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Article
Publication date: 16 April 2018

Ting Jin, Wei Shao, Deborah Griffin and Mitchell Ross

This study aims to explore the perceptions about Chinese brands from the point of views of young Chinese consumers.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the perceptions about Chinese brands from the point of views of young Chinese consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative method is used including focus groups and in-depth personal interviews with young Chinese consumers who are currently living and working in Australia.

Findings

Two key findings emerge from the results, namely, young Chinese consumers attach symbolic values to Chinese brands and Chinese brands are perceived positively by young Chinese consumers.

Research limitations/implications

This study demonstrates that symbolic values (such as pride, lifestyle, feeling of home and being happy) constitute one of the primary motivations for young Chinese consumers’ purchase of domestic brands. The results of this study challenge the traditional view that Chinese brands are perceived negatively in the Chinese market.

Originality/value

This is one of the very few studies investigating how young Chinese consumers perceive brands from their home country rather than foreign brands.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2019

Sara Quach, Wei Shao, Mitchell Ross and Park Thaichon

The purpose of this paper is to understand the relationship between customer participation, co-created value and customer engagement as well as customer motivation…

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1139

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the relationship between customer participation, co-created value and customer engagement as well as customer motivation involved in this process.

Design/methodology/approach

Respondents were randomly exposed to one of the six types of social media scenarios. A total of 181 respondents were drawn from an MTurk opt-in survey panel of individuals who resided in America and were over the age of 18 years.

Findings

Overall, the results of this study showed that as the level of customer participation increased, the level of co-created value decreased. The relationship between customer participation and customer engagement was fully mediated by co-created value. Extrinsic motivation was found to moderate the relationship between customer participation and co-created value but did not moderate the relationship between customer participation and customer engagement. Moreover, customer engagement was at its highest when an external reward was not offered, in other words, when customers were intrinsically motivated. Furthermore, when an external reward was offered, a significant effect of privacy concern on customer engagement was observed.

Originality/value

The study extends the current understanding of customer engagement through value co-creation, customer participation and perceptions of privacy in firm-initiated activities in social media.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 38 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 28 July 2020

Nirma Sadamali Jayawardena, Mitchell Ross and Debra Grace

This paper focuses on exploring the relationship between Australian university websites and international student enrolments. Few studies have investigated this…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper focuses on exploring the relationship between Australian university websites and international student enrolments. Few studies have investigated this relationship and, as such, this research addresses some of the existing knowledge gaps.

Design/methodology/approach

A mono-method qualitative methodology was adopted for this study. Primary data collection was through the website content of selected Australian universities. Six Australian universities were selected; three universities with positive international student enrolments and three universities with negative international student enrolments. The website content of the selected six universities was analysed using the dimensions of the ICTRT framework (Li and Wang, 2011) to evaluate website effectiveness. The study results were based on two analysis levels, an overall thematic analysis (level 1) and an ICTRT framework-based analysis (level 2). The thematic analysis, based on the major themes and concepts, was conducted using Leximancer 4.5.

Findings

Two major findings emerged. First, the websites of universities with positive international student enrolments tend to be more people focused whereas websites from universities with negative international student enrolments tend to be technology or system focused. Second, websites from universities with positive international student enrolments tend to be more visionary or forward focused whereas websites from universities with negative international student enrolments tend to be more backward focused. Additionally, the study findings indicate some important website marketing strategies for Australian universities with negative international student enrolments.

Research limitations/implications

This study used ICTRT framework to evaluate the websites of Australian universities. Li and Wang (2011) proposed this framework for evaluating websites. Hotel, travel agency and destination marketing organisation websites have been assessed using the ICTRT framework (Li and Wang, 2011; Pai et al., 2014; Sun et al., 2017). This model has not previously been used, however, to evaluate tertiary education websites. This study is among the first to examine the university websites using a theoretical framework employed in destination marketing organisations which is a major theoretical contribution.

Practical implications

The major findings indicate that the website attributes, which are future focused and people oriented, are necessary for university websites with negative international student enrolments. Similar to university websites with positive international student enrolments, university websites with negative international student enrolments should also provide more contact details of staff members, should be more people oriented and should provide information focused on future students rather than past and current students. These practical implications are useful for administrative bodies in Australian universities for increasing international student enrolments.

Originality/value

This study is among the first to examine the university websites using a theoretical framework used in destination marketing organizations which is a major theoretical contribution. For example, this study has provided an illustrative example of how a research model of destination marketing organizations will be used in the universities or higher education context.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 34 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2016

Anna Kwek and Mitchell Ross

The purpose of this paper is to describe experiences of high school graduates attending a significant annual celebratory event (Schoolies) on the Gold Coast, Australia.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe experiences of high school graduates attending a significant annual celebratory event (Schoolies) on the Gold Coast, Australia.

Design/methodology/approach

An interpretive, qualitative paradigm informed by social construction ideologies was adopted. Data were collected via in-depth semi-structured interviews.

Findings

Key findings relate to attendees’ notion of excitement and perception of social identity, which was found to encompass both a rite of passage and event exclusivity. Attendees’ sense of identity developed from the unique nature of the event as well as the anticipation of excitement and the actual experience.

