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Article
Publication date: 3 March 2020

Yacine Abadou, Abderrahmane Ghrieb, Rosa Bustamante and Hayette Faid

The purpose of this study is to fit an appropriate mathematical model to express response variables as functions of the proportions of the mixture components. One purpose…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to fit an appropriate mathematical model to express response variables as functions of the proportions of the mixture components. One purpose of statistical modeling in a mixture experiment is to model the blending surface such that predictions of the response for any mixture component, singly or in combination, can be made empirically. Testing of the model adequacy will also be an important part of the statistical procedure.

Design/methodology/approach

A series of mortar using air lime, marble and ceramic sanitary waste aggregates were prepared for statistically designed combinations. The combinations were designed based on the mixture-design concept of design of experiments; this mortar is often used as a filler material in restoration projects. The aim of this work is to find an optimal composition of a paste for the manufacture of air lime mortar with ceramic and marble waste. This investigation aims to recommend mix design for air lime-based mortar, by optimizing the input combination for different properties, and to predict properties such as mechanical strength, thermogravimetric and x-ray diffraction analysis with a high degree of accuracy, based on a statistical analysis of experimental data.

Findings

This paper discusses those mortar properties that architects, contractors and owners consider important. For each of these properties, the influence of ceramic and marble waste in the air lime mortar is explored. The flexibility of lime-based mortars with waste materials to meet a wide range of needs in both new construction and restoration of masonry projects is demonstrated.

Originality/value

The objective of the present investigation is to recommend mixture design for air lime mortar with waste, by optimizing the input combination for different properties, and to predict properties such as compressive strength, flexural strength with a high degree of accuracy, based on the statistical analysis of experimental data. The authors conducted a mixture design study that takes into account dependent parameters such as the constituents of our air lime-based mortar where we have determined an experiment matrix to which we have connected the two responses, namely, compressive and flexural strength. By introducing the desirability criteria of these two responses, using JMP software, we were able to obtain a mixture optimal for air lime mortar with ceramic and marble waste.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. 18 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 January 2021

Ahmed Attia, Salim Guettala and Rebih Zaitri

The purpose of this paper is to implement the mathematical models to predict concretes physico-mechanical characteristics made with binary and ternary sands using a mixture

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to implement the mathematical models to predict concretes physico-mechanical characteristics made with binary and ternary sands using a mixture design method. It is a new technique that optimizes mixtures without being obliged to do a lot of experiments. The goal is to find the law governing the responses depending on mixture composition and capable of taking into account the effect of each parameter separately and in interaction between several parameters on the characteristics studied.

Design/methodology/approach

Mixture design method was used for optimizing concretes characteristics and studying the effects of river sand (RS), dune sand (DS) and crushed sand (CS) in combinations of binary system and ternary on workability, the compressive and flexural strengths of concretes at 7 and 28 days. A total of 21 mixtures of concrete were prepared for this investigation. The modeling was carried out by using JMP7 statistical software.

Findings

Mixture design method made it possible to obtain, with good precision, the statistical models and the prediction curves of studied responses. The models have relatively good correlation coefficients (R2 = 0.70) for all studied responses. The use of binary and ternary mixtures sands improves the workability and their mechanical strengths. The obtained results proved that concrete, based on binary mixture C15, presents the maximum compressive strength (MCS) on 28 day with an improvement of around 20%, compared to reference concrete (C21). For ternary mixtures, MCS on 28 day was obtained for the mixture C10 with an improvement of around 15% compared to C21. Increase in compressive strength during the progress of hydration reactions was accompanied by an increase in the flexural strength, but in different proportions.

Originality/value

The partial incorporation of DS (= 40%) in the concrete formulation can provide a solution for some work in the southern regions of country. In addition, the CS is an interesting alternative source for replacing 60% of RS. The concrete formulation based on local materials is really capable of solving the economic and technical problems encountered in the building field, as well as environmental problems. Local resources therefore constitute an economic, technological and environmental alternative.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 April 2009

George J. Besseris

The aim of this paper is to examine product formulation screening at the industrial level in terms of multi‐trait improvement by considering several pertinent controlling factors.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to examine product formulation screening at the industrial level in terms of multi‐trait improvement by considering several pertinent controlling factors.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopts Taguchi's orthogonal arrays (OAs) for sufficient and economical sampling in a mixture problem. Robustness of testing data is instilled in this method by employing a two‐stage analysis where controlling components are investigated together while the slack variable is tested independently. Multi‐responses collapse to a single master response has been incurred according to the Super Ranking concept. Order statistics are employed to provide statistical significance. The slack variable influence is tested by regression and nonparametric correlation.

