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Book part
Publication date: 22 October 2019

Waverly Duck and Mitchell Kiefer

Classic urban ethnography has often viewed urbanization and the urban condition as pathological and the city as disorganized, with urban areas producing problems to be…

Abstract

Classic urban ethnography has often viewed urbanization and the urban condition as pathological and the city as disorganized, with urban areas producing problems to be solved through the managerial control of urban space. This chapter presents an alternative view, introducing an Interaction Order approach within urban ethnography. This way of studying culture builds on the work of Emile Durkheim (1893), W. E. B. Du Bois (1903), Harold Garfinkel (1967), Erving Goffman (1983), and Anne Rawls (1987). Interaction Orders are shared rules and expectations that members of a group use to coordinate their daily social relations and sense-making, which take the form of taken-for-granted practices that are specific to a place and its circumstances. The power of this social order, which is constructed by the interactions among participants themselves, renders outsiders’ interventions counterproductive. Understanding local interaction orders enables ethnographers to interpret problems differently and imagine solutions that work with local culture.

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Abstract

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Urban Ethnography
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-033-2

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Book part
Publication date: 22 October 2019

Abstract

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Urban Ethnography
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-033-2

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2015

Lisa S. Romero

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature on student trust and to examine the relationship between student trust, behavior, and academic outcomes in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature on student trust and to examine the relationship between student trust, behavior, and academic outcomes in high school. It asks, first, does trust have a positive effect on high school outcomes? Second, does trust influence student behavior, exerting an indirect effect on schooling outcomes? Third, are school size and student socioeconomic status (SES) antecedents of trust?

Design/methodology/approach

A nationally representative sample of students attending public high schools in the USA (n=10,585) is drawn from the Educational Longitudinal Study. Structural equation modeling is used to examine the relationship between student trust, behavior and high school outcomes, controlling for SES, school size and prior achievement. Multiple measures of academic achievement are considered.

Findings

There is a significant relationship between student trust, behavior and high school outcomes. Students who trust have fewer behavioral incidents and better academic outcomes with results suggesting that trust functions through behavior. This is true regardless of SES, school size or prior achievement.

Practical implications

School leaders cannot change parental income or education, but can build trust. Developing and attending to student trust may not only mean that students are better behaved but, more importantly, are more successful academically.

Social implications

In spite of decades of policy and legislation intended to improve schools, closing the achievement gap has proven elusive. One reason may be the relentless focus on physical artifacts of schooling, such as school organization, curriculum, testing and accountability, and a concomitant lack of attention to sociocognitive factors key to learning. Schools are social systems, and high levels of learning are unlikely to occur without a nurturing environment that includes trust.

Originality/value

This research makes a valuable contribution by focussing on student trust in high schools and by illuminating the relationship between trust, behavior, and academic outcomes. Results suggest that trust impacts a broad range of high school outcomes but functions indirectly through behavior.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 53 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2020

Sang Bong Lee and Taewon Suh

Reflecting on the importance of negative word-of-mouth (NWOM) executed by internal audience of brand management, this study aims to explore the mechanism of employees…

Abstract

Purpose

Reflecting on the importance of negative word-of-mouth (NWOM) executed by internal audience of brand management, this study aims to explore the mechanism of employees’ NWOM in the emotional exhaustion context.

Design/methodology/approach

Focusing on employees’ active brand-oriented deviances, this study used a surveyed data set (n = 150) collected from negatively aroused employees experiencing a negative event within their organization. Structural equation modeling was adopted to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The current study revealed that employees’ NWOM is associated with emotional exhaustion. Also, it discovered that emotional exhaustion is more strongly associated with employees’ NWOM than turnover intention.

Research limitations/implications

Relying on self-regulation theory, the current study identified emotional exhaustion as a critical antecedent of employees’ NWOM. Future researchers can use the longitudinal research design or temporal separation as an effort to prevent common method variance.

Practical implications

Internal audiences engage in negative brand-oriented performance by spreading NWOM. Further, the advance in social media may instigate NWOM spread by internal audiences to external audiences.

Originality/value

This paper tests the explanatory power of conservation of resources theory and self-regulatory theory in terms of the impact of employees’ emotional exhaustion on NWOM and turnover intention.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 29 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Book part
Publication date: 17 June 2019

Mitchell Lee Marks

Scholars have been conducting serious research on the human, organizational, and cultural aspects of mergers and acquisitions (M&A) for 30 years. Yet, over this period…

Abstract

Scholars have been conducting serious research on the human, organizational, and cultural aspects of mergers and acquisitions (M&A) for 30 years. Yet, over this period, there have only been modest improvements in the M&A success rate. In this chapter, the author examines corporate combinations, describes how human factors contribute to their failure or success, and identifies key research questions whose answers can help to improve the M&A success rate in both financial and human terms. The author proposes research questions for the key phases of a deal, including buying a company and putting companies together. And, reflecting an emerging trend among some frequent acquirers to build an internal competence in M&A execution, the author also proposes research questions for how to accelerate the process of learning from past combinations to better manage future ones.