Originality/value

This study makes a novel contribution in that it takes an interdisciplinary approach, bringing together the sociological, social psychological, and marketing disciplines in an event management context.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2018

Victoria G. Velding and Alexis P. Hilling

Issues of diversity and inclusion are at the forefront of public discourse and policy initiatives. Media and product lines have recently faced scrutiny for not being…

Abstract

Issues of diversity and inclusion are at the forefront of public discourse and policy initiatives. Media and product lines have recently faced scrutiny for not being inclusive of difference. We conducted a content analysis of books intended for the tween (ages 8–12) girl. More specifically, these books were from the preeminent tween girl company, American Girl. A company perhaps best known for their line of dolls and historical fiction books, American Girl also publishes advice books with the intention of addressing a range of topics pertinent to the tween girl. Since the company strives to appeal to all girls, the authors analyzed these advice books for images and messages of racial, religious, ability, and sexuality difference in an effort to identify who American Girl’s American girl truly is. The findings of this chapter revealed an overall lack of diversity in the American Girl advice books in not only images but also messages. Images of White girls were more common than those of non-White girls, and any representation of religious, ability, or sexuality difference was minimal. Analysis of the content of the messages also revealed few mentions of difference, and categorization of the books suggested an emphasis on relationships with other people and bodies/appearance as important. It is apparent from this analysis that American Girl’s American girl is White, able-bodied, religiously ambiguous (though presumably Christian), and heterosexual. The need for American Girl to be fully inclusive of diversity across all their product lines is apparent.

Details

Gender and the Media: Women’s Places
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-329-4

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Debra Grace, Mitchell Ross and Wei Shao

This paper aims to adopt a novel approach to the study of individuals’ psychological dispositions that predict Facebook usage/non-usage. Given the historically…

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4528

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to adopt a novel approach to the study of individuals’ psychological dispositions that predict Facebook usage/non-usage. Given the historically disappointing results associated with studies that treat personality traits/dispositions as enduring and invariant, contemporary thought accepts that it is the interaction between dispositions and situations that influence behaviour. In this study, the situation (in this case, Facebook) is positioned as the antecedent stimulus for the activation of context-relevant psychological dispositions that, subsequently, facilitate behavioural prediction (i.e. Facebook usage/non-usage). Moreover, Facebook (the stimulus) is examined through its perceived psychological, rather than normative, features to identify context-relevant dispositions.

Design/methodology/approach

This two-study project adopts a research framework developed through the integration of communication theories and theoretical frameworks and psychological processing theories. Study 1 adopted a qualitative approach to determine the psychological features of Facebook, as perceived from the individual’s standpoint. Study 2 involved a national online survey, developed from the findings from Study 1, to explore context-relevant psychological dispositions in their prediction of Facebook behaviour.

Findings

The findings of Study 1 lead to the identification of the perceived psychological features of Facebook which are categorised under the umbrella terms of interaction, self-image control, usage volition and risk. Using these features (identified in Study 1) to guide in the selection of context-relevant dispositions, rather than arbitrarily selecting dispositions, the hypotheses for Study 2 are developed. As a result, Study 2 involves the discriminant analysis of data gathered from 579 user/non-users of Facebook to determine if context-relevant psychological dispositions accurately predict behaviour of both users and non-users of Facebook.

Originality/value

The findings provide a psychological roadmap for Facebook advertisers, which can be used to develop and test media-specific advertising strategy. Furthermore, a significant contribution of this study resides within the research approach itself which can be used to guide not only media research but also other marketing and business research that is characterized by context specificity.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 49 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2015

Wei Shao and Mitchell Ross

This paper aims to investigate consumer participation in Facebook brand page communities from the perspectives of uses and gratification theory and mass media dependency…

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2171

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate consumer participation in Facebook brand page communities from the perspectives of uses and gratification theory and mass media dependency theory.

Design/methodology/approach

Data collection via an online survey resulted in 450 valid surveys where consumers indicated to what extent their motivations for Facebook use were socializing, entertainment, status seeking and information seeking. The sample included 358 respondents who had previously liked a brand on Facebook. These respondents were asked to provide the name of a brand they had liked on Facebook and answered questions regarding their experiences with the Facebook brand page for their self-identified brand.

Findings

Results indicate that motivation dimensions have differential effects at three different stages of consumer interaction with a Facebook brand page community. Socializing and information seeking are the primary reasons for initially joining a Facebook brand page community. After becoming a member of a Facebook brand page community, consumers require entertainment to keep them engaged. However, as consumers become more sophisticated, their involvement with a Facebook brand page and their frequency of posting on that page are dependent on their need for information.

Originality/value

Insight is gained into the role of social media, specifically Facebook, in brand building. As theoretical frameworks that can guide branding practices using the social media channel are still in their infancy, this research makes an important contribution to the ongoing theoretical discussion. Additionally, the findings add to the online brand community literature by demonstrating the key drivers of consumer willingness to join and participate in a Facebook brand page community.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2015

Wei Shao, Mitchell Ross and Debra Grace

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of user-motivation as well as demographics in developing an effective segmentation strategy of Facebook users…

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3077

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of user-motivation as well as demographics in developing an effective segmentation strategy of Facebook users. Additionally, the paper seeks to add validity to the scale developed by Park et al. (2009) by using a full spectrum of Facebook users.