Findings

Synergy among Taguchi methodology, super ranking and nonparametric testing was seamless to offer practical resolution to product component activeness. The concurrent modulation of two key product traits due to five constituents in the industrial production of muffin‐cake is invoked. The slack variable, rich cream, is strongly active while the influence of added amount of water is barely evident.

Research limitations/implications

The method presented is suitable only for situations where industrial mixtures are investigated. The case study demonstrates prediction capabilities up to quadratic effects for five nominated effects. However, the statistical processor selected here may be adapted to any number of factor settings dictated by the OA sampling plan.

Practical implications

By using a case study from food engineering, the industrial production of a muffin‐cake is examined focusing on a total of five controlling mixture components and two responses. This demonstration emphasizes the dramatic savings in time and effort that are gained by the proposed method due to reduction of experimental effort while gaining on analysis robustness.

Originality/value

This work interconnects Taguchi methodology with powerful nonparametric tests of Kruskal‐Wallis for the difficult problem of non‐linear analysis of mixtures for saturated, unreplicated fractional factorial designs in search of multi‐factor activeness in multi‐response cases employing simple and practical tools.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 May 2021

Ning Wang, Haitao Zhang and Huizhong Xiong

In order to unravel the evolution of microstructure characteristics and the change of mechanical properties of bituminous mixture in the freezing and thawing environment…

Abstract

Purpose

In order to unravel the evolution of microstructure characteristics and the change of mechanical properties of bituminous mixture in the freezing and thawing environment in cold region, this study starts from macroscopic experiments and analyzes the changes in mechanical properties of asphalt mixtures before and after freezing and thawing in detail. On this basis, the displacement of key particles in the structure of asphalt mixture under the action of external forces (before and after freezing and thawing) is simulated through the combination macroscopic and microscopic methods.

Design/methodology/approach

The climate in China exhibits high complexity and diversity, divided into five zones based on the temperature difference from south to north. Considering that the significant effect of geography and natural climate on the design, construction and maintenance of asphalt pavement, the criterion for the road construction at different areas should be highly different.

Findings

The results show that the mechanical properties of asphalt mixture greatly decrease due to the influence of freeze-thaw, and the displacement of key particles in the structure of asphalt mixture (several representative particle sizes were selected through experiments) is obviously observed because of the action of external force. By analyzing the variation of several key particle sizes after freezing-thawing cycle, the gradation standard of asphalt mixture aggregate suitable for cold area was obtained. The research results have certain theoretical and practical value for the design and application of asphalt mixture in cold area.

Originality/value

The results show that the mechanical properties of asphalt mixture greatly decrease due to the influence of freeze-thaw, and the displacement of key particles in the structure of asphalt mixture (several representative particle sizes were selected through experiments) is obviously observed because of the action of external force. By analyzing the variation of several key particle sizes after freezing-thawing cycle, the gradation standard of asphalt mixture aggregate suitable for cold area was obtained. The research results have certain theoretical and practical value for the design and application of asphalt mixture in cold area.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 October 2020

Pavana Kumara Bellairu, Shreeranga Bhat and E.V. Gijo

The aim of this article is to demonstrate the development of environment friendly, low cost natural fibre composites by robust engineering approach. More specifically, the…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this article is to demonstrate the development of environment friendly, low cost natural fibre composites by robust engineering approach. More specifically, the prime objective of the study is to optimise the composition of natural fibre reinforced polymer nanocomposites using a robust statistical approach.

Design/methodology/approach

In this research, the material is prepared using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), Cantala fibres and Epoxy Resin in accordance with the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) standards. Further, the composition is prepared and optimised using the mixture-design approach for the flexural strength of the material.

Findings

The results of the study indicate that MWCNT plays a vital role in increasing the flexural strength of the composite. Moreover, it is observed that interactions between second order and third order parameters in the composition are statistically significant. This leads to proposing a special cubic model for the novel composite material with residual analysis. Moreover, the methodology assists in optimising the mixture component values to maximise the flexural strength of the novel composite material.

Originality/value

This article attempts to include both MWCNT and Cantala fibres to develop a novel composite material. In addition, it employs the mixture-design technique to optimise the composition and predict the model of the study in a step-by-step manner, which will act as a guideline for academicians and practitioners to optimise the material composition with specific reference to natural fibre reinforced nanocomposites.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 April 2022

Hadji Ben Salah, Benamara Dalila and Taallah Bachir

This paper aims to express a mathematical model that predicts the effect of mineral additives on the physical–mechanical properties of high-performance sand concrete…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to express a mathematical model that predicts the effect of mineral additives on the physical–mechanical properties of high-performance sand concrete (HPSC), using SAS's JMP7 statistical analysis software.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixture design modeling approach is applied to sand concrete (SC) for optimizing mixtures without being obliged to do a lot of experiments, where the cement is partially replaced with two mineral additives silica fume (SF) and blast furnace slag (BFS) in proportions as high as 20% of the mass. A total of 15 mixtures of sand concrete is prepared in the laboratory using this analytical technique in combinations with binary and ternary systems to estimate the workability and the compressive strength (CS) of sand concrete at 7 and 28 days.

