Search results

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Book part
Publication date: 25 May 2017

Lori Elis

This research examines the direct and interactive effects of defendant race and sex on judicial decisions to utilize mitigating departures in cases involving felony drug…

Abstract

Purpose

This research examines the direct and interactive effects of defendant race and sex on judicial decisions to utilize mitigating departures in cases involving felony drug convictions in Virginia.

Methodology/approach

Logistic regression models are used to examine judicial decisions to depart downward in Schedule I & II, and Other (Schedule III, VI, and V), drug cases. The direct and interactive effects of race and sex on departure decisions are modeled separately for Schedule I & II and Other drug offenses.

Findings

Defendant race and sex exert both direct and interactive effects on decisions to sentence offenders below the guidelines for both drug categories. Cases involving Black and male defendants, relative to white and female defendants, are significantly less likely to result in mitigating departures for Schedule I & II, and Other drug, violations. The interaction models indicate that cases involving Black male defendants are less likely to result in mitigating departures than other cases, while cases involving white females have higher odds of receiving mitigating departures than other cases.

Originality/value

This chapter adds to the current literature on sentencing disparity by examining unwarranted sentencing disparity in Virginia, where scant research has been conducted. Furthermore, this research models decisions separately by drug category and examines both the direct and interactive effects of race and sex.

Details

Race, Ethnicity and Law
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-604-4

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 26 April 2018

Genying Chang

Studies addressing rural residents’ understanding of global warming and their willingness to pay higher prices to mitigate it are very limited. The purpose of this study…

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Abstract

Purpose

Studies addressing rural residents’ understanding of global warming and their willingness to pay higher prices to mitigate it are very limited. The purpose of this study is to examine the general understanding and attitudes of rural residents in China regarding global warming and their willingness to pay higher prices to mitigate it.

Design/methodology/approach

This study surveyed 1,185 rural residents in three counties of coastal, middle and western China. Multivariate regression analysis was conducted to reveal the relationships between the willingness to pay higher prices to mitigate global warming and influencing factors.

Findings

The majority of respondents had heard of global warming; however, their knowledge of the phenomenon and its causes was very limited. Most respondents admitted the likelihood of risks from global warming. Although most respondents thought they had an obligation to mitigate global warming, only a small percentage of them were willing to pay higher prices to address the problem; the unwillingness of respondents to pay higher prices to mitigate global warming may have been associated with their low income and perceived inability to handle the cost, externalisation of responsibility and causes and lack of knowledge of how to affect it.

Originality/value

This study examines the general understanding and attitudes of rural residents in China regarding global warming and their willingness to pay higher prices to mitigate it. The research is conducive to climate change communications and the implementation of climate policies in China’s rural areas.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 10 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Lena Ekelund, Erik Hunter, Sara Spendrup and Heléne Tjärnemo

Current food consumption patterns contribute negatively to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and climate change. Positioned at the interface between producers and consumers…

Abstract

Purpose

Current food consumption patterns contribute negatively to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and climate change. Positioned at the interface between producers and consumers, retailers have the potential to reduce this problem through informing their customers on the consequences of their actions. The purpose of this paper is to understand the variety of ways European retailers go about informing their customers on the linkage between food choice and climate change as well as which actions they advocate in-store to reduce the problem.

Design/methodology/approach

In-store walkthroughs lasting between 40 minutes and 1.5 hours were carried out at 30 grocery stores in five European countries to identify climate mitigating communications. The observations targeted any message produced and transmitted by the retailer where links between food and climate change were drawn.

Findings

The diversity in climate mitigating food communication we expected to find across Europe did not materialize. Only four out of the 30 retailers visited transmitted to their customers any information showing a direct link between food consumption and climate change. Indirectly, the authors found some retailers communicating food choices believed to lead to GHG reduction without linking them to climate change. Finally the authors found several retailers communicating what the authors argue are ambiguous messages to their customers where sustainability issues were confounded with climate ones. The dearth of climate mitigating food communications reveals the complexity in informing customers on such issues but also a possible lack of interest on the part of both parties.

Originality/value

This research contributes empirically to knowledge of how retailers communicate climate mitigating food consumption to consumers.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 116 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2014

Ross Kleinstuber

The very contextual nature of most mitigating evidence runs counter to America’s individualistic culture. Prior research has found that capital jurors are unreceptive to…

Abstract

The very contextual nature of most mitigating evidence runs counter to America’s individualistic culture. Prior research has found that capital jurors are unreceptive to most mitigating circumstances, but no research has examined the capital sentencing decisions of trial judges. This study fills that gap through a content analysis of eight judicial sentencing opinions from Delaware. The findings indicate that judges typically dismiss contextualizing evidence in their sentencing opinions and instead focus predominately on the defendant’s culpability. This finding calls into question the ability of guided discretion statutes to ensure the consideration of mitigation and limit arbitrariness in the death penalty.

