassimu Issau, Sanjay Soni and Innocent Senyo Kwasi Acquah

This research examines the interrelationships between market orientation (MO) and entrepreneurial orientation (EO) in the small- and medium-sized enterprise (SME) sector…

Abstract

Purpose

This research examines the interrelationships between market orientation (MO) and entrepreneurial orientation (EO) in the small- and medium-sized enterprise (SME) sector. Due to the conflicting results associated with each orientation's influence on firm performance, some researchers advanced that scholars should resort to concurrent observation of the constructs. To the researchers, concurrent deployment of the constructs by businesses is likely to result in an enhanced performance. However, what is lacking in their proposition is how the deployment of these resources should be, thereby leading to a knowledge gap in the literature. The aforementioned gap is what this paper seeks to address.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employed deductive research approach, and data were collected from 366 SMEs' owners or owner-managers of SMEs in two metropoles in Ghana. For this study, the hand delivery and collection of questionnaire technique was deployed. The reason is that most respondents may be reluctant to respond to the questionnaires through the post or Internet. Partial least square-structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was employed for the data analysis due to its importance in allowing the testing of relationships among constructs. Furthermore, seven-point Likert scale was used to generate responses from the respondents.

Findings

The result indicates that MO and EO have a positive and significant influence on each other. However, the influence of EO on MO is greater. Therefore, when owners of SMEs are embracing the two constructs in their businesses, EO should precede MO. The finding is a novelty of this study. Through this result, the owners of SMEs would have knowledge of embracing EO before MO during the employment of the two constructs in their firms. The study further revealed that not all the components of MO have positive and significant influence on EO, and the reverse is true. Without this study, the owners of SMEs would have placed equal attention on each construct and their components. The study also indicates that deployment of MO in its composite form rather than components is the best way for improving EO.

Practical implications

The more SMEs engage in MO activities, the likelihood of an increase in their entrepreneurial spirit and the opposite is true. However, engaging in more EO activities would result in higher MO than the reverse.

Originality/value

The findings add to the empirical literature by revealing the interrelationships between MO and EO, which serve as a guide to owners of SMEs and practitioners in their concurrent deployment of the two constructs. The findings would also open replication doors for future researchers in different settings.

Details

Revista de Gestão, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1809-2276

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 June 2021

Jashanpreet Singh and Jatinder Pal Singh

This study aims to deal with development and performance analysis of high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermally sprayed Mo2C-based WC-CoCr (tungsten carbine cobalt chrome…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to deal with development and performance analysis of high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermally sprayed Mo2C-based WC-CoCr (tungsten carbine cobalt chrome) (Co-10% and Cr-4%) cermet coating deposited on the pump impeller steel 316 L.

Design/methodology/approach

In this work, a study was carried out by modifying the conventional WC-CoCr powder with a small addition of molybdenum carbide (Mo2C). Reinforcement was done by 1–4 wt.% addition of Mo2C feedstocks in WC-CoCr powder by using a jar ball mill process. The design of experiment was implemented for optimization of the percentage of Mo2C feedstock. L16 (4 × 4) orthogonal array was used to design the experiments for erosion output for the input parameters namely velocity, particle size, concentration and Mo2C proportion.

Findings

Results show that the Mo2C-based WC-CoCr coating provides better microhardness as compared to conventional WC-CoCr coating. The present study also reveals that the deposition of conventional WC-CoCr coating has improved the wear resistance of SS 316 L by 9.98%. However, the slurry erosion performance of conventional WC-CoCr coating was improved as 69.6% by the addition of 3% Mo2C.

Practical implications

WC-CoCr coatings are universally used for protecting the equipment and machinery from abrasion, erosion and corrosion. So, the 3% Mo2C-based WC-CoCr can be useful in power plants and various industries like mining, chemical, automobile, cementing and food processing industries.

Originality/value

A new HVOF coating has been developed by the addition of Mo2C feedstock in WC-CoCr powder (Co 10% and Cr 4%) and the percentage of Mo2C feedstock was optimized to improve the tribological behavior of WC-CoCr coating.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 74 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 10000