Details

Advances in Mergers and Acquisitions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-599-4

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Book part
Publication date: 2 July 2004

Abstract

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Functional Structure and Approximation in Econometrics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44450-861-4

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Article
Publication date: 5 December 2018

Li Hongbo, Muhammad Waqas and Hussain Tariq

By integrating affective events theory and insights from the displaced aggression literature, the purpose of this paper is to highlight that state hostility can serve as…

Abstract

Purpose

By integrating affective events theory and insights from the displaced aggression literature, the purpose of this paper is to highlight that state hostility can serve as an explanation for how perceived undermining by co-workers leads to antagonistic consequences. Distress tolerance and organizational identification are theorized to moderate the hypothesized relationships that are investigated in this study.

Design/methodology/approach

PROCESS macro developed by Hayes (2013) was used to test all the hypotheses by using time-lagged, multi-source data collected from 218 Chinese employees associated with the service industry.

Findings

The paper finds that state hostility seems to trigger unethical behavior on the part of employees resulting in service sabotage. It is concluded that perceptions of undermining are positively linked to employees’ hostility, which in turn drive service sabotage behavior. Furthermore, employee distress tolerance weakens the effects of perceived undermining on employees’ state hostility, while organizational identification alleviates the effect of employees’ hostility on service sabotage behavior.

Practical implications

This study not only highlights the outcomes of perceived coworker undermining, the mechanism through which it occurs, and the moderating effects of given factors, but also provides insights to the organizations for managing service sector employees so that they can more effectively interact with customers. The findings suggest that employees with high organizational identification are less involved in service sabotage, thus, such measures are necessary to take which help employers to enhance employees’ organizational identification. The authors also suggest managers to clearly communicate the adverse consequences which employees could have to face if they exhibit unethical behavior.

Originality/value

This study addresses the question: when and how perceived coworker undermining affects customers’ services. To date, most of the existing literature considered customers’ negative event and customers’ mistreatment as an antecedent of employees’ service sabotage. However, this study concluded that these are not the only reasons for employees’ service sabotage, employees’ interpersonal mistreatment which occurred beyond customers’ interaction also causes service sabotage.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Matthias Kiefer, Edward A.E. Jones and Andrew T. Adams

Shareholders and managers can work in a hierarchy in which principals attempt to control the actions of agents to achieve the wealth objective. Alternatively, shareholders…

Abstract

Purpose

Shareholders and managers can work in a hierarchy in which principals attempt to control the actions of agents to achieve the wealth objective. Alternatively, shareholders and managers can work together as a cooperative team in which shareholders provide financial capital and managers provide human capital. The authors aim to examine the different implications for value creation provided by the two approaches.

Design/methodology/approach

By comparing the literature on the value implications of the incomplete contracting framework and control arrangements in principal-agent hierarchies, the authors identify deviations from optimal outcomes and suggest solutions.

Findings

The review indicates that a cooperative framework has some advantages over the hierarchical model. The stability of human capital and the relationship between managers and shareholders can be enhanced when shareholders provide capital in increments which vest over time and latitude for renegotiation of agreements is built into contracts.

Practical implications

By surrendering control using stock options programmes, managers are free to invest in relationship-specific assets. Shareholders can control the provision of capital by withdrawing investment if insufficient returns are realized, i.e. if stock options do not meet vesting requirements. The market can then be left to do its work.

Originality/value

This paper provides an original review of literature on cooperation and hierarchies in the shareholder–manager relationship and proposes solutions to identified deviations from optimal outcomes.

Details

Qualitative Research in Financial Markets, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4179

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Article
Publication date: 18 July 2020

Arpana Rai and Upasna A. Agarwal

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between justice perceptions (distributive, procedural and interactional) and workplace bullying and to test the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between justice perceptions (distributive, procedural and interactional) and workplace bullying and to test the mediating role of psychological contract violation (PCV) in this relationship and the extent to which the mediation is moderated by power distance orientation (PDO).

Design/methodology/approach

The study draws upon quantitative data collected via self-reported survey questionnaires from 422 full-time Indian managerial employees working across different service sector–based Indian organizations.

Findings

The results revealed that justice perceptions (distributive, procedural and interactional) negatively correlated with workplace bullying. The hypothesized moderated mediation condition was supported as the results suggest that the PCV mediated the justice-bullying relationship and the PDO moderated this mediating pathway, i.e. indirect effects of justice (procedural and interactional) perceptions on workplace bullying via PCV were weaker for employees with a high PDO.

Research limitations/implications

A cross-sectional design and the use of self-reported questionnaire data in the sample are few limitations of the study.

Practical implications

This study contributes toward a better understanding of the relationships between justice, PCV and workplace bullying. It also highlights the role played by individual cultural dispositions in influencing their perceptions of workplace bullying. Given the perceptual and subjective elements of workplace bullying, understanding how justice and workplace bullying are related in not only important theoretically but also critical from a practical standpoint.

Originality/value

To the best of authors' knowledge, this is the first study that links justice, PCV, workplace bullying and PDO in one study. This study is also important in terms of its context.

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