Details

Studies in Law, Politics, and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-785-6

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 1 September 2008

Ruthy Lazar

The ways in which battered women respond to domestic violence, and the ways the legal system constructs those responses, constitute the framework of this chapter. The…

Abstract

The ways in which battered women respond to domestic violence, and the ways the legal system constructs those responses, constitute the framework of this chapter. The analysis focuses on mitigation in sentences of battered women who killed their abusers and examines the manifestation of agency and victimization in the mitigation structure. My thesis is that these women are perceived by courts solely as victims who lack agency and autonomy. Three main themes emerge from the analysis: first, the courts focus on the mental state of the defendants, stressing their psychological deficiencies as the primary mitigating factors. Secondly, many cases are categorized by courts as unique cases. Thirdly, in several cases the courts portray the women as “victims of circumstances”. An alternative analysis to that offered by the courts, one that seeks to reframe the mitigation process, is introduced in this chapter. According to this analysis, the narrative used in cases of battered women who kill should be changed to reflect dimensions of agency and resistance. In the suggested discourse, the abuse these women suffer is acknowledged, but is used to explain the women's urge to self-preservation and thus, the rationality and reasonableness of their acts.

Details

Studies in Law, Politics and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-090-2

Article
Publication date: 19 July 2022

Pratistha Chandra, Chung-Hsing Yeh and Pankaj Dutta

This study identifies barriers faced by online e-waste collection platforms in India and proposes a novel approach to manage strategies that contribute towards making such…

Abstract

Purpose

This study identifies barriers faced by online e-waste collection platforms in India and proposes a novel approach to manage strategies that contribute towards making such online platforms economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable by mitigating their interacting barriers.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach consists of a barrier assessment process and a strategy evaluation and planning process. The barrier assessment process uses multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) based method to evaluate the interactive effects of the barriers to derive their direct and indirect impacts on sustainability. The strategy evaluation and planning process evaluates the overall contribution value of strategies for mitigating interacting barriers and then categorizes them into planning zones based on their contribution and feasibility.

Findings

The interaction among the barriers is a significant component of the overall impact of the barriers on sustainability. The most impactful barriers are the lack of dissemination of information, lack of government support, insufficient infrastructure, and awareness and attitude of consumers. Lack of government support is the most influential causal barrier. Lack of information dissemination is a significant causal barrier with the highest overall impact on sustainability. Priority strategies that must be implemented to ensure sustainability include government support, offering higher prices or discounts for giving up e-waste, and increasing information dissemination.

Originality/value

Different from existing approaches for evaluating sustainability strategies, the strategies in this study are identified and evaluated based on their overall contribution towards mitigating interacting barriers to sustainability. The approach is applied in the Indian context to reveal the most influential barriers to the sustainability of online e-waste collection platforms and the most effective strategies for mitigating these barriers. The outcomes of this study contribute to strategy planning for sustainable online e-waste collection platforms in India.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 July 2021

Yangchun Xiong, Hugo K.S. Lam, Ajay Kumar, Eric W.T. Ngai, Chunyu Xiu and Xinyue Wang

Although there have been considerable discussions on the business value of adopting blockchain in supply chains, it is unclear whether such blockchain-enabled supply…

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Abstract

Purpose

Although there have been considerable discussions on the business value of adopting blockchain in supply chains, it is unclear whether such blockchain-enabled supply chains (BESCs) can help firms mitigate the negative impact resulting from the recent COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to answer this important question.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conduct an event study to quantify the financial effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and compare the differences in such effects between treatment firms that have adopted BESCs and matched control firms that have not adopted BESCs. The authors also perform a regression analysis to examine how the role of BESCs in mitigating COVID-19's negative impact varies across firms with different levels of supply chain leanness and complexity. The analysis is based on 88 treatment firms and 88 matched control firms, all of which are publicly listed on the US stock markets.

Findings

The test results suggest that although both the treatment and control firms are negatively affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, the effect is less negative for the treatment firms compared to the control firms, demonstrating the role of BESCs in mitigating the negative impact caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, the mitigating role of BESCs is more pronounced for firms with lean and complex supply chains.