Findings

The results obtained showed that the use of derived models based on the experimental design approach greatly assisted in understanding the interactions between the various parameters of the studied mixtures; the mathematical models present excellent correlation coefficients (R² = 0.96 for CS7 days, R² = 0.93 for CS28 days and R² = 0.95 for slump) for all studied responses. Moreover, it was also found that the inclusion of additives (SF and BFS) in binary mixture SC12 and ternary mixtures SC8 leads to a significant improvement in mechanical strength compared to reference sand concrete SC15. These results give the possibility to obtain a formulation of HPSC.

Originality/value

This paper shows the possibility of manufacturing high-performance sand-concrete with good compressive strength; the developed mathematical model by using SAS's JMP7 statistical analysis software allowed us to reach a strength compression value of about 60 MPa, in 28 days, by replacing 10% of the cement weight with silica fume. Furthermore, with partial replacement of the cement weight (15%) with two additions such as silica fume (10%) and blast furnace slag (5%), a 58 MPa of compressive strength can be achieved, without overlooking the fact that this can be a key economic and environmental alternative.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 October 2021

Haitao Zhang, Junfeng Sun and Mingyang Gong

The purpose of this study is to compare and analyze the anti-aging durability of asphalt and asphalt mixture under the conditions of inherent and improved performance. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to compare and analyze the anti-aging durability of asphalt and asphalt mixture under the conditions of inherent and improved performance. The research contents include: the mechanical properties (dynamic stability, bending strain, freeze-thaw splitting tensile strength ratio (TSR)) of different modified asphalt mixtures were tested by using the best modified asphalt.

Design/methodology/approach

The anti-aging durability of different modified asphalt was analyzed by using the results of macro tests such as penetration and softening point as evaluation indexes. Meanwhile, the change of the asphalt colloid instability index (Ic) in the aging process was used as the evaluation index to verify the results of the macroscopic test, and the best modified asphalt was obtained. On this basis, the composition of different modified asphalt mixtures was designed by using the best modified asphalt. Meanwhile, water stability was used as evaluation indexes to study the anti-aging durability of different modified asphalt mixtures.

Findings

The results show that styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) modified asphalt has better aging resistance. Due to the special storage time, the performance of rubber asphalt is also the best. Meanwhile, in terms of modified asphalt mixture, its high temperature performance and durability of anti-aging is as follows: 4% SBS /16% rubber modified asphalt mixture (IV) > 4% SBS modified asphalt mixture (II) > asphalt mixture (90#) (I) > 16% rubber modified asphalt mixture (III). The low temperature performance and durability of anti-aging is as follows: Ⅱ > IV > Ⅰ > Ⅲ. The water stability performance and durability of anti-aging is as follows: IV > Ⅲ > Ⅱ > Ⅰ.

Originality/value

The research results have important theoretical and guiding significance for exploring the change of intrinsic properties and improved properties of asphalt and asphalt mixture in the aging process and revealing the anti-aging mechanism of different modified asphalt mixtures.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 November 2021

M. Poornesh, Shreeranga Bhat, E.V. Gijo and Pavana Kumara Bellairu

This article aims to study the tensile properties of a functionally graded composite structure with Al–18wt%Si alloy as the matrix material and silicon carbide (SiC…

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to study the tensile properties of a functionally graded composite structure with Al–18wt%Si alloy as the matrix material and silicon carbide (SiC) particles as the reinforcing element. More specifically, the study's primary objective is to optimize the composition of the material elements using a robust statistical approach.

Design/methodology/approach

In this research, the composite material is fabricated using a combination of stir casting and the centrifugal casting technique. Moreover, the test specimen required to study the tensile strength are prepared according to the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) standards. Eventually, optimal composition to maximize the tensile property of the material is determined using the mixture design approach.

Findings

The investigation results imply that the addition of the SiC plays a crucial role in increasing the tensile strength of the composite. The optical microstructural images of the composite show the adequate distribution of the reinforcing particles with the matrix. The proposed regression model shows better predictability of tensile strength. In addition, the methodology aids in optimizing the mixture component values to maximize the tensile strength of the produced functionally graded composite structure.