Design/methodology/approach

A self-administered survey was employed to explore access motivations, frequency and session duration of Facebook users. The survey was e-mailed to 2,129 potential respondents with 530 valid responses received. Data were initially analysed by hierarchical cluster analysis to develop the cluster solution. Cluster means were then used as cluster centres for a K-means cluster analysis for all cases. The relationship between the clusters and Facebook activity variables was investigated through ANOVA while independent samples t-tests were employed to analyse the relationship between motivations and demographics. Lastly χ2-tests were used to explore the relationship between Facebook user segments and demographics.

Findings

The results indicate four distinct types of Facebook users: Devotee, Agnostic, Socializer and Finder. Devotees were highly positive about Facebook use while Agnostics were least motivated to use Facebook. Socializers were motivated to use Facebook for socializing and entertainment while Finders were motivated to use Facebook for information seeking. These four distinct groups are validated by examining their individual behaviour regarding frequency of access to Facebook and the average amount of time spent on Facebook per visit. Demographic variables such as gender and age were found to be significantly related to Facebook user-motivation and segmentation.

Practical implications

For marketers who communicate with market segments via social media, the findings of this study are highly significant. To date, marketers have found it difficult to fully exploit the benefits of Facebook. The authors argue this is due to a tendency to consider Facebook users as a single segment rather than understanding the nuances of different user segments. This research provides marketers with a motivation and demographic segmentation strategy for Facebook users.

Originality/value

Despite the popularity of Facebook as a communication channel, from a marketing perspective little is known regarding Facebook user segments. This research addresses this gap by undertaking a segmentation study of Facebook users. A segmentation typology is developed in which both Facebook user motivations as well as demographic variables are found to be useful in describing user segments. Additionally, the study makes important theoretical contributions by extending uses and gratifications theory to the Facebook context and adding validity to the scale developed by Park et al. (2009) for use with the full spectrum of Facebook users.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 33 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2012

Mitchell Ross and Debra Grace

While marketing research in the context of educational institutions continues to grow, little is known about the strategic choices associated with international student…

Abstract

Purpose

While marketing research in the context of educational institutions continues to grow, little is known about the strategic choices associated with international student recruitment (ISR), an important activity that, increasingly, has significant influence on the longevity and prosperity of education institutions in many countries. This study addresses a deficit in the marketing/education literature by using the Value Discipline Strategy (VDS) typology as an appropriate framework upon which to investigate and expand our knowledge of international student recruitment (ISR) strategies operating in educational institutions.

Design/methodology/approach

The research design comprised two stages involving both qualitative and quantitative methods. Participants were ISR practitioners in the secondary school and university sectors across two countries, i.e. Australia and New Zealand. Phase 1 involved in‐depth interviews with ISR marketing practitioners across educational sectors, while Phase 2 involved the use of an online survey to a larger sample of ISR marketing practitioners.

Findings

While the use of the VDS typology was found to be appropriate in the education sector, it was incomplete. This led to the proposal of a fourth strategy the authors label as entrenched isolation (Phase 1). Phase 2 results identified strategy commonalities and some important differences across sectors and countries.

Research limitations/implications

From a theoretical perspective, the implications of this study are important as the findings lead to an expansion of the VDS typology.

Practical implications

From a practical perspective, ISR practitioners are provided with a valuable tool to identify the ISR marketing strategy in their institution and, furthermore, implement strategic change that can be effectively measured.

Originality/value

The contribution of the research is threefold. Firstly, the authors extend marketing strategy theory through the expanded VDS model. Secondly, the authors identify and validate strategies adopted by ISR departments across two countries and, finally, the authors validate the use of the self‐typing paragraph method as an appropriate mechanism for strategy identification.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2007

Mitchell Ross, Joo‐Gim Heaney and Maxine Cooper

The purpose of this paper is to investigate international student recruitment from an institutional perspective and to consider institutional factors that may affect recruitment.

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2797

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate international student recruitment from an institutional perspective and to consider institutional factors that may affect recruitment.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative study is undertaken in which education marketing practitioners are interviewed regarding aspects of international student recruitment at their institutions. Interview data are analysed by NVivo and categorized into four institutional factors: marketing department size, employee qualifications, institutional recruiting experience, and institutional focus.

Findings

Differences are found to exist between universities and secondary schools in terms of their current international education recruitment practices. The percentage of international student cohort appears to be largely responsible for sectoral differences.

Research limitations/implications

Findings presented are from a sample of secondary schools and universities in Australia and New Zealand. Further research is required to determine applicability of the findings to other education sectors.

Practical implications

Implications are considered from the viewpoint of the international education marketing practitioner, education manager and policy makers. The theoretical contribution of the study is also discussed.

Originality/value

This paper fulfils an identified research and practitioner gap through investigating international student recruitment from an institutional perspective.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 21 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

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