Originality/value

This study is among the first to provide empirical evidence on the mitigating role of BESCs during the COVID-19 pandemic, highlighting the importance of adopting blockchain in supply chains with high uncertainties and disruption risks.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 41 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 April 2013

Rozita Amiruddin, Aini Aman, Sofiah, Auzair, Noradiva Hamzah and Ruhanita Maelah

A shared service (SS) arrangement involves an intra‐firm interrelationship, since the SS centre (SSC), operated as an independent business unit, provides services to…

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Abstract

Purpose

A shared service (SS) arrangement involves an intra‐firm interrelationship, since the SS centre (SSC), operated as an independent business unit, provides services to clients who are other independent business units in the same company group. The purpose of this study is to provide an understanding of risks and controls used in mitigating SS risks.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopts a qualitative approach using a case study of a SSC in a bank group in Malaysia. The risks and control framework developed by Das and Teng was used to analyse the appropriate control mechanisms for mitigating internal outsourcing risks, namely relational risk and performance risk.

Findings

The main relational risk identified is the possibility of opportunistic behaviour. However, this risk could be mitigated through social control especially when both parties share norms and values. Performance risks in SSC are mainly related to unsatisfactory services in terms of incomplete information, system errors and human mistakes. These risks could be mitigated using either behaviour control or output control. Behaviour control can be exercised through performance reporting, while output control can be achieved through key performance indicators (KPIs) and service level agreements (SLA).

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited to a single case study of a SSC with a certain type of arrangement and discusses business process outsourcing (BPO) in general. Future research may examine cases with other SS arrangements, detailed examination of each BPO and incorporate multi‐perspective views from both SSC and their clients. Issues concerning changes in control in the evolving situation of SSC and bargaining power and trust in mitigating SSC risks are also worth exploring.

Practical implications

The study's findings enable practitioners to draw insights to develop effective control strategies to mitigate risks in intra‐organizational relationships such as SSC.

Originality/value

The paper adds to our knowledge of control mechanisms for mitigating risks in the SS relationship, which is a relatively new concept in the literature.

Details

Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1176-6093

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 August 2013

Joong Y. Son and Ryan K. Orchard

The purpose of this paper is to examine supply‐side disruptions in a supply chain, and to analyse the effectiveness of two inventory‐based policies for mitigating the…

2087

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine supply‐side disruptions in a supply chain, and to analyse the effectiveness of two inventory‐based policies for mitigating the impact of supply disruptions: maintaining strategic inventory reserves (the R‐policy), and using larger orders (the Q‐policy).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper assess the effectiveness of two inventory‐based mitigating policies implemented at a reseller when end customer demand is stable but supply can be disrupted. An analytical model is provided, and numerical experiments are conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the policies for mitigating the impact of disruption under different disruption scenarios.

Findings

Results indicate that the R‐policy performs consistently better than the Q‐policy in terms of product availability measures, as tested under a wide range of frequency and duration of supply disruptions.

Practical implications

Supply chain trends of lean operations and global sourcing have exposed business organizations to a greater risk and have further raised the need to protect businesses against random supply disruptions.

Originality/value

The paper intends to contribute to the narrowing of the gap in the research of supply‐side disruptions. Further, the topic of inventory reserves has been discussed to date in only a very general sense; the paper proposes conditions for practical implementation and provides unique insights into the effectiveness of the use of strategic inventory reserves as a supply disruption mitigation policy.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 43 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 December 2020

Juneho Um and Neungho Han

This study aims to theoretically hypothesise and empirically explore the relationships amongst global supply chain risks, supply chain resilience and mitigating strategies.

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to theoretically hypothesise and empirically explore the relationships amongst global supply chain risks, supply chain resilience and mitigating strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopts supply chain resilience as a dynamic capability and resilience capability as a mediating prerequisite in addressing supply chain risk in sourcing, manufacturing and delivery. The moderating role of diverse mitigating strategies is tested to enhance supply chain resilience. Data collected via survey was used for structural equation modelling and additional tests to explore appropriate mitigating strategies for differing risk environments.

Findings

Achieving better supply chain resilience capability plays an important mediating role between supply chain risks and resilience, while the relationships depend on the performance of seven mitigating strategies.

Research limitations/implications

The findings contribute to the theoretical development of risk management issues in global supply chains by suggesting the role of supply chain resilience capability.

Practical implications

The findings offer managerial guidance on how to mitigate the global supply chain risk through the appropriate practice of strategies to strengthen supply chain resilience in an uncertain environment.

Originality/value

This is the first empirical research examining the impact of mitigating strategies on supply chain resilience. The results provide practical implications for managing uncertain events and offering theoretical insight for future research in supply chain resilience.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

Keywords

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