Originality/value

Little work has been reported so far where a hypereutectic Al–Si alloy is considered the matrix material to produce the composite structure. The article attempts to make a composite structure by using a combination of stir casting and centrifugal casting. Furthermore, it employs the mixture design to optimize the composition and predict the model of the study, which is one of a kind in the field of material science.

Article
Publication date: 5 July 2013

Tara L. Cavalline and David C. Weggel

Reuse of construction and demolition (C&D) waste as aggregates is becoming increasingly popular for a number of environmental and economic reasons. The purpose of this…

1805

Abstract

Purpose

Reuse of construction and demolition (C&D) waste as aggregates is becoming increasingly popular for a number of environmental and economic reasons. The purpose of this paper is to explore this topic.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, structural‐ and pavement‐grade portland cement concrete (PCC) mixtures were developed using crushed recycled brick masonry from a demolition site as a replacement for conventional coarse aggregate. Prior to developing concrete mixtures, testing was performed to determine properties of whole clay brick and tile, as well as the crushed recycled brick masonry aggregate (RBMA), and a database of material properties was developed.

Findings

Concrete mixtures exhibiting acceptable workability and other fresh concrete properties were obtained, and tests were performed to assess mechanical properties and durability performance of the hardened concrete. Results indicated that recycled brick masonry aggregate concrete (RBMAC) mixtures can exhibit mechanical properties comparable to that of structural‐ and pavement‐grade PCC containing conventional coarse aggregates.

Research limitations/implications

Results for durability performance were mixed, but additional testing to evaluate durability performance is recommended.

Practical implications

Although RBMAC has been untested in field applications, results of laboratory studies performed to date indicate that this material shows promise for use in pavement and structural applications. Future testing of RBMAC in both laboratory and field settings will allow stakeholders to gain a comfort level with its properties, identify specific potential uses, and establish guidelines that will assist in ensuring acceptable service life performance.

Originality/value

From the standpoint of sustainability, use of recycled materials as aggregates provides several advantages. Landfill space used for disposal is decreased, and existing natural aggregate sources are not as quickly depleted. Use of recycled aggregates in lieu of virgin quarried aggregates can potentially result in a lower embodied energy of the concrete, although this is often dependent on hauling costs. This particularly holds true if the methodology used to compute the embodied energy of a structure accounts for the “recovery” of energy at the end of its service life.

Article
Publication date: 23 November 2018

Kabiru Abdullahi Ahmad, Norhidayah Abdul Hassan, Mohd Ezree Abdullah, Munder A.M. Bilema, Nura Usman, Al Allam Musbah Al Allam and Mohd Rosli Bin Hainin

In order to fully understand the properties of porous asphalt, investigation should be conducted from different point of views. This is from the fact that porous asphalt…

Abstract

Purpose

In order to fully understand the properties of porous asphalt, investigation should be conducted from different point of views. This is from the fact that porous asphalt mixture designed with the same aggregate gradation and air void content can give different infiltration rate due to the different formation of the internal structure. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the micro-structural properties and functional performance of porous asphalt simultaneously.

Design/methodology/approach

The aim is to develop imaging techniques to process and analyze the internal structure of porous asphalt mixture. A few parameters were established to analyze the air void properties and aggregate interlock within the gyratory compacted samples captured using a non-destructive scanning technique of X-ray computed tomography (CT) throughout the samples. The results were then compared with the functional performance in terms of permeability. Four aggregate gradations used in different countries, i.e. Malaysia, Australia, the USA and Singapore. The samples were tested for resilient modulus and permeability. Quantitative analysis of the microstructure was used to establish the relationships between the air void properties and aggregate interlock and the resilient modulus and permeability.

Findings

Based on the results, it was found that the micro-structural properties investigated have successfully described the internal structure formation and they reflect the results of resilient modulus and permeability. In addition, the imaging technique which includes the image processing and image analysis for internal structure quantification seems to be very useful and perform well with the X-ray CT images based on the reliable results obtained from the analysis.

Research limitations/implications

In this study, attention was limited to the study of internal structure of porous asphalt samples prepared in the laboratory using X-ray CT but can also be used to assess the quality of finished asphalt pavements by taking core samples for quantitative and qualitative analysis. The use of CT for material characterization presents a lot of possibilities in the future of asphalt concrete mix design.

Originality/value

Based on the validation process which includes comparisons between the values obtained from the image analysis and those from the performance test and it was found that the developed procedure satisfactorily assesses the air voids distribution and the aggregate interlock for this reason, it can be used